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The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety.
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Body energy homeostasis is largely regulated by the interactions between appetite-related brain regions and gut hormones.
We hypothesized that the sensitivity of appetite-related brain regions [eg, hypothalamus, insula, thalamus, parahippocampal/hippocampal cortex, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] varies for each macronutrient, and the differential sensitivity is associated with gut hormone concentrations in humans.
Brain activation responses to ingested fat, glucose, protein, and water in the above-mentioned 8 brain regions of 14 healthy men were investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2006 Jul;361(1471):1187-209
Owais Chaudhri, Caroline Small, Steve Bloom
The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut.

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Understanding of the impact of an acute bout of exercise on hormones involved in appetite regulation may provide insight into some of the mechanisms that regulate energy balance. In resting conditions, acylated ghrelin is known to stimulate food intake, while hormones such as peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are known to suppress food intake.
The objective of this review was to determine the magnitude of exercise effects on levels of gastrointestinal hormones related to appetite, using systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Afferent signals regulating food intake.

Proc Nutr Soc 2000 Aug;59(3):373-84
G A Bray
Food intake is a regulated system. Afferent signals provide information to the central nervous system, which is the centre for the control of satiety or food seeking. Such signals can begin even before food is ingested through visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli.

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