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Dec
1969

Pavlovian processes are thought to play an important role in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcohol dependence, possibly by influencing and usurping ongoing thought and behavior. The influence of pavlovian stimuli on ongoing behavior is paradigmatically measured by pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) tasks. These involve multiple stages and are complex.
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http://www.karger.com?doi=10.1159/000363507
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May
2016

In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse.

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Jun
2011

During Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), learned Pavlovian cues significantly modulate ongoing instrumental actions. This phenomenon is suggested as a mechanism under which conditioned stimuli may lead to relapse in addicted populations. Following discriminative Pavlovian learning and instrumental conditioning with sucrose, one group of rats (naive) underwent electrophysiological recordings in the nucleus accumbens core and shell during a single PIT session.

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May
2007

Ethanol-associated cues produce general pavlovian-instrumental transfer.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007 May 22;31(5):766-74. Epub 2007 Mar 22.
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Conditioned stimuli are thought to play an important role in maintaining ethanol use and inducing relapse. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms through which such stimuli trigger ethanol seeking is of interest in the study and treatment of alcoholism.
This series of experiments examined the impact of ethanol-associated cues on ethanol-seeking behavior using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer design.

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Jan
2013

Four experiments with rats examined the origin of outcome-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). Experiment 1 used a standard procedure, where outcomes were embedded within extended conditioned stimuli (CSs), to demonstrate the basic effect: Pavlovian stimuli augmented instrumental lever presses that had been paired with the same outcomes. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that after instrumental conditioning, whereas a conditioned stimulus (CS) trained using a backward conditioning procedure produced outcome-selective PIT, forward conditioning with a CS did not.

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