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Mar
2018

Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT study tested acamprosate and naltrexone vs placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809801PMCFound
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2017.282DOI ListingPossible


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Nov
2017

Researchers have sought to distinguish between individuals whose alcohol use disorder (AUD) is maintained by drinking to relieve negative affect ('relief drinkers') and those whose AUD is maintained by the rewarding effects of alcohol ('reward drinkers'). As an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone may be particularly effective for reward drinkers. Acamprosate, which has been shown to down-regulate the glutamatergic system, may be particularly effective for relief drinkers.

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Jun
2015

To determine the efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of those who are alcohol-dependent in reducing lapse/relapse to alcohol consumption and treatment discontinuation, and to examine whether a proportion of the variance in study outcome can be explained by the country in which the trials have taken place.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published before September 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome measures were the efficacy of acamprosate or naltrexone in reducing lapse/relapse compared to placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence and treatment discontinuation.

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Dec
2017

Naltrexone reduces drinking among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but it is not effective for everyone. Variability in its effects on reward-related brain activation, genetic variation, and/or cigarette smoking may account for this mixed response profile. This randomized clinical trial tested the effects of naltrexone on drinking and alcohol cue-elicited brain activation, evaluated whether OPRM1 A118G genotype or smoking moderated these effects, and explored whether the effects of medication on cue-elicited activation predicted subsequent drinking.

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Nov
2014

Effect sizes of pharmacotherapy in alcoholism are modest. They might improve if subjects could be divided into more homogeneous subgroups and would then be treated targeted to their neurobiological profile. In such an effort, we tested neural cue reactivity as a potential predictor of treatment response to naltrexone.

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