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Increasing evidence indicates that psychosis is associated with abnormal reward processing. Imaging studies in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) have revealed reduced activity in diverse brain regions, including the ventral striatum, insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during reward prediction. However, whether these reductions in local brain activity are due to altered connectivity has rarely been explored.
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Deficits in motivational salience processing have been related to psychotic symptoms and disturbances in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed at exploring changes in salience processing and brain activity during different stages of psychosis and antipsychotic medication effect.
We used fMRI during the Salience Attribution Task to investigate hemodynamic differences between 19 healthy controls (HCs), 34 at-risk mental state (ARMS) individuals and 29 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), including a subgroup of 17 FEP without antipsychotic medication (FEP-UM) and 12 FEP with antipsychotic medication (FEP-M).

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Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes.
Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Reward neurocircuitry links motivation with complex behavioral responses. Studies of incentive processing have repeatedly demonstrated activation of nucleus accumbens (NAc), thalamus, and anterior insula, three key components of reward neurocircuitry. The contribution of the thalamus to this circuitry in humans has been relatively ignored, a gap that needs to be filled, given the central role of this structure in processing and filtering information.

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Previous evidence has implicated corticostriatal abnormalities in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Although the striatum is the primary target of all efficacious antipsychotics, the relationship between its functional connectivity and symptomatic reduction remains unknown.
To explore the longitudinal effect of treatment with second-generation antipsychotics on functional connectivity of the striatum during the resting state in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

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