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As insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is present in the alpha granules of platelets and its receptor is expressed on the platelet surface, it may contribute to the amplification of platelet responses and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The functional and signaling pathways that are involved in IGF-1 modulation of platelet function, however, are presently unknown. Here, I report that IGF-1 stimulation of platelets results in dose-dependent phosphorylation of the IGF receptor in the range of 1 to 100 nM.
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Some of the actions of estradiol occur through stimulation of growth factor pathways in target organs. Tyrosine-phosphorylated (Tyr(P)) insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 are found in the uterus of mice treated with estradiol. Immunoprecipitates of uterine Tyr(P) IRS-1 contained both p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and PI 3-kinase catalytic activity.

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In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, stimulation of the IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) receptor increased the association of PI3K [phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase] activity with IRS-1 (insulin re-ceptor substrate 1), and increased the cellular concentration of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Carbachol, acting on M3 muscarinic receptors, inhibited insulin-, but not PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-, stimulated responses by approximately 50%. The inhibition of IRS-1-associated PI3K activity by carbachol (i) was rapid (<1 min), persistent (> or =60 min) and potent (half-maximal concentration approximately 1 microM); (ii) was reproduced by stimuli for several phospholipase-C-coupled receptors; (iii) was prevented by the inhibition of protein kinase C, but not by chelation of intracellular Ca2+; and (iv) was not blocked or reproduced by inhibitors or stimuli respectively of mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K, protein kinase B or the mammalian target of rapamycin.

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Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is the principle cellular substrate for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor signaling. After phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the YMXM or YXXM motifs, IRS-1 associates with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). This signaling pathway and the presence of an IRS-1-like molecule have been demonstrated in IRS-1-transfected and in nontransfected hematopoietic cell lines, respectively.

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Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a critical adapter protein involved in both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. Due to the fact that alteration of IRS-1 levels can affect the sensitivity and response to both insulin and IGF-I, we examined the ability of each of these ligands to affect IRS-1 expression. IGF-I (10 nM) stimulation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells caused a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 that was maximal at 15 min and decreased thereafter.

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