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Apr
2014

Subjects with schizophrenia are impaired at reinforcement-driven reversal learning from as early as their first episode. The neurobiological basis of this deficit is unknown. We obtained behavioral and fMRI data in 24 unmedicated, primarily first episode, schizophrenia patients and 24 age-, IQ- and gender-matched healthy controls during a reversal learning task.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991847PMCFound
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.034DOI ListingPossible


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Feb
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Affective biases may underlie many of the key symptoms of major depressive disorder, from anhedonia to altered cognitive performance. Understanding the cause of these biases is therefore critical in the quest for improved treatments. Depression is associated, for example, with a negative affective bias in reversal learning.

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Jul
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Impairments in feedback processing and reinforcement learning appear to be prominent aspects of schizophrenia (SZ), which may relate to symptoms of the disorder. Evidence from cognitive neuroscience investigations indicates that disparate brain systems may underlie different kinds of feedback-driven learning. The ability to rapidly shift response tendencies in the face of negative feedback, when reinforcement contingencies are reversed, is an important type of learning thought to depend on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC).

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Sep
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Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in motivation, reward anticipation and salience attribution. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations revealed neurobiological correlates of these deficits, raising the hypothesis of a common basis in midbrain dopaminergic signaling. However, investigations of drug-naïve first-episode patients with comprehensive fMRI tasks are still missing.

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Nov
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The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-striatal circuit, which is important for motivational behavior, is assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to current neurobiological models of this disorder. However, the engagement of this neural loop in OCD has not been tested directly in a cognitive activation imaging paradigm so far.
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