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'Adrenal Gland' (102835)


Feb
2018

Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC).

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Feb
2018

A 48-year-old man presented to urgent care with recurrent epistaxis over 6 months. Initially, nosebleeds were controlled with packing or cautery. Ultimately, he was referred to ear, nose and throat department and underwent nasal endoscopy which revealed polypoid tissue.

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Feb
2018

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by complete or partial defects in one of the several steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. More than 95-99% of all cases of CAH are caused by deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. Currently, CYP21A2 genotyping is considered a valuable complement to biochemical investigations in the diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

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Feb
2018

BACKGROUND There is no standard surgical approach for the management of retroperitoneal sarcoma. The aim of this clinical study was to describe the experience of an anterior approach to en bloc resection in left-sided retroperitoneal sarcoma with adjacent organ involvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective clinical study included 25 patients who were diagnosed with left-sided retroperitoneal sarcoma and underwent tumor resection at a single center between May 2012 and July 2017.

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Feb
2018

Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors.

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Feb
2018

Cortisol modifies fetal metabolism in preparation for delivery but whether preterm cortisol exposure programs persisting changes in feto-placental metabolism remains unknown. This study infused fetal sheep with saline (n=36) or cortisol (n=27), to raise fetal plasma cortisol to normal prepartum concentrations, for 5 days from day 125 of gestation (term≈145 days). Fetal uptake and uteroplacental metabolism of glucose, oxygen and lactate, together with fetal hepatic glucogenic capacity, were measured on the final day of infusion or 5 days later.

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Feb
2018

Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of Cushing' syndrome (CS) is an extremely rare event and its diagnosis and treatment are a real medical challenge. During pregnancy, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes major changes leading to a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels throughout gestation. The difficulties in diagnosis are related to the resemblance of symptoms of CS and those of pregnancy, and to the complex interpretation of the screening tests.

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Feb
2018

Data that have been used in almost all MIRD S value absorbed dose and effective dose calculations to date have been based upon stylized anatomic computational phantoms and tissue weighting factors adopted by the ICRP in its Publication 60. Recently, more anatomically realistic phantoms have become available, which are likely to provide more accurate effective dose values for diagnostic agents. Gallium-68-DOTATATE is a radiolabeled somatostatin analog that binds with high affinity to somatostatin receptors, which are over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, and can be used for diagnostic PET/CT-based imaging.

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Feb
2018

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats.

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Feb
2018

The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of C21, an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect.

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Feb
2018

Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to cure of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular complications. Recent genetic discoveries have improved our understanding on the pathophysiology of aldosterone production and triggered the development of new diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments for primary aldosteronism.

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Dec
1969

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication that accounts for up to 20% of malignancies after solid organ transplantation. We describe a rare case of isolated PTLD in the adrenal gland occurring 7 months after liver transplant in a patient who developed a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. He was treated with rituximab and his immunosuppression regimen was minimized.

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Feb
2018

In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms.

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Dec
1969

Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for neonate salt retention through secretion of aldosterone, while adequate glucocorticoids are required to prevent adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to carry out the first comprehensive analysis of adrenal steroid levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression in normal second trimester human fetuses.

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Feb
2018

Endogenous glucocorticoids exert a diverse array of physiological processes and play an important role in immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland is regulated through two mechanisms. Systemic regulation is substantiating by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

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Feb
2018

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of genetic diseases due to the disablement of 7 genes; one of them is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The genes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia encode enzymes taking part in the steroidogenesis of adrenal gland. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene.

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Jan
2018

Oncocytic tumors are epithelial neoplasms that occur in various organs, including adrenal glands. Oncocytic adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas are uncommon but well-known pathological entities in adults. However, generally oncocytic tumors, particularly in the adrenal glands, are very rare in the pediatric age-group.

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Feb
2018

Twenty-four magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsies performed between April 2009 and October 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Epidemiologic, procedural, and histopathologic data were retrospectively collected. Mean size of tumors was 4.

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Dec
1969

Although the gallbladder is the most common site of ectopic liver, it has been reported in many other organs, such as kidney, adrenal glands, pancreas, omentum, stomach, esophagus, mediastinum, lungs, and heart. Hepatocytes in an ectopic liver behave like normal hepatocytes; furthermore, they can be associated with the same pathological findings as those in the main liver. Ectopic liver in the gallbladder can undergo fatty change, hemosiderosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma, and even carcinogenesis.

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Feb
2018

Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is the main curable cause of endocrine hypertension cause of primary aldosteronism (PA) and it is in up to 66% of all cases investigated with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Mutations in the KCNJ5 potassium channel involve up to 70% of APA and cause the most florid PA phenotypes. The recent finding that macrolide antibiotics specifically inhibit in vitro the altered function of mutated KCNJ5 channels has opened new horizons for the diagnosis and treatment of APA with KCNJ5 mutations in that it can allow identification and target treatment of PA patients harbouring a mutated APA.

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Feb
2018

Liver abscesses are of major economic importance to the cattle industry. These are mainly associated with the presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum, a non-spore forming and Gram-negative anaerobe. There are two main subspecies, F.

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Feb
2018

Primary aldosteronism is the most common and curable form of secondary arterial hypertension. We performed whole-exome sequencing in patients with early-onset primary aldosteronism and identified a de novo heterozygous c.71G>A/p.

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Jan
2018

The insulin family of growth factors (insulin, IGF1, and IGF2) are critical in sex determination, adrenal differentiation, and testicular function. Notably, the IGF system has been reported to mediate the proliferation of steroidogenic cells. However, the precise role and contribution of the membrane receptors mediating those effects, namely, insulin receptor (INSR) and type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), have not, to our knowledge, been investigated.

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Feb
2018

This report describes a suppurative meningitis in a young cynomolgus. The animal had neutrophil aggregation in the subarachnoid space and hemorrhage in bilateral adrenal glands. Staphylococcus was identified by FISH in brain.

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Feb
2018

To assess the feasibility and efficacy of a streamlined single time-pointTc-HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (Tektrotyd) somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) protocol to differentiate pathological uptake by neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from physiological activity.
Tektrotyd imaging in 50 consecutive patients with NETs was reviewed retrospectively. Imaging was independently assessed by two experienced reporters with dual-certification in radiology and nuclear medicine and agreed in consensus.

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Nov
2017

A 66-year-old man reporting chest stenosis was examined. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed type 2 esophageal cancer. An enhanced CT scan showed several swollen lymph nodes in the lesser curvature of the esophagus.

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Nov
2017

Four cases of gastrointestinal perforation associated with bevacizumab(BEV)were examined. Case 1: A 82-year-old male received FOLFIRI plus BEV for recurrent liver metastasis after rectal cancer resection. A lower esophageal perforation occurred 22 days after BEV administration and drainage was performed.

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Nov
2017

The patient was a 64-year-old man with esophagogastric junction cancer. We performed right thoracotomy-laparotomy for lower esophageal and cardiac gastric resection, D2 lymphadenectomy, and reconstruction of a gastric tube in October 2011. Histopathology confirmed T4aN1M1(LYM), Stage IV cancer(Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma, 14th edition) with R0 resection.

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Nov
2017

A 60-year-old man underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Histological findings indicated well-differentiated adenocarcinoma(T3[SS]N1M0, ly3, v2, Stage III a). Two years and 1 month later, right adrenalectomy was performed for solitary adrenal metastasis.

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Nov
2017

A 76-year-old male visited a clinic and the images incidentally revealed a tumor in the tail of pancreas. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by the following examination, indicating that the tumor invasion to spleen, left adrenal gland and left kidney(cT3N0M0, cStage II A), requiring heminephrectomy for radical resection. Enhanced preoperative treatments were performed while taking into account a possibility of any restrictions for the age and the standard adjuvant chemotherapies after heminephrectomy.

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Nov
2017

Combined modality therapy is sufficient to treat advanced rectal cancer with multiple metastases. Her, we report a case of long-term survival in a patient with multiple metastases from rectal cancer. A5 8-year-old man had previously undergone low anterior resection for advanced rectal cancer.

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Dec
2017

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently the standard of care for adrenal lesion. Minimal invasive laparoscopic surgery such as laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have been developed to improve cosmetic outcomes and reduce postoperative pain. However, there are still some problems related to instruments and port limitation during LESS surgery.

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Dec
2017

Unilateral adrenalectomy as part of surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not thought to increase the risk of chronic adrenal insufficiency, as the contralateral adrenal gland is assumed to be capable of compensating for the lost function of the resected gland. However, recent studies have indicated that adrenalectomy might cause irreversible impairment of the adrenocortical reserve. We describe a case of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency in a 68-year-old man who previously underwent unilateral adrenonephrectomy, which was complicated by severe postoperative adrenal stress that involved cardiopulmonary disturbance and systemic infection.

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Dec
2017

The primary adrenal melanoma (PAM) was an extremely rare occurrence, which was demonstrated as the few cases described in the medical literature.
We reported a 58-year-old man who was admitted to hospital because of intermittent left flank pain which lasted for a month. The renal computed tomography (CT) scan showed that a large retroperitoneal tumor measuring 15.

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Dec
2017

Esophageal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare type of esophageal tumor which are usually positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 in tumor immunohistochemical staining. The most common symptoms of esophageal NETs are gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia and/or abdominal discomfort. While esophageal NETs have the potential for distant metastasis, there have only been a few reports of brain metastasis originating from esophageal NET.

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Dec
2017

Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance. CNC is characterized by the presence of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity. No direct correlation has been established between disease-causing mutations and phenotype.

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Dec
2017

Neuroblastoma is a common abdominal malignancy in children. The chemoresistant and relapsed cases have poor prognosis. The genetic background and the mechanism of resistance remain unelucidated.

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Jan
2018

Elevated circulating chromogranin A (CHGA) is observed in human hypertension. CHGA is critical for granulogenesis and exocytosis of catecholamine stores from secretory large dense core vesicles (LDCV). This study aims to understand the morphological, molecular and phenotypic changes because of excess CHGA and the mechanistic link eventuating in hyper-adrenergic hypertension.

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Feb
2018

[Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes].

Internist (Berl) 2018 Feb;59(2):125-133
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source.

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Feb
2018

Fetal and neonatal adrenal glands are large vascular organs, which make them vulnerable to frequent bleeding. Although neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is commonly reported, it is rarely diagnosed on antenatal sonography. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, which mimicked antenatal neuroblastoma.

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Jan
2018

Patients with chronic immune-mediated arthritis exhibit abnormal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The basis for this abnormality is not known. Immune-mediated arthritis is associated with increased extra-adrenal synthesis of active glucocorticoids by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme.

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Jan
2018

In the adrenal gland, neuroendocrine cells that synthesize catecholamines and epithelial cells that produce steroid hormones are united beneath a common organ capsule to function as a single stress-responsive organ. The functional anatomy of the steroid hormone producing adrenal cortex and the catecholamine producing medulla is ill defined at the level of small molecules. Here, we report the first comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) map of the normal human adrenal gland.

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Dec
2017

Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors, composed of a variable mixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. These tumors are frequently detected incidentally and are usually asymptomatic, and hormonally inactive.
During a routine health checkup, a 52-year-old man was found to have a tumor on the bilateral adrenal glands.

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Jan
2018

Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57/BL6 mice.

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Dec
1969

Many chronic diseases are associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction. Therefore, proteomic profiling of the pituitary gland has potential to uncover new information on the underlying pathways affected in these conditions. This could lead to identification of new biomarkers or drug targets for development of novel therapeutics.

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Feb
2018

Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock in the adrenal gland. Stress influences daily rhythms in behavior and physiology, but it remains unclear how stress affects the function of the adrenal clock itself. Here, we examine the influence of stress on adrenal clock function by tracking PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) rhythmsRelative to non-stressed controls, adrenals from stressed mice displayed marked changes in PER2::LUC rhythms.

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Jan
2018

CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice.

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Jan
2018

We present a 27-year-old woman with an adrenal oncocytoma. This is a very rare entity. We provide a review of the clinical, biochemical and pathological features of cases reported in the literature.

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Jan
2018

trans-Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol enriched in grape seed and skin, has been extensively investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-psychiatric properties. The present study examined the effects of trans-resveratrol on ameliorating anxiety-like behaviors and fear memory deficits induced by time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure, which is a classical animal model for mimicking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results suggested that trans-resveratrol at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg (via gavage, i.

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Jan
2018

Rare monogenic causes of primary adrenal insufficiency.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
Satoshi Narumi
Monogenic disorders play significant roles in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). The most common form of PAI is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which includes the enzymatic defects of the steroidogenic pathway. This review focuses on less common forms of monogenic PAI (i.

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