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A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy of nonpharmacologic individualized interventions (individualized to address unmet needs such as boredom or pain) in decreasing agitation in persons with dementia.
Agitated nursing home residents with advanced dementia (from 9 nursing homes in 5 locations in Maryland, United States) were randomized into an intervention group (n = 89) and a placebo control group (n = 36). On the basis of data from baseline assessment, a systematic methodology for individualizing nonpharmacologic interventions, Treatment Routes for Exploring Agitation (TREA), was used with the intervention group: an unmet need was hypothesized, a corresponding treatment category was identified, and specifics of the treatment were chosen to fit the person's need, past identity, preferences, and abilities.
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The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a systematic algorithm for providing individualized, nonpharmacological interventions for reducing agitated behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia.
This placebo-controlled study combined nomothetic and ideographic methodologies. The study was conducted in 12 nursing home buildings in Maryland; 6 were used as treatment facilities, and 6 as control facilities.

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Research is needed to determine specific factors that contribute to the success of nonpharmacologic interventions. In this study, we examined the influence of personal characteristics (demographic, medical, and functional variables) and possible barriers (eg, staff or family barriers) on the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions in reducing agitation.
Agitation was systematically observed at baseline and intervention stages using the Agitation Behavior Mapping Instrument (ABMI) in a sample of 89 residents from 6 Maryland nursing homes (mean age = 85.

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Increasingly more attention has been paid to non-pharmacological interventions as treatment of agitated behaviors that accompany dementia. The aim of the current study is to test if personalized one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will improve agitation, affect, and engagement more than a relevant control condition.
We conducted a randomized crossover trial in nine residential facilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia (n = 44).

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Behavioral symptoms are common in persons with dementia, and nonpharmacological interventions are recommended as the first line of therapy. We describe barriers to conducting nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms.
A descriptive study of barriers to intervention delivery in a controlled trial.

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