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'Allergic and Environmental Asthma' (5824)


Feb
2018

Atopy is a genetic predisposition to the development of allergic reactions and the increased production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) upon exposure to environmental antigens. Clinical manifestations of atopy include asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD), and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC).
To determine if cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions (CDHRs) as assessed by patch testing are higher among patients with a history of atopy and with a familial predisposition to atopy.

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Dec
1969

Eosinophil-lineage committed progenitor cells (EoP) migrate from the bone marrow and differentiate locally to provide an ongoing source of mature eosinophils in asthmatic inflammatory responses in the airways. Sputum levels of EoP are increased in asthmatics compared to normal controls suggesting an exaggerated eosinophilopoietic environment in the airways. Understanding what factors promote EoP traffic to the airways is important to understand the diathesis of asthma pathology.

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Feb
2018

The Toxicology of Engineered Nanomaterials in Asthma.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
Mark D Ihrie, James C Bonner
The explosive growth of the nanotechnology industry has necessitated the examination of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for their toxicity. The unique properties that make ENMs useful also make them a health risk, and individuals with pre-existing diseases such as asthma are likely more susceptible. This review summarizes the current literature on the ability of ENMs to both exacerbate and directly cause asthma.

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Feb
2018

Critical examination of the quality and validity of available allergic rhinitis (AR) literature is necessary to improve understanding and to appropriately translate this knowledge to clinical care of the AR patient. To evaluate the existing AR literature, international multidisciplinary experts with an interest in AR have produced the International Consensus statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Allergic Rhinitis (ICAR:AR).
Using previously described methodology, specific topics were developed relating to AR.

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Feb
2018

Grastek® is a standardized sublingual immunotherapy tablet(SLIT-T) approved for the treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis(AR) and conjunctivitis. Many grass-allergic patients are also co-sensitized to birch pollen. Whether Grastek® can confer symptomatic benefits for birch pollen-induced AR symptoms is unknown.

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Feb
2018

Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis.

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Feb
2018

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multifactorial disease due to the interaction between environmental noxae and genetic predisposition. Furthermore, an increased association between DM, especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the onset of pulmonary function impairment with a bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been documented. DM is a risk factor for accelerated decline in FEVand the development of asthma and COPD.

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Feb
2018

A fixed-dose combination of intranasal azelastine hydrochloride-fluticasone propionate (MP-AzeFlu) is the most effective treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), but its onset of action requires further investigation.
This study compared onset of action of MP-AzeFlu with the free combination of oral loratadine and intranasal fluticasone propionate (LORA/INFP).
In this single-center randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-period crossover trial, AR symptoms were induced in asymptomatic patients by ragweed pollen challenge in an allergen environmental exposure chamber.

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Feb
2018

Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, have increased significantly since the start of the Industrial Era around 1750, with much of this increase occurring over just the last 50 years or so. This is resulting in warming of the climate system as well as changes in precipitation and weather and climate extremes.

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Apr
2018

Phthalates have been associated with respiratory symptoms in adults; they may enhance effects of inflammatory compounds. To assess the potential interactions of phthalates and endotoxin on respiratory and allergic symptoms in adults, we used cross-sectional information from the 1091 adults with complete data on urinary phthalates and house dust endotoxin from NHANES 2005-2006. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess whether endotoxin levels modified the association between nine phthalate metabolites and four current allergic symptoms (asthma, wheeze, hay fever, and rhinitis).

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Feb
2018

High household peanut consumption is associated with the development of peanut allergy, especially when peanut allergic cases are compared against atopic controls; thus environmental peanut exposure (EPE) may be a risk factor for peanut sensitization and allergy. In this study we explored the relationship between EPE and school-age peanut sensitization in a population based cohort.
Maternal bed-dust was collected postnatally and EPE was quantified using a polyclonal peanut ELISA.

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Feb
2018

Airborne fungi are considered important causes of respiratory allergy and diseases. The knowledge of these fungi in a city or region is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of respiratory manifestations induced by inhalation of fungal agents. Therefore, in recent years bioaerosols and their density in the air is highly regarded.

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Dec
1969

This study was conducted to assess the effect of comorbidity, ethnicity, occupation, smoking and place of residence on allergic rhinitis (AR), acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
A GA2LEN (The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) screening questionnaire was sent to a random sample of the Dutch population (n = 16700) in three different areas of the Netherlands.
Fifty percent (8347) of the questionnaires sent were returned.

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Jan
2018

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling that leads to airway obstruction. Although these pathognomonic features of asthma are primarily mediated by allergen-specific T helper type 2 cells (Th2 cells) and their cytokines, recent studies have revealed critical roles of lung epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of asthma. Lung epithelial cells not only form physical barriers by covering the surfaces of the airways but also sense inhaled allergens and initiate communication between the environment and the immune system.

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Jan
2018

The diversity and extent of signaling functions of nitric oxide (NO) in cell physiology as well as its presence and influence as a common component of ambient air pollution and tobacco smoke are gaining increasing research attention relative to both health and disease. While cellular NO production is typically associated with inflammatory cells and processes, the airway epithelium particularly of the paranasal sinuses, has been documented to be a rich source of excreted NO. Inasmuch as excreted NO derives from both mucosal and inflammatory cell sources, distinguishing the individual contribution of these compartments to total excreted cellular NO is potentially problematic.

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Jan
2018

The Genetics of Food Allergy.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Jan 26;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 26.
Cristina A Carter, Pamela A Frischmeyer-Guerrerio
Food allergy likely arises from a complex interplay between environmental triggers and genetic susceptibility. Here, we review recent studies that have investigated the genetic pathways and mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of food allergy.
A heritability component of food allergy has been observed in multiple studies.

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Dec
1969

Loratadine is a second-generation, non-sedating antihistamine used for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Previous studies reported that when loratadine was encapsulated, the onset of action for symptom relief was 180 min. However, unmodified loratadine tablets were not evaluated at that time.

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Jan
2018

The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood.
Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g.

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Jan
2018

Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects postnatal environment.

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Jan
2018

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is sub-optimally managed in the community and is responsible for a significant health and economic burden. Uncontrolled AR increases the risk of poorly controlled asthma and presents an increased susceptibility to thunderstorm asthma. With the availability of treatments over-the-counter, bypassing the health care professional (HCP), the role of the patient is paramount.

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Jan
2018

BM32 is a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the IgE-binding sites of the 4 major grass pollen allergens and the hepatitis B preS protein.
We sought to study the safety and clinical efficacy of immunotherapy (allergen immunotherapy) with BM32 in patients with grass pollen-induced rhinitis and controlled asthma.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter allergen immunotherapy field study was conducted for 2 grass pollen seasons.

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Jan
2018

Allergic sensitization is associated with eczema, asthma, and rhinitis. However, it is unknown whether and how allergic sensitization is associated over time with acquisition, remission, and persistence of these diseases and their comorbidity.
To gain a better understanding of factors including allergic sensitization transitions that influence the temporal pattern of asthma, eczema, and rhinitis and their comorbidity during childhood.

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Dec
1969

The rising frequency of obstructive respiratory diseases,in particular allergic asthma, observed over the last years, can be partially explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence in atmosphere of chemical (particulate matter and gaseous components such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and biologic (aeroallergens) trigger factors. Aeroallergens are able to stimulate, in allergic subjects, the airways' sensitization, inducing symptoms of bronchial asthma. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.

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Jan
2018

Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases.
We sought to understand the role of the gut microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types.

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Jan
2018

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and, histologically, by eosinophilic inflammation. There is not a clear etiologic treatment. Biopsies analysis using plant histology methods may show callose and pollen tubes in the esophageal mucosa.

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Dec
2017

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways affecting over 300 million people worldwide. As in the autoimmune diseases, it is well described that women are the most affected by asthma. The higher number of women presenting this pathology suggests the involvement of female sex hormones in the construction of the allergic immune response.

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Jan
2018

Large observational implementation studies are needed to triangulate the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs) as they reflect "real world" everyday practice. In a pilot study, we attempted to provide additional and complementary insights on the real life treatment of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology.
A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, freely available Google Play and Apple App stores) collects the data of daily visual analogue scales (VAS) for (i) overall allergic symptoms, (ii) nasal, ocular and asthma symptoms, (iii) work, as well as (iv) medication use using a treatment scroll list including all medications (prescribed and over the counter (OTC)) for rhinitis customized for 15 countries.

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Dec
1969

Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. The prevalence of asthma has risen dramatically over the past decade, affecting around 300,000,000 people. The etiology is multifactorial, with genetic, epigenetic, developmental and environmental factors playing a role.

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Feb
2018

In the context of inflammation, osteopontin (Opn) is known to promote effector responses, facilitating a proinflammatory environment; however, its role during antigenic tolerance induction is unknown. Using a mouse model of asthma, we investigated the role of Opn during antigenic tolerance induction and its effects on associated regulatory cellular populations prior to disease initiation. Our experiments demonstrate that Opn drives protective antigenic tolerance by inducing accumulation of IFN-β-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as regulatory T cells, in mediastinal lymph nodes.

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Dec
1969

Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease.

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Jan
2018

Current studies of gene × air pollution interaction typically seek to identify unknown heritability of common complex illnesses arising from variability in the host's susceptibility to environmental pollutants of interest. Accordingly, a single component generalized linear models are often used to model the risk posed by an environmental exposure variable of interest in relation to a priori determined DNA variants. However, reducing the phenotypic heterogeneity may further optimize such approach, primarily represented by the modeled DNA variants.

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Dec
1969

With a global rising trend in prevalence of allergic diseases, more attention has been paid to investigation of environmental risk factors. Many risk factors have so far been identified. However, novel risk factors specific to Taiwanese environment and lifestyle were still relatively unknown.

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Jan
2018

Systemically delivered statins can blunt airway inflammation in ovalbumin-challenged mice; however, in asthma clinical trials the beneficial effects of introducing oral statins are not compelling. We aim to reconcile this discrepancy using a clinically relevant murine model of allergic asthma, and by including a prophylactic study arm.
Adult mice were: 1) challenged with house dust mite (HDM) alone or with subcutaneous (s.

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Mar
2018

To assess longitudinally small airway function in children born extremely prematurely and whether there was a correlation between airway function in infancy and at 11-14 years.
There would be tracking of airways obstruction and small airway function would deteriorate during childhood in those born extremely prematurely.
A longitudinal study.

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Jan
2018

Asthma is common among schoolchildren and may influence quality of life and school attendance. However, it is unclear if asthma affects school performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether different phenotypes of asthma affect school performance during adolescence.

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Jan
2018

Significant differences exist in the prevalence, spectrum, and severity of allergic diseases between developing and developed countries and between subpopulations within single countries. These discrepancies likely result from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. However, the precise nature of the contribution of ethnicity to genetic differences in the predisposition to allergic disease is not yet fully understood.

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Jan
2018

Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution.

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Jan
2018

Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Jan - Feb;6(1):32-35
Stuart L Abramson
The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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Jan
2018

It has been 50 years since the dust mite was first appreciated to be a major source of allergen in house dust, and by extension a key trigger of allergic respiratory disease. Since that time a number of protein allergens have been identified and characterized, mainly from mite feces, and standardized mite extracts and IgE assays have been developed. Insights into the lifecycle of dust mites and aspects of mite allergen biology have shed light on the mechanisms that lead to respiratory disease and to the development of interventions that can minimize dust mite allergen exposure.

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Jan
2018

Laryngorhinootologie 2018 Jan 4;97(1):56-69. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
Ludger Klimek, Moritz Gröger, Sven Becker
Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects ca. 20% of the population. Approximately one third of patients affected by AR are suffering from perennial rhinitis due to mite allergy.

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Dec
2017

Naturally occurring botulism is rare, but a large number of cases could result from unintentional or intentional contamination of a commercial food. Despeciated, equine-derived, heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) is licensed in the United States. Timely treatment reduces morbidity and mortality, but concerns that botulinum antitoxin can induce anaphylaxis exist.

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Mar
2018

Sulfur dioxide (SO) is one of potential risk factors for induction and/or exacerbation of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the role of SOin asthma using a classical asthmatic model with allergic airway inflammation by treating C57BL/6 mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and/or 10 mg/mSO. Our results showed that SOexposure alone induced slight pathological changes but did not significantly increase inflammatory cell counts, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and mucus production in the airway of mice, whereas SOexposure in OVA-induced asthmatic mice caused marked pulmonary pathological changes and significantly increased the counts of eosinophil-rich leukocytes compared with OVA alone asthmatic mice.

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Dec
2017

Exposure to ambient ozone (O) increases the susceptivity to allergens and triggers exacerbations in patients with asthma. However, the detailed mechanisms of action for Oto trigger asthma exacerbations are still unclear.
An ovalbumin (OVA)-established asthmatic mouse model was selected to expose to filtered air (OVA-model) or 1.

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Dec
2017

Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture.
The study involved 440 students (245 males, 195 females aged 17-21 years) in 11 vocational schools which were at least 100 km from each other.

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Dec
1969

FLG encodes a large protein called profilaggrin, which plays a key role in maintaining an effective skin barrier against the environment. In this study, we identified FLG single nucleotide variations (FLG-SNVs) and evaluated the association of FLG-SNVs with clinical phenotypes including atopic dermatitis (AD)-associated minor clinical features, presence of specific allergic sensitization, and serum parameters.
Eighty-one Korean patients with AD were enrolled.

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Dec
2017

House dust mites (HDM) are the main source of aeroallergens worldwide, yet epidemiological differences between socioeconomic factors in association with this medical condition have not been studied in the south region of Brazil. To assess the prevalence of HDM in two socioeconomically distinct populations of patients with allergic asthma or rhinitis, the differences between samples from houses of high-income families and low-income families were analyzed. Mite samples were collected between July and December 2015, in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

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Dec
2017

In a town located in a desert area of Northern Chile, gold and copper open-pit mining is carried out involving explosive processes. These processes are associated with increased dust exposure, which might affect children's respiratory health. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the causal attributable risk of living close to the mines on asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis risk burden in children.

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Jan
2018

In the United States, Puerto Ricans have a higher prevalence of asthma than other Latino ethnicities. Low vitamin D levels for children living in northern climates could be a factor.
To assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distributions (a marker of vitamin D) and associations among vitamin D, allergic sensitization, early wheeze, and home/demographic factors.

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Dec
2017

Rapid urbanization in developing countries, with significant rural-to-urban and between-urban areas migration, presents a natural epidemiological model to better understand population-level trends in asthma and allergy prevalance without confounding by genetic factors. This cross-sectional study, conducted November 2014 to January 2015 in Suzhou, China, investigated differences in asthma and allergic symptoms between domestic migrant residents and long-term residents and their children. Using multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratios for children in migrant families compared to those in long-term resident families in Suzhou for doctor-diagnosed asthma, pneumonia, rhinitis, and eczema were 0.

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