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'Anatomy of the Vestibular System' (2640)


Dec
1969

Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction.

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Jan
2018

Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that involves the cochleovestibular system. Tinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss are frequent complains. A stabilization of hearing function has been reported with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT).

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Dec
1969

Although many mathematical methods were used to analyze the neural activity under sinusoidal stimulation within linear response range in vestibular system, the reliabilities of these methods are still not reported, especially in nonlinear response range. Here we chose nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA) with sinusoidal model to analyze the neural response of semicircular canal neurons (SCNs) during sinusoidal rotational stimulation (SRS) over a nonlinear response range. Our aim was to acquire a reliable mathematical method for data analysis under SRS in vestibular system.

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Nov
2017

To describe cases that illustrate the utility of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) in cochlear implantation of patients with difficult temporal bone anatomy.
A 2-year-old male with congenital X-linked stapes gusher syndrome and a 2-year-old female with enlarged vestibular aqueduct underwent successful cochlear implantation with the help of intraoperative CT. In the latter case, the initial intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy suggested malposition of the electrode, however, was not able to provide details for adjustments.

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Jan
2018

Cervical Vertigo: Historical Reviews and Advances.

World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 20;109:347-350. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
Baogan Peng
Vertigo is one of the most common presentations in adult patients. Among the various causes of vertigo, so-called cervical vertigo is still a controversial entity. Cervical vertigo was first thought to be due to abnormal input from cervical sympathetic nerves based on the work of Barré and Liéou in 1928.

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Oct
2017

The presence of endolymphatic hydrops in the inner ear, which can be detected with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI), is widely recognized as the main pathological cause of Ménière's disease (MD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the development of endolymphatic hydrops remains unclear. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between the presence of a high jugular bulb (HJB) and MD, which disrupts the vestibular aqueduct leading to the development of endolymphatic hydrops.

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Feb
2018

Usher syndrome, Type 1C (USH1C) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which a mutation in the gene encoding harmonin is associated with multi-sensory deficits (i.e., auditory, vestibular, and visual).

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Nov
2017

Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations, such as asymmetric connectivity, to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish.

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Dec
1969

The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord.

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Sep
2017

The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function.

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Dec
1969

The vestibular system of the inner ear detects head position using three orthogonally oriented semicircular canals; even slight changes in their shape and orientation can cause debilitating behavioral defects. During development, the canals are sculpted from pouches that protrude from the otic vesicle, the embryonic anlage of the inner ear. In the center of each pouch, a fusion plate forms where cells lose their epithelial morphology and the basement membrane breaks down.

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Sep
2017

Medial rectus motoneurons receive two main pontine inputs: abducens internuclear neurons, whose axons course through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus, whose axons project through the ascending tract of Deiters (ATD). Abducens internuclear neurons are responsible for conjugate gaze in the horizontal plane, whereas ATD neurons provide medial rectus motoneurons with a vestibular input comprising mainly head velocity. To reveal the relative contribution of each input to the oculomotor physiology, single-unit recordings from medial rectus motoneurons were obtained in the control situation and after selective deafferentation from cats with unilateral transection of either the MLF or the ATD.

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Nov
2017

Preoperative visualization of the facial nerve could help neurosurgeons to prevent facial nerve injury during vestibular schwannoma surgery. Some studies have addressed diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for preoperative identification of the facial nerve. However, few studies have focused on tractography-integrated neuronavigation for DTT verification.

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Aug
2017

To compare the audiological and radiological findings of patients with incomplete partition malformations (IPs) and analyze the relationship between the audiological and radiological findings.
The study included 84 patients (168 ears) with IPs as follows: 26 patients with Type I;IP-I (41 ears), 54 patients with Type II;IP-II (108 ears), and 4 patients with Type III;IP-III (8 ears). Remaining 11 ears were diagnosed with other inner ear malformations.

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Dec
1969

Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions.

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Aug
2017

Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease.

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Aug
2017

In recent years, in world literature appeared research, which focuses on the study of relationships craniotypes with odonto-metric indicators, size, shape of the dental arches and occlusion. However, most of the experts focus on the study of individual features of the structure of the teeth-jaw system in people with different types of faces and aspects of sexual dimorphism and ethnic characteristics. Studies containing information about cranio-typological variability of the roots of teeth we did not encounter.

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Jul
2017

CNS Tumors in Neurofibromatosis.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jul 22;35(21):2378-2385. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
Jian Campian, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2.

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Dec
1969

Spaceflight entails various stressful environmental factors including microgravity. The effects of gravity changes have been studied extensively on skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, immune and vestibular systems, but those on the nervous system are not well studied. The alteration of gravity in ground-based animal experiments is one of the approaches taken to address this issue.

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Dec
1969

The vestibular system is the part of the inner ear responsible for balance. Vertigo and dizziness are generally caused by vestibular disorders and are very common symptoms in people over 60 years old. One of the most efficient treatments at the moment is vestibular rehabilitation, permitting to improve the symptoms.

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Dec
1969

A 77-year-old man showed an asymptomatic meningeal lesion beneath the dura matter in the left fronto-parietal region on MRI during an examination for recurrent hoarsness. The lesion showed no gadolinium enhancement, and extended to neither the sulci nor skull. Neurological examinations revealed hoarseness, cochlear and vestibular dysfunction of the right ear, and mildly decreased Achilles tendon reflexes bilaterally.

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Jun
2017

In sensory hair cells of auditory and vestibular organs, the ribbon synapse is required for the precise encoding of a wide range of complex stimuli. Hair cells have a unique presynaptic structure, the synaptic ribbon, which organizes both synaptic vesicles and calcium channels at the active zone. Previous work has shown that hair-cell ribbon size is correlated with differences in postsynaptic activity.

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Dec
1969

We explored the functional role of individual otoconia within the otolith system of mammalians responsible for the detection of linear accelerations and head tilts in relation to the gravity vector. Details of the inner structure and the shape of intact human and artificial otoconia were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), including decalcification by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to discriminate local calcium carbonate density. Considerable differences between the rhombohedral faces of human and artificial otoconia already indicate that the inner architecture of otoconia is not consistent with the point group -3m.

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Jul
2017

Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown.
To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families.
This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014.

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Dec
1969

The inner ear sensory epithelium harbors mechanosensory hair cells responsible for detecting sound and maintaining balance. This protocol describes a three-dimensional (3D) culture system that efficiently generates inner ear sensory epithelia from aggregates of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. By mimicking the activations and repressions of key signaling pathways during in vivo inner ear development, mES cell aggregates are sequentially treated with recombinant proteins and small molecule inhibitors for activating or inhibiting the Bmp, TGFβ, Fgf, and Wnt signaling pathways.

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Jun
2017

Diprotodontia represents the largest and ecologically most distinct order of marsupials occurring in Australasian being highly divers in size, locomotion, habitat preferences, feeding, and activity pattern. The spatial orientation in the habitat and therefore the three-dimensional space is detected by the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely by the three semicircular canals. In this study, we investigated the bony labyrinth of diprotodontian and selected non-diprotodontian marsupial mammals of almost all genera with noninvasive micro-CT scanning and 3D-reconstructions.

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Jun
2017

The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense. Additionally, several studies indicate a possible endocrine capacity and a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis.

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Apr
2017

Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) are the dominating contributors to gaze stabilization in all vertebrates. During horizontal head movements, abducens motoneurons form the final element of the reflex arc that integrates visuovestibular inputs into temporally precise motor commands for the lateral rectus eye muscle. Here, we studied a possible differentiation of abducens motoneurons into subtypes by evaluating their morphology, discharge properties, and synaptic pharmacology in semi-intactpreparations of larvalExtracellular nerve recordings during sinusoidal head motion revealed a continuum of resting rates and activation thresholds during vestibular stimulation.

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Mar
2017

To compare magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) findings from the hippocampal regions of military veterans with blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (blast mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to those with PTSD only; and to examine the relationship of MRSI findings to cognitive and neuromotor impairment.
35 military veterans-23 with blast mTBI and PTSD (blast mTBI/PTSD) and 12 with PTSD only participated in the study. Whole plane MRSI data including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and choline (Ch) were acquired at 7T for the hippocampus.

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Dec
1969

The asymmetric location of stereociliary bundle (hair bundle) on the apical surface of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) dictates the direction in which a given HC can respond to cues such as sound, head movements, and water pressure. Notably, vestibular sensory organs of the inner ear, the maculae, exhibit a line of polarity reversal (LPR) across which, hair bundles are polarized in a mirror-image pattern. Similarly, HCs in neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line system are generated as pairs, and two sibling HCs develop opposite hair bundle orientations.

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Dec
1969

The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of the thalamus is a primary structure in the feedback circuit of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system, as well as in the neural circuit of the vestibulo-thalamo-striatal pathway. We investigated the characteristics of the functional connectivity between the peripheral vestibular system and the PFN in rats. A single electrical stimulation was applied to the horizontal semicircular canal nerve in the peripheral vestibular end-organs.

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Apr
2017

Some studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with impaired vestibular reflexes, especially otolithic reflexes, resulting in postural instability. However, the neurochemical basis of these age-related changes is still poorly understood. The l-arginine metabolic system has been implicated in changes in the brain associated with aging.

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Feb
2017

The optimal method for diagnosing cochleovestibular neurovascular compression syndrome(CNVC)remains controversial, and the aim of this study is to develop a standard diagnostic instrument for the condition. The clinical features of 53 sides of 50 patients with a combination of vertigo, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss were retrospectively evaluated. The following five clinical features were evaluated and given a score of 1 or 0:1)a long history of recurrent vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss;2)neurological findings related to positional vertigo, nystagmus, tinnitus, or hearing loss;3)neuro-otological findings involving tinnitus, audiometry, or vestibular testing;4)auditory brainstem response(ABR)evaluation with the detection of a low 25-75% II wave amplitude on the contralateral side and delayed interpeak latency in the I-III or I-V waves(usually low II wave amplitude combined with double peaks and a wide-based form)during ABR evaluation using 80 and 90dB clicks;and 5)the detection of vascular contact with the eighth cranial nerve on magnetic resonance imaging-constructive interference in steady state or air computed tomography imaging.

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Apr
2017

Evidence of a high interobserver variability of the subjective House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (HBGS) would justify cost- and time-consuming technological enhancements of objective classifications for facial nerve paresis.
A total of 112 patients were recruited for a randomized multi-center trial to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic nimodipine treatment in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. For the present investigation both treatment groups were pooled for the assessment of facial nerve function preoperatively, in the early postoperative course and 1 year after the surgery.

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Dec
1969

The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion.

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Dec
1969

Although minutes of a spinning episode may induce vertigo in the healthy human, as a result of a possible perceptional plasticity, Sufi Whirling Dervishes (SWDs) can spin continuously for an hour without a vertigo perception.This unique long term vestibular system stimulation presents a potential human model to clarify the cortical networks underlying the resistance against vertigo. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the potential structural cortical plasticity in SWDs.

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Apr
2017

We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis.
The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood.

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Dec
1969

Dizziness is a common symptom in general practice with a high prevalence among older adults. The most common cause of dizziness in general practice is peripheral vestibular disease. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a safe and effective treatment for peripheral vestibular disease that entails specific exercises to maximise the central nervous system compensation for the effects of vestibular pathology.

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Feb
2017

Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ >100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In the turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms.

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Jan
2017

A fracture of root canal instruments, with a fractured piece protruding beyond the apex, is a troublesome incident during an endodontic treatment. Locating and retrieving them represents a challenge to maxillofacial surgeons because it is difficult to access due to the proximity between the foreign body and vital structures. Although safe and accurate for surgery, radiographs and electromagnetic devices do not provide a precise three-dimensional position.

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Mar
2017

An image-guided robotic system can safely perform the bulk removal of bone during the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannoma (VS).
The translabyrinthine approach to VS removal involves extensive manual milling in the temporal bone to gain access to the internal auditory canal (IAC) for tumor resection. This bone removal is time consuming and challenging due to the presence of vital anatomy (e.

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Dec
1969

Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals.

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Jan
2017

 Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded.

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Feb
2017

Static otolithic drive alters presynaptic inhibition in soleus motor pool.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2017 Feb 20;32:37-43. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
Apollonia Fox, David Koceja
The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway.

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Nov
2016

The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus have been known to be the key areas involved in vestibular compensation (VC) following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In this study, we examined the role of gephyrin and glycine receptor (GlyR) in VC using Sprague-Dawley rats, in an aim to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for VC. The expression of the α1 and β subunits of GlyR and gephyrin was immunohistochemically localized in rat MVN and flocculi.

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Jan
2017

To validate the VEMP score as a measure of brainstem dysfunction in patients with the first symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) (clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)) and to investigate the correlation between VEMP and brainstem MRI results.
121 consecutive CIS patients were enrolled and brainstem functional system score (BSFS) was determined. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) were analyzed for latencies, conduction block and amplitude asymmetry ratio and the VEMP score was calculated.

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Dec
1969

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most common congenital inner ear malformations and accounts for 1-12% of sensorineural deafness in children and adolescents. Multiple genetic defects contribute to EVA; therefore, early molecular diagnosis is critical for EVA patients to ensure that the most effective treatment strategies are employed. This study explored a new genetic diagnosis method for EVA and applied it to clinic diagnoses of EVA patients.

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Jan
2017

Neural circuits are endowed with several forms of intrinsic and synaptic plasticity that could contribute to adaptive changes in behavior, but circuit complexities have hindered linking specific cellular mechanisms with their behavioral consequences. Eye movements generated by simple brainstem circuits provide a means for relating cellular plasticity to behavioral gain control. Here we show that firing rate potentiation, a form of intrinsic plasticity mediated by reductions in BK-type calcium-activated potassium currents in spontaneously firing neurons, is engaged during optokinetic reflex compensation for inner ear dysfunction.

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Dec
1969

Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes.

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Oct
2017

Ear is a sensitive organ involved in hearing and balance function. The complex signaling network in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining normal physiological function of the ear. The inner ear comprises a variety of host signaling pathways working in synergy to deliver clear sensory messages.

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