Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles


Cofactor squelching is the term used to describe competition between transcription factors (TFs) for a limited amount of cofactors in a cell with the functional consequence that TFs in a given cell interfere with the activity of each other. Since cofactor squelching was proposed based primarily on reporter assays some 30 years ago, it has remained controversial, and the idea that it could be a physiologically relevant mechanism for transcriptional repression has not received much support. However, recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that signal-dependent TFs are very often absent from the enhancers that are acutely repressed by those signals, which is consistent with an indirect mechanism of repression such as squelching.
Full Text Link Source Status ListingPossible

Similar Publications


Cell type and TF specific interactions between Transcription Factors (TFs) and cofactors are essential for transcriptional regulation through recruitment of general transcription machinery to gene promoter regions and their identification heavily reliant on protein interaction assays.
Using TF targeted chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), we report cell type and TF specific TF-cofactor interactions captured in vivo through enrichments of non target cofactor binding site motifs within ChIP-seq peaks. We observe enrichments in both known and novel cofactor motifs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.


To facilitate deciphering underlying transcriptional regulatory circuits in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, recent ChIP-seq data provided genome-wide binding locations of several key transcription factors (TFs); meanwhile, existing efforts profiled gene expression in ES cells and in their early differentiated state. It has been shown that the gene expression profiles are correlated with the binding of these TFs. However, it remains unclear whether other TFs, referred to as cofactors, participate the gene regulation by collaborating with the ChIP-seq TFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.


One of the most important questions in biology is how transcription factors (TFs) and cofactors control enhancer function and thus gene expression. Enhancer activation usually requires combinations of several TFs, indicating that TFs function synergistically and combinatorially. However, while TF binding has been extensively studied, little is known about how combinations of TFs and cofactors control enhancer function once they are bound.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.


Identification of genomic regions that control tissue-specific gene expression is currently problematic. ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) of enhancer-associated proteins such as p300 identifies some but not all enhancers active in a tissue. Here we show that co-occupancy of a chromatin region by multiple transcription factors (TFs) identifies a distinct set of enhancers.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.
Back to top