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'Arterial Supply Overview' (248)


Feb
2018

The purposes of the study are to outline the complexity of diagnosing internal herniation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and to investigate the added value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) for diagnosing internal herniation.
A cadaver study was performed to investigate the manifestations of internal hernias and mesenteric vascularization. Furthermore, a prospective, ethics approved study with retrospective interpretation was conducted.

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Oct
2017

Stem cell-based peripheral vascular regeneration.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2017 Oct 11;120:25-40. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Yasuyuki Fujita, Atsuhiko Kawamoto
Chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents an end-stage manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). CLI patients are at very high risk of amputation and cardiovascular complications, leading to severe morbidity and mortality. Because many patients with CLI are ineligible for conventional revascularization procedures, it is urgently needed to explore alternative strategies to improve blood supply in the ischemic tissue.

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Nov
2017

Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

J Vasc Surg 2017 Nov 2;66(5):1612-1620. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
Mary M McDermott
The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD).
This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium.
Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms.

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Dec
1969

Infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease can lead to potentially disabling and limb-threatening conditions. Revascularization may be indicated for claudication, rest pain, or tissue loss. Although endovascular interventions are becoming more prevalent, open surgeries such as endarterectomy and bypass are still needed and performed regularly.

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Aug
2017

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an evolving health problem with growing incidence in the ageing male population with potentially predictive value for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. ED shares the common cardiovascular risk factors. The aetiology of ED is numerous including neurogenic, psychogenic, arteriogenic, and venogenic reasons.

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Dec
1969

In-stent restenosis management: the best is yet to come.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2017 08 20;58(4):508-517. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
Jos C van den Berg
The use of drug-eluting stents and of drug-coated balloons have mitigated the prevalence of in-stent restenosis, however in-stent remains a problem that continues to affect the long-term outcomes of femoro-popliteal endovascular therapy. This paper will provide an overview on the latest data with regard to the treatment of femoro-popliteal in-stent restenosis.

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Apr
2017

The popularity of the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap has been limited by factors such as variable vascular anatomy and short arterial pedicle. This article aimed to delineate flap design and harvest strategies based around either the proximal or distal perforators of the superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) and propose a set of strategies that can help deal with the limitations of the flap.
From August 2011 to June 2015, the SCIP flap was used in 80 patients for soft tissue defects at our institution.

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Dec
1969

Drug-eluting balloons in below the knee treatment.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2016 12 21;57(6):811-816. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
Jos C VAN DEN Berg
The endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the infra-inguinal arteries has changed significantly since the introduction of drug-eluting balloon technology. The role of angioplasty using drug-eluting balloons for lesions of the superficial femoral and popliteal artery is now well established. The positive results of the use of drug-eluting balloons in the above knee segment could not be achieved in the below-the-knee segment.

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Oct
2016

Impaired exercise tolerance is a major determinant of decreased quality of life and survival in individuals with cardiovascular disease. The relative contribution that abnormal cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle function plays in limiting exercise tolerance and its improvement with exercise training in patients with cardiovascular disease is not fully known. In this review, we provide an overview of the functional impairment of these systems as they relate to exercise capacity and the emerging role of magnetic resonance imaging as a comprehensive tool to evaluate mechanisms that may explain exercise intolerance.

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Sep
2016

Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the wall of small to medium-sized arteries, capillaries and venules of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. Over the last years it was recognized as an important cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive deficits in the elderly.

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May
2017

Background Understanding the anatomy of the lower extremity veins is essential for successful varicose vein treatment. Computed tomography (CT) venography may be used to obtain a comprehensive overview and detailed information regarding this. Purpose To describe anatomic variations of the lower extremity venous system in patients with varicose veins, using three-dimensional (3D) CT venography.

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Jun
2017

There is a demand for a better understanding of the vascular structures around the right colonic area. Although right hemicolectomy with the recent concept of meticulous lymph node dissection is a standardized procedure for malignant diseases among most surgeons, variations in the actual anatomical vascular are not well understood. The aim of the present review was to present a detailed overview of the vascular variation pertinent to the surgery for right colon cancer.

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Aug
2015

Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range.

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Jul
2016

The brain depends almost entirely on oxidative metabolism to meet its significant energy requirements. As such, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) represents a key measure of brain function. Quantification of CMRO2 has helped elucidate brain functional physiology and holds potential as a clinical tool for evaluating neurological disorders including stroke, brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and obstructive sleep apnea.

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Dec
2015

The unique situation of the liver with arterial and venous blood supply and the dependency of the tumor on the arterial blood flow make this organ an ideal target for intrahepatic catheter-based therapies. Main forms of treatment are classical bland embolization (TAE) cutting the blood flow to the tumors, chemoembolization (TACE) inducing high chemotherapy concentration in tumors, and radioembolization (TARE) without embolizing effect but very high local radiation. These different forms of therapies are used in different centers with different protocols.

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Mar
2016

This article gives an overview of the current importance of so-called subintimal recanalization in the lower extremities.
The primary technical goal of endovascular interventions in the lower extremities is the endoluminal restoration of blood circulation from the iliac arteries into the feet.
If endoluminal recanalization of e.

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Dec
2015

Pulmonary sequestration also known as bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare disease, with very few case series reviewed in literature. In this study, we review the demographics, presentation, imaging and treatment of pulmonary sequestration in 29 patients from our institution, and provide comparison data from previously published series with an overview of the disease history.
Records reviewed for all patients evaluated and treated in our institution with a pathological proven diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration from January 2004 through December 2013.

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Dec
2015

Over the last decade, exponential advances in computed tomography (CT) technology have resulted in improved spatial and temporal resolution. Faster image acquisition enabled renal CT angiography to become a viable and effective noninvasive alternative in diagnosing renal vascular pathologies. However, with these advances, new challenges in contrast media administration have emerged.

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Dec
2015

The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the recommendations from the 2014 Guideline for Management of Wounds in Patients With Lower-Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD), published by the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society (WOCN). This article provides an overview of the process used to update and develop the guideline, and specific recommendations from the guideline for assessment, referral for further evaluation, interventions (ie, debridement, dressings, infection, antibiotics, nutrition, pain management, compression issues, medications, surgical options, and adjunctive therapies), and patient education and risk-reduction strategies. The LEAD guideline is a resource for physicians, nurses, therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work with adults who have/or are at risk for wounds due to LEAD.

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Oct
2015

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a minimally invasive procedure to restrict a tumor's blood supply, and TACE has an established role in cancer therapy. An embolic material in the form of microspheres (such as drug-eluting beads) and transarterial radioembolization is effective at treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Endovascular therapy offers promise for the treatment of tumor thrombi in the portal vein.

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Nov
2015

There are two afferent (hepatic artery, portal vein) and one efferent (hepatic veins) systems responsible for the unique circulation of the liver. Given this special form of vasculature, acute, isolated (i.e.

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Feb
2016

Stenting treatments for the management of disease in the heart, arterial and venous systems, biliary ducts, urethras, ureters, oesophageal tract and prostate have made enormous technical advances since their introduction into clinical use. The progression from metallic to polymer based bio-absorbable stents, coupled with the advances in additive manufacturing techniques, present a unique opportunity to completely re-envision the design, manufacture, and supply chain of stents. This paper looks at current stenting trends and proposes a future where the stent supply chain is condensed from ~150 days to ~20 min.

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Sep
2015

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) can be delivered to the skeletal muscle of the limb (pelvic or thoracic) by means of regional intravascular delivery. This review summarizes the evolution of this technique to deliver rAAV either via the arterial blood supply or via the peripheral venous circulation. The focus of this review is on applications in large animal models, including preclinical studies.

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Dec
2015

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive MRI technique to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). This review provides a practical guide and overview of the clinical applications of ASL of the brain, as well its potential pitfalls. The technical and physiological background is also addressed.

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Nov
2015

Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.

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Aug
2015

The magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) toolbox includes a wide array of versatile methods for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with a variety of upper extremity vascular pathologies. MRA can provide excellent image quality with high spatial and high temporal resolution without the disadvantages of ionizing radiation, iodinated contrast, and operator dependency. Contrast-enhanced techniques are preferred for their robustness, image quality, and shorter scan times.

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Sep
2015

During knee arthroplasty, the leg is placed in several forced positions, which are mainly uncomfortable for all tissue structures in the region, including the vascular structures. Veins have a weaker quality of the wall structure than arteries, so during the forced position morphological and haemodynamic consequences are expected mainly in the venous system. Conditions of safe aseptic environment for the arthroplasty are in collision with routine intra-operative analysis of local haemodynamics in real time.

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Sep
2015

The purpose of the present case report is to document the removal of a radix in antro without a hemorrhagic complication in presence of a posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) with a 2.8 mm diameter following a radiographic 3D planning by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. Furthermore, a brief literature overview on studies describing the existence and the variance of the PSAA is provided.

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Dec
1969

The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth.

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Apr
2015

The microcirculation is tightly regulated by a diverse range of mechanisms which share the common goal of matching blood flow delivery with tissue metabolic demand. Despite in-depth examination of tissues like skeletal muscle, brain microcirculation has remained largely unexplored due to methodological limitations. Recent, technological advances have, however, started to grant greater access to this vital microcirculatory bed.

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Feb
2016

Heel ulceration, most frequently the result of prolonged pressure because of patient immobility, can range from the trivial to the life threatening. Whilst the vast majority of heel pressure ulcers (PUs) are superficial and involve the skin (stages I and II) or underlying fat (stage III), between 10% and 20% will involve deeper tissues, either muscle, tendon or bone (stage IV). These stage IV heel PUs represent a major health and economic burden and can be difficult to treat.

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Dec
1969

Hand ischemia is rare but complex and multifactorial. Distal arteriopathy below the vascular access (VA) is responsible in the vast majority of patients and not a problem of high flow of the VA. Therefore, surgical technique should focus on improving blood flow and pressure instead of reducing blood flow.

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Apr
2015

Neurovascular coupling is an important control mechanism in CBF regulation. New insights into the integrated relationship between synaptic activity, astrocytes Ca(2+) , and cerebral blood vessels using two-photon fluorescence imaging are slowly emerging. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current understandings and controversies regarding astrocytes in activity-dependent vasodilation.

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Feb
2015

This overview comments on the health-care relevance of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischaemia (CLI). We evaluated different treatment modalities in terms of cost-effectiveness.
For the literature review, the Medline database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "critical limb ischemia AND cost", "critical limb ischemia AND economy", "peripheral arterial disease AND cost", "peripheral arterial disease AND economy".

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May
2015

Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for the depolarization-evoked contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), with L-type channels being the classical channel involved in this mechanism. However, it has been demonstrated that the CaV2.1 subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform of the voltage-gated calcium channels (P/Q-type), is also expressed and contributes functionally to contraction of renal blood vessels in both mice and humans.

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May
2015

Food intake is influenced by a complex regulatory system involving the integration of a wide variety of sensory inputs across multiple brain areas. Over the past decade, advances in neuroimaging using functional MRI (fMRI) have provided valuable insight into these pathways in the human brain. This review provides an outline of the methodology of fMRI, introducing the widely used blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast for fMRI and direct measures of cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labelling.

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Mar
2015

Realignment osteotomies about the knee may be performed as distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomies; both may be performed either on the medial or lateral sides of the knee, in closing- or opening-wedge fashion. Although rare, injury to neurovascular structures may occur, and the proximity of the vascular structures to the osteotomy saw cuts has been incompletely characterized.
We performed a cadaver study to assess the risk of vascular injury in patients undergoing realignment osteotomies by (1) quantifying the distances between osteotomy saw cuts and blood vessels using three-dimensional CT reconstruction after distal femoral and proximal tibial osteotomies; and (2) qualitatively describing the small- and medium-sized vasculature around the knee, to provide the link between the CT analysis and wedge incision measures, and better show the potential extraosseous supply to the regions investigated.

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Oct
2015

Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), a rare form of mesenteric perfusion, is associated with a high mortality rate, especially when the diagnosis is delayed.
Optimizing the diagnostic workup and the use of modern diagnostic possibilities are needed to reduce mortality and morbidity.
Recent studies recommend not yet standardized integration of computed tomography into the diagnostic workup.

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Sep
2014

The unique anatomical location and particular biomechanical factors affecting the popliteal artery provide a challenge to determine the proper endovascular, surgical, or combined intervention for patients with critical limb ischemia who often require prompt management in the presence of severe lifestyle-limiting symptoms or of the risk of limb loss or both. Herein, we provide an overview and practical guide for endovascular management of popliteal artery disease in the setting of critical limb ischemia.

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Sep
2014

Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is exhibited in patients with symptoms of severe claudication (rest pain) and ischemic tissue loss and gangrene. Magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography have risen to the forefront of vascular imaging over the last 2 decades. Both modalities have been shown to compare favorably with digital subtraction angiography in guiding the clinical management of patients with CLI.

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Sep
2014

Patients with critical limb ischemia usually have severe atherosclerotic disease and are at a high risk of limb loss as well as major adverse cardiovascular events. The current article provides a description of the clinical presentation of patients with critical limb ischemia and also discusses the initial evaluation of these patients, including physical examination, use of noninvasive vascular tests, and other imaging modalities. An overview of the general management of these patients is also provided, including the identification of patients who benefit from revascularization or primary amputation, principles of wound care, and therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction.

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Sep
2014

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, whole-body magnetic resonance scanners with high field strengths (and thus potentially better signal-to-noise ratios) were developed. At the same time, parallel imaging and "echo-sharing" techniques were refined to allow for increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution in dynamic magnetic resonance angiography ("time-resolved" = TR-MRA). This technological progress facilitated tracking the passage of intra-venously administered contrast agent boluses as well as the acquisition of volume data sets at high image refresh rates ("4D-MRA").

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Dec
1969

Hemodynamic instability often leads to hypoperfusion, which has a significant impact on outcome in both medical and surgical patients. Measures to detect and treat tissue hypoperfusion early by correcting the imbalance between oxygen delivery and consumption is of particular importance. There are several studies targeting different hemodynamic endpoints in order to investigate the effects of goal-directed therapy on outcome.

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Aug
2014

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension (resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or more determined at right heart catheterization) with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed disease with estimated incidences ranging from 0.5% to 3.

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Aug
2014

In classical anatomic variants, the proper hepatic artery (PHA)continues the common hepatic artery (CHA) after the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) detaches itself and divides into the right hepatic artery (RHA) and left hepatic artery (LHA), the proper hepatic artery being located to the left of the hepatocholedochal duct (HCD). This paper presents an abnormal positioning of the PHA placed before the HCD with an increased diameter of about 5-7 mm, which could be confused with the HCD. We present the case of a 57 year-old woman diagnosed with acute lithiasic cholecystitis, associated with hypersplenism and hypertension.

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Dec
1969

Blood vessels provide the brain with the oxygen and the nutrients it requires to develop and function. Endothelial cells (ECs) are the principal cell type forming the vascular system and driving its development and remodeling. All vessels are lined by a single EC layer.

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Dec
1969

Treatment efficacy of intra-arterial radioembolization for liver tumors depends on the selective targeting of tumorous tissue. Recent investigations have demonstrated that tumors may receive inadequate doses of radioactivity after radioembolization, due to unfavorable tumor to non-tumor (T/N) uptake ratios of radioactive microspheres. Hepatic arterial infusion of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (AT-II) is reported to increase the T/N blood flow ratio.

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Nov
2013

The ability of the cardiorespiratory system (heart, lungs, blood) to deliver oxygen to exercising skeletal muscle constrains maximum oxygen consumption V˙O2max, with cardiac output and the concentration of oxygen-carrying haemoglobin ([Hb]) being key limiting parameters. Total blood volume (BV) is the sum of the plasma volume (PV) and the total red cell volume. The measured [Hb] is dependent upon the total circulating mass of haemoglobin (tHb-mass) and plasma volume (PV).

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Oct
2014

Collateral vessel growth is a physiological process that is not equally pronounced in all people. After the development of a haemodynamically relevant stenosis in vascular systems, blood flow is directed through a collateral circulation to supply ischaemic tissue. This collateral circulation exists on the capillary level and by definition, is not composed of real new vessels.

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Apr
2014

The aim of this paper is to present a simple and quantitative data analysis method with a new potential in the application of liver single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. We have established quantitative SPECT/computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging protocols for determination of liver tumor burden based on the known role of Kupffer cells in cancer of the liver.
As it is also known that functional Kupffer cells accumulate particulate material contained in the arterial blood of liver supply, we used radiolabeled macro-aggregated albumin particles ([(99m)Tc]-MAA) injected intravenously to image liver disease.

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