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Dec
1969

Information from cutaneous, muscle and joint receptors is combined with efferent information to create a reliable percept of the configuration of our body (proprioception). We exposed the hand to several horizontal force fields to examine whether external forces influence this percept. In an end-point task subjects reached visually presented positions with their unseen hand.
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https://research.vu.nl/files/1528000/chapter%202.pdf
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https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f904/a9977ac43f5a7a2c794c37
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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074236
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760830PMCFound
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074236PLOSFound


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Jan
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Because muscle torques counteracting gravity vary systematically during a movement of the arm, it has been suggested that torque differences that occur during a movement provide important information for judging the distance moved away from the body. To test this suggestion, we examined whether external vertical forces applied to the hand (and the torque differences due to these forces) influence proprioception. In a first experiment, the added vertical forces were constant, resulting in a change in torque that was proportional to the gravitational torque, as when holding an object in your hand.

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Dec
1969

Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration.

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Apr
2006

The role of the initial hand position in planning and implementation of a goal-directed movement is a matter of debate. We designed a non-visually guided repetitive reaching movement task to investigate the role of proprioceptive information of the initial or end hand position in implementation of kinesthetic memory. The experimental design consisted four experiments.

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Jul
2010

Relatively few studies have been reported that document how proprioception varies across the workspace of the human arm. Here we examined proprioceptive function across a horizontal planar workspace, using a new method that avoids active movement and interactions with other sensory modalities. We systematically mapped both proprioceptive acuity (sensitivity to hand position change) and bias (perceived location of the hand), across a horizontal-plane 2D workspace.

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