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Our objective was to describe primary care patients' perceptions of informed and shared decision making about cancer screening tests in a diverse sample.
We administered a 33-item survey to 467 women and 257 men aged 50 years and older from seven practices in a family medicine practice-based research network. We used ordered logistic regression to assess the relationship between gender, race, education, marital status, and self-rated health with measures of patient-centered care relating to cancer screening tests, controlling for practice site.
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The objective was to determine the extent of informed decision making for prostate cancer screening in a defined population. A state-wide population based survey of men aged 50 and above (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2004, Washington state) and a simple random sample of primary care physicians, were conducted in the same geographic area. We examined prostate cancer screening rates among the men (defined as either PSA or digital rectal examination within the past year) and prostate cancer screening practices among the physicians.

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The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making.
The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic.

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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, and little is known regarding a physician's effect on a patient's decision to undergo screening. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of a patient's understanding of the risks and benefits of screening compared to the final recommendation of the provider on the patient's decision to undergo PSA screening.
Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, men older than 55 years who did not have a history of prostate cancer/prostate "problem" and who reported a PSA test within the preceding year were considered to have undergone screening.

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Shared decision making (SDM) is a process within a patient centred consultation that involves both the patient and doctor discussing management options and agreeing on management decisions in partnership. Decision aids are designed to help patients understand the options relating to management for certain conditions and their possible benefits and potential adverse effects. We discuss the evolution and rationale behind SDM and the evidence relating to outcomes, the types of decision aids available, and research relating to their use.

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