Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

'Anatomy of Olfactory System' (6713)


Feb
2018

The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Cell ontology in an age of data-driven cell classification.

BMC Bioinformatics 2017 Dec 21;18(Suppl 17):558. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
David Osumi-Sutherland
Data-driven cell classification is becoming common and is now being implemented on a massive scale by projects such as the Human Cell Atlas. The scale of these efforts poses a challenge. How can the results be made searchable and accessible to biologists in general? How can they be related back to the rich classical knowledge of cell-types, anatomy and development? How will data from the various types of single cell analysis be made cross-searchable? Structured annotation with ontology terms provides a potential solution to these problems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

A recent study reported that the integrity of the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is required for normal olfaction and for the display of odor-driven behaviors that are critical for species survival and reproduction. In addition to being bi-directionally connected with a key element of the neural circuitry that mediates stress response, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, the nLOT is a potential target for glucocorticoids as its cells express glucocorticoid receptors. Herein, we have addressed this hypothesis by exploring, first, if chronic variable stress (CVS) disrupts odor detection and discrimination, and innate olfactory-driven behaviors, namely predator avoidance, sexual behavior and aggression in male rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Neurological diseases are becoming increasingly prominent worldwide due to rapidly aging populations, which greatly contributes to increasing healthcare costs. The development of neuroprotective drugs has so far proven exceptionally difficult due to the blood-brain barrier. One novel approach to address this challenge is to administer drugs intranasally to noninvasively bypass the blood-brain barrier.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Steroid-binding globulins (SBGs) such as sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, and vitamin-D binding protein are receiving increasing notice as being actively involved in steroid actions. This paper reviews data of all three of these SBGs, focusing on their presence and possible activity in the brain and nose. We have found all three proteins in the brain in limbic areas such as the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as well as other areas of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and medial preoptic area.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

Air pollution is linked to increased emergency department visits for headache and migraine patients frequently cite chemicals or odors as headache triggers, but the association between air pollutants and headache is not well understood. We previously reported that chronic environmental irritant exposure sensitizes the trigeminovascular system response to nasal administration of environmental irritants. Here, we examine whether chronic environmental irritant exposure induces migraine behavioral phenotypes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome is a poorly understood condition characterized by learning difficulties, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, and Hirschsprung disease. GOSHS is due to recessive mutations in KIAA1279, which encodes kinesin family member 1 binding protein (KIF1BP, also known as KBP). We examined the effects of inactivation of Kif1bp in mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Many employees in the aluminum industry are exposed to a range of aluminum compounds by inhalation, and the presence of ultrafine particles in the workplace has become a concern to occupational health professionals. Some metal salts and metal oxides have been shown to enter the brain through the olfactory route, bypassing the blood-brain barrier, but few studies have examined whether aluminum compounds also use this pathway. In this context, we sought to determine whether aluminum was found in rat olfactory bulbs and whether its transfer depended on physicochemical characteristics such as solubility and granulometry.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V/Vreceptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective Vmarkers.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

The definition of neuronal type and how it relates to the transcriptome are open questions. Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs) are among the best-characterized neuronal types: different PN classes target dendrites to distinct olfactory glomeruli, while PNs of the same class exhibit indistinguishable anatomical and physiological properties. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of most PN classes and unequivocally mapped transcriptomes to specific olfactory function for six classes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

In this review, recent data are presented on molecular and cellular mechanisms of pathogenesis of the most widespread (about 95%) sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease obtained on in vivo rodent models. Although none of the available models can fully reproduce the human disease, several key molecular mechanisms (such as dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems, especially of the acetylcholinergic system, β-amyloid toxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbances in neurotrophic systems) are confirmed with different models. Injection models, olfactory bulbectomy, and senescence accelerated OXYS rats are reviewed in detail.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The trigeminal ganglion contains somatosensory neurons that detect a range of thermal, mechanical and chemical cues and innervate unique sensory compartments in the head and neck including the eyes, nose, mouth, meninges and vibrissae. We used single-cell sequencing and in situ hybridization to examine the cellular diversity of the trigeminal ganglion in mice, defining thirteen clusters of neurons. We show that clusters are well conserved in dorsal root ganglia suggesting they represent distinct functional classes of somatosensory neurons and not specialization associated with their sensory targets.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

The use of calcium indicators has greatly enhanced our understanding of neural dynamics and regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its completely mapped nervous system and transparent anatomy, presents an ideal model for understanding real-time neural dynamics using calcium indicators. In combination with microfluidic technologies and experimental designs, calcium-imaging studies using these indicators are performed in both free-moving and trapped animals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is very frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and observed years before diagnosis. The trigeminal system, a chemosensory system allowing for the perception of spiciness, freshness, etc., is intimately connected to the olfactory system and although usually reduced in OD the trigeminal system is not well characterized in PD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains - 1.2 to 1.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

The visual Wulst in birds shows a four-layered structure: apical part of the hyperpallium (HA), interstitial part of HA (IHA), intercalated part of hyperpallium (HI), and densocellular part of hyperpallium (HD). HD also connects with the hippocampus and olfactory system. Because HD is subjacent to HI, the two have been treated as one structure in many studies, and the fiber connections of HD have been examined by afferents and efferents originating outside HD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Arginases are enzymes of the urea cycle that catalyze the hydrolysis of l-arginine to ornithine and urea. The enzymes are core components of the arginine-ornithine-glutamate-γ-amino butyric acid pathway of the central nervous system. In the present study, we immunohistochemically determined the localization of arginase 1 and 2 in the olfactory bulb (OB) of the roe dear (Capreolus pygargus).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Nonmotor neuron-related pathology is a feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both in patients and in animal models. There is emerging evidence that sensory systems (olfaction and vision) are affected in humans. Here, we asked whether such sensory neuropathology is recapitulated in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) mouse model of ALS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The olfactory system of mammals comprises a main olfactory system that detects hundreds of odorants and a vomeronasal system that detects specific chemicals such as pheromones. The main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs are the respective primary centers of the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems. Most mammals including artiodactyls possess a large MOB and a comparatively small AOB, whereas most cetaceans lack olfactory bulbs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Autopsies are of key importance for the understanding of the anatomy, pathophysiology and pathomorphology. In forensic medicine, the virtual autopsy is a standard instrument in autopsy practice. The advantage of postmortem imaging is the generation of a three-dimensional pre-autopsy snapshot of the body from head to toe with excellent visualization of skeletal pathologies and air inclusions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

To form functional neural circuits, neurons migrate to their final destination and extend axons towards their targets. Whether and how these two processes are coordinated in vivo remains elusive. We use the zebrafish olfactory placode as a system to address the underlying mechanisms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Juxtanodin (JN, also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined JN expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology, and cell culture.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

The accessory olfactory system controls social and sexual behaviours in mice, both of which are critical for their survival. Vomeronasal sensory neuron (VSN) axons form synapses with mitral cell dendrites in glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Axons of VSNs expressing the same vomeronasal receptor (VR) converge into multiple glomeruli within spatially conserved regions of the AOB.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

BEACH domain proteins are involved in membrane protein traffic and human diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are not understood. The BEACH protein LRBA has been implicated in immune response and cell proliferation, and human LRBA mutations cause severe immune deficiency. Here, we report a first functional and molecular phenotype outside the immune system of LRBA-knockout mice: compromised olfaction, manifesting in reduced electro-olfactogram response amplitude, impaired food-finding efficiency, and smaller olfactory bulbs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a peripheral receptor structure that is involved in reproductive behavior and is part of the vomeronasal system. Male bears exhibit flehmen behavior that is regarded as the uptake of pheromones into the VNO to detect estrus in females. However, the morphological and histological features of the VNO in bears have not been comprehensively studied.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Optimal functioning of the olfactory system is critical for survival of fossorial rodents in their subterranean lifestyle. This study examines the structure of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb of two fossorial rodents exhibiting distinct social behaviors, the East African root rat and the naked mole rat. The social naked mole rat displayed simpler ethmoturbinates consisting of dorsomedial and broad discoid/flaplike parts that projected rostrally from the ethmoid bone.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Neuroinflammation is the hallmark of several infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are the first-line immunosuppressive drugs used for controlling neuroinflammation. A delayed diffusion of GCs molecules and the high systemic doses required for brain-specific targeting lead to severe undesirable effects, particularly when lifelong treatment is required.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

Modulatory neurons project widely throughout the brain, dynamically altering network processing based on an animal's physiological state. The connectivity of individual modulatory neurons can be complex, as they often receive input from a variety of sources and are diverse in their physiology, structure, and gene expression profiles. To establish basic principles about the connectivity of individual modulatory neurons, we examined a pair of identified neurons, the "contralaterally projecting, serotonin-immunoreactive deutocerebral neurons" (CSDns), within the olfactory system ofSpecifically, we determined the neuronal classes providing synaptic input to the CSDns within the antennal lobe (AL), an olfactory network targeted by the CSDns, and the degree to which CSDn active zones are uniformly distributed across the AL.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to COas well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of COsensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that COgenerally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Proper function of the neural network results from the precise connections between axons and dendrites of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, respectively. In theolfactory system, the dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) stereotypically target one of ∼50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center in the brain, and form synapses with the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we show that Eph and Ephrin, the well-known axon guidance molecules, instruct the dendrodendritic segregation during the discrete olfactory map formation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

The mouse olfactory system is often used to study mechanisms of neural circuit formation because of its simple anatomical structure. An Olfactory Sensory Neuron (OSN) is a bipolar cell with a single dendrite and a single unbranched axon. An OSN expresses only one Olfactory Receptor (OR) gene, OSNs expressing a given type of OR converge their axons to a few sets of invariant glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb (OB).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

It is well known that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) has various neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, it has been reported that ALC facilitates myelination of regenerated axons after peripheral nerve injuries. We previously reported that spontaneous regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), the main fiber tract of the central olfactory system, consistently occurred in newborn rats and a majority of these regenerated fibers were unmyelinated in neonatally LOT-transected young adult rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

Iron deficiency in children can have significant neurological consequences, and iron supplementation is an effective treatment of choice. However, traditional routes of iron supplementation do not allow efficient iron delivery to the brain due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. So an easily delivered iron formulation with high absorption efficiency potentially could find widespread application in iron deficient infants.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

Brain metastases are the most common tumors of the central nervous system. Because of their high frequency, they may be associated with rare situations. Among these are tumor-to-tumor metastasis and an even a rarer situation called simultaneous brain tumors, which are more related to primary tumors of the reproductive and endocrine systems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

In the field of veterinary anatomy, most of the specimens used in practical sessions are perfused with fixatives. Thus, they can be used for a longer timereducing the number of animals for educational purposes. Formalin is the most commonly used fixative, consisting of a 37% formaldehyde solution.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The early olfactory system is organized in parallel, with numerous, specialized subsystems established by the modular and topographic projections of sensory inputs. While these anatomical sub-systems are in many cases demarcated by well-known marker genes, we stand to learn considerably more about their possible functional specializations from comprehensive, genome-scale descriptions of their molecular anatomy. Here, we leverage the resources of the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA)-a spatially registered compendium of gene expression for the mouse brain-to investigate the early olfactory system's genomic anatomy.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in theolfactory system.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

In animals, sensory processing via parallel pathways, including the olfactory system, is a common design. However, the mechanisms that parallel pathways use to encode highly complex and dynamic odor signals remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the anatomical and physiological features of parallel olfactory pathways in an evolutionally basal insect, the cockroach.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The brain is the most complex tissue in terms of cell types that it comprises, to the extent that it is still poorly understood. Single cell genome and transcriptome profiling allow to disentangle the neuronal heterogeneity, enabling the categorization of individual neurons into groups with similar molecular signatures. Herein, we unravel the current state of knowledge in single cell neurogenomics.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2017

Both prokineticin receptor 2 () and prokineticin 2 () gene-deficient mice have hypoplasia of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This hypoplasia has been attributed to disruption of the glomerulus that is caused by loss of afferent projection from olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), and to the impaired migration of granule cells, a type of interneuron. In the present study, we examined whether migration of the second type of interneuron, periglomerular cells (PGC), is dependent on theexpression by observing the localization of distinct subpopulations of PGC: calretinin (CR)-, calbindin (CB)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top