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'Arteries to Brain and Meninges' (1239)


Jan
2018

Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (leptomeninges) that form the boundaries of the subarachnoid space. In this review we (1) examine the development of leptomeninges and their role as barriers and facilitators in the foetal CNS.

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Nov
2017

Although there are no conventional lymphatic vessels in the brain, fluid and solutes drain along basement membranes (BMs) of cerebral capillaries and arteries towards the subarachnoid space and cervical lymph nodes. Convective influx/glymphatic entry of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the brain parenchyma occurs along the pial-glial BMs of arteries. This project tested the hypotheses that pial-glial BM of arteries are thicker in the midbrain, allowing more glymphatic entry of CSF.

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Oct
2017

The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.

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Dec
1969

Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).

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Oct
2017

The availability of minimal access instrumentation and endoscopic visualization has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive skull base surgery. The transorbital endoscopic approach using an eyelid incision has been proposed as a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of skull base pathology, mostly extradural tumors. Our study aims to evaluate the anatomical aspects and potential role of the transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern.

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Oct
2017

Neurosurgical application of indocyanine green (ICG) videography before performing a dural opening, known as transdural ICG videography, has been used during surgery of meningiomas associated with venous sinuses as well as cranial and spinal arteriovenous malformations. However, its use for a superficial temporal artery (STA)-to-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass has not been reported.
We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who underwent transdural ICG videography during STA-MCA bypass performed between January 2012 and March 2015.

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Dec
1969

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis of blood vessel walls in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. The CNS complications are likely to be fatal without judicious use of immunosuppression; thus, early diagnosis may prevent from damage and disability. This chapter updates our knowledge on CNS vasculitis-related immunological mechanisms, neurological complications, diagnosis, and management.

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Dec
1969

Global brain ischemia-reperfusion during propofol anesthesia provokes persistent cerebral pial constriction. Constriction is likely mediated by Rho-kinase. Cerebral vasoconstriction possibly exacerbates ischemic brain injury.

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Apr
2017

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has transformed the radiological assessment of a variety of cerebral pathologies, in particular acute stroke. In neuroimaging studies, DWI can also be used to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma, although it is sometimes underutilized for this purpose. In this pictorial review, the principles of DWI are outlined, and 13 cases of abnormal diffusion outside the brain parenchyma are illustrated in order to show DWI as a useful sequence for the evaluation of the following recommended review areas: the dural venous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, meninges, ventricles, cavernous sinus and orbits, skull base and lymph nodes.

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Dec
1969

Our goal was to test the hypothesis that administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH) would improve impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes. In addition, we examined the influence of BHon levels of superoxide in brain tissue. In vivo diameter of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats was measured in response to endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent agonists (acetylcholine and adenosine 5'-diphosphate) and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-independent agonist (nitroglycerine) before and during application of BH(1.

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Feb
2017

Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming prevalent in all over the world including Western countries. There are limited data on the cardiovascular effects of water-pipe smoke (WPS), in particular following chronic exposure. Here, we assessed the chronic cardiovascular effects of nose-only WPS exposure in C57BL/6 mice.

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Dec
1969

Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling, linked to increased PKC-mediated phosphorylation and PKC isoform expression changes. Here, we sought to determine whether: 1) selective PKC-α/β/γ inhibitor, GF109203X, could reverse the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on cerebrovascular reactivity; 2) pancreatic islet transplantation could prevent the development of cerebrovascular impairment seen in a rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. We studied the effect of GF109203X in diabetic (DM), non-diabetic (ND), and transplanted (TR) Lewis rats during either sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS) or the topical applications of the large-conductance Ca-operated K(BK) channel opener, NS1619, or the Kinward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, KCl.

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Feb
2017

To compare surgical outcome both radiologically and clinically after interventions for patients with Moyamoya disease.
This retrospective observational study included 25 patients who were treated surgically for Moyamoya disease in the past 14 years. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by subgroups stratified by age, disease presentation, and surgical intervention.

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Nov
2016

The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is often sacrificed during neurosurgical procedures in the region of the pterion. This maneuver, herein, is hypothesized to be a potential reason for the development of postoperative hydrocephalus by injuring the vascular supply to the arachnoid granulations near the vertex of the skull, and thus disrupting their ability to allow for transfer of CSF from the subarachnoid space to the venous system.
To test this theory, the middle meningeal artery was isolated at the skull base and injected with India ink.

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Feb
2017

Advances in the oncologic and functional results of insular surgery have been reported recently. Such successes have been made possible by the advent of the transopercular approach under awake monitoring and by improved anatomic and functional knowledge of white matter pathways surrounding the insula. Nonetheless, given the rarity of insular tumors, it is difficult to get familiar with the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the different neuronal and vascular structures encountered during a transopercular insular resection.

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Oct
2016

Vasculitis is a rare cause of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Vasculitis can be divided into primary and secondary forms, of which the vast majority can be manifested in various organ systems, including the CNS. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS is limited to the CNS and clinical neurological symptoms as with the other forms of vasculitis, are headaches, encephalopathy, focal deficits and seizures.

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Sep
2016

Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the wall of small to medium-sized arteries, capillaries and venules of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. Over the last years it was recognized as an important cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive deficits in the elderly.

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Oct
2016

Cerebral circulation is secured by feed-forward and feed-back control pathways to maintain and eventually reestablish the optimal oxygen and nutrient supply of neurons in case of disturbances of the cardiovascular system. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of laser-speckle imaging we aimed to analyze the pattern of cerebrocortical blood flow (CoBF) changes after unilateral (left) carotid artery occlusion (CAO) in anesthetized mice to evaluate the contribution of macrovascular (circle of Willis) vs. pial collateral vessels as well as that of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to the cerebrovascular adaptation to CAO.

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Aug
2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and mid-term biological behavior of the novel customized aortic repair (CAR) method for endovascular aneurysm treatment.
CAR consists of exclusion of an aneurysm from the circulation using a custom-designed dog bone-shaped balloon, followed by aneurysm sac filling with an in situ curing polymer. After curing and balloon deflation, the circulation is restored through a patent cast neolumen.

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Apr
2017

Recent evidence suggests an extensive exchange of fluid and solutes between the subarachnoid space and the brain interstitium, involving preferential pathways along blood vessels. We studied the anatomical relations between brain vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid compartments, and paravascular spaces in male Wistar rats. A fluorescent tracer was infused into the cisterna magna, without affecting intracranial pressure.

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Dec
1969

Sanguinate, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated carboxyhemoglobin, was investigated for cerebral vasoactivity in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 1) and for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) - traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Study 2). In both studies ketamine-acepromazine anesthetized rats were ventilated with 40% O2. In Study 1, a cranial window was used to measure the diameters of medium - (50-100μm) and small-sized (<50μm) pial arterioles before and after four serial infusions of Sanguinate (8mL/kg/h, cumulative 16mL/kg IV), volume-matched Hextend, or normal saline.

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Aug
2016

Complex skull base approaches are often used to treat lesions within the middle incisural space; yet the well-known retrosigmoid route may provide an effective avenue to this difficult-to-reach region. The purpose of this study was to quantify the exposure advantages on the middle incisural space provided by cutting of the tentorium cerebelli via a standard suboccipital retrosigmoid approach (i.e.

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Oct
2015

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a collection of old blood and its breakdown products between the surface of the brain parenchyma and the outermost layer called the dura. The most common treatment option for primary CSDH is burr-hole trephination; however, the treatment method for recurrent CSDH is still widely debated. An arachnoid cyst (AC) is a sac filled with cerebrospinal fluid located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, which is one of the three meninges covering the brain or spinal cord.

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Dec
1969

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator and a neuromodulator implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. It binds to the extracellular domains of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 that together form the CGRP receptor. Antagonist antibodies against CGRP and its binding site at the receptor are clinically effective in preventing migraine attacks.

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Apr
2016

We present a case of intracranial arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary venous drainage presenting with acute myelopathy, which is an unusual presentation of this uncommon condition. Subsequent catheter angiogram defined the arterial feeders from the meningohypophyseal trunk and petrosal branch of the middle meningeal artery. The patient was successfully embolised, resulting in complete obliteration of the fistula, and significant resolution of brainstem and cervical cord changes along with clinical improvement.

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May
2016

In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain.

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Mar
2016

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with primary demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. In our study we analysed demyelination and neurodegeneration in a large series of multiple sclerosis brains and provide a map that displays the frequency of different brain areas to be affected by these processes. Demyelination in the cerebral cortex was related to inflammatory infiltrates in the meninges, which was pronounced in invaginations of the brain surface (sulci) and possibly promoted by low flow of the cerebrospinal fluid in these areas.

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Mar
2016

Migraine is a common type of headache which has a deep history dating back thousands of years. Avicenna (980-1032), a Persian scholar, made a great contribution to neurology including headache and migraine. The aim of this study is to consider Avicenna's description about migraine (Shaghighe in Persian language) including definition, etiology and intervention.

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Mar
2016

S100B is an astrocyte-derived protein that can act through the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) to mediate either "trophic" or "toxic" responses. Its levels increase in many neurological conditions with associated microvascular dysregulation, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and traumatic brain injury. The role of S100B in the pathogenesis of microvasculopathy has not been addressed.

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Mar
2016

We used microscopy to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4 surgical approaches commonly used in the surgery of the ambient cistern: infratentorial supracerebellar (SC), occipital interhemispheric, subtemporal (ST), and transchoroidal (TC). In addition, we performed a parahippocampal gyrus resection in the ST context.
Each approach was performed in 3 cadaveric heads (6 sides).

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Dec
1969

A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department for evaluation of a right temporal headache. She had been diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis in her twenties but did not receive steroid therapy. A brain MRI scan detected thickened dura mater with abnormal enhancement on the right cerebral hemisphere.

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Nov
2015

[Pathophysiology of cluster headache].

Presse Med 2015 Nov 21;44(11):1171-5. Epub 2015 Oct 21.
Anne Donnet
The aetiology of cluster headache is partially unknown. Three areas are involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache: the trigeminal nociceptive pathways, the autonomic system and the hypothalamus. The cluster headache attack involves activation of the trigeminal autonomic reflex.

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Oct
2015

In the absence of a true lymphatic system in the brain parenchyma, alternative clearance pathways for excess fluid and waste products have been proposed. Suggested mechanisms for clearance implicate a role for brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids. However, the proposed direction of flow, the anatomical structures involved, and the driving forces are controversial.

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May
2016

The object of this study was to analyze the pathology of collateral vessels newly induced by indirect bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD). An autopsy analysis was conducted on a 39-year-old woman with MMD who had died of a brainstem infarction. The patient had undergone bilateral indirect bypass surgeries 22 years earlier.

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Dec
1969

Hyperintense vessels (HVs) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging are associated with the leptomeningeal collateral circulation in cases of arterial occlusive lesions. Nevertheless, the relationship between HVs on FLAIR imaging and arterial circulation time (ACT) on cerebral angiography has not been defined.
We analyzed images of 11 patients with acute occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery and calculated the difference in ACT (DACT) between infarcted and normal hemispheres.

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Sep
2015

Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD.

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Jan
2016

OBJECT The tentorial branch of the posterior cerebral artery was first identified in a cadaver dissection study. However, the tentorial branch of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) has not been clearly described in autopsy or normal anatomical studies. In this study, a dural branch of the SCA that was found during the surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is described.

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Jun
2015

Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) are brain perivascular spaces containing perforating arteries. Although enlarged VRS are associated with various disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, and head trauma, their functional role remains unclear. Using highly fluid-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, fine morphological features of VRS and their relevance to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) were investigated.

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Oct
2015

Microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, replacement of bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs) from the root exit zone (REZ) is difficult and requires special techniques. Reports of HFS cases associated with bilateral VA compression are quite rare.

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May
2015

Reactions of pial vessels to hypercapnia were studied in Wistar rats one week after global cerebral ischemia. In ischemic rats, the responsiveness of pial vessels to hypercapnia was diminished, which promoted a decrease in cerebral perfusion reserve. Changes in vascular responsiveness in the arterial and venous subdivisions of the vascular bed were observed and probably resulted from ischemia-provoked down-regulation of the vascular tone.

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May
2015

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the wall of brain vasculature, commonly involving capillaries and arterioles. Also being considered a part of CAA is the Aβ deposition in leptomeninge. The cellular origin of angiopathic Aβ and the pathogenic course of CAA remain incompletely understood.

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Dec
1969

Clinical and experimental studies have been focused on the pathophysiological mechanisms induced by brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recovery events, such as neurogenesis, angiogenesis and the growth of new blood vessels from the preexisting vascular tree, have been intensively studied in the last decades to clarify the vascular remodeling crucial for stroke outcome. This review aims to discuss the cerebral microcirculation remodeling induced by ischemia-reperfusion and the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

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Jun
2015

Currently used techniques for diagnosing ischemic injury, such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, are not easily accessible for basic research using small animals due to their high cost and low availability.
We investigated the dynamic recovery of infarct regions in ischemia-injured brains using indocyanine green (ICG), which is inexpensive and readily available. This dye was used to visualize blood vessels and infarct area, and to measure blood flow after a photothrombotic ischemic operation (PIO).

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Mar
2015

Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome. However, the spatiotemporal manner in which collateral flow maintains cerebral perfusion during cerebral ischemia is poorly understood. Diabetes exacerbates ischemic brain damage, although the impact of diabetes on collateral dynamics remains to be established.

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Jun
2015

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage comprises of an early phase after the bleeding and a late phase of delayed consequences of the bleeding. The development of delayed injury mechanisms, like the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS), seems mainly to depend on the amount and the duration of the subarachnoid blood clot. The reduction of CBF may lead to cerebral ischemia and delayed neurological deterioration.

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Apr
2015

Our previous findings indicated that in rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), suppression of post-SAH neuroinflammation via vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) blockade provides significant neuroprotection. We and others have reported that neuroinflammation contributes to cerebral microvascular impairment. Thus, in the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) treatment with LJP-1586, a selective VAP-1 blocker, prevents SAH-associated pial arteriolar dilating dysfunction; and (2) the vasculoprotective effect of LJP-1586 arises from inhibiting SAH-elicited neutrophil recruitment.

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Mar
2015

Increasing evidence indicates that poor outcomes after brain hemorrhage, especially after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), can be attributed largely to dysfunction of the cerebral microcirculation. However, the cause of this dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we investigated changes in the cerebral microcirculation after regional hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space using the closed cranial window technique in mice.

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Dec
1969

Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) is a minimally invasive and safe method used in the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus. However, arterial bleeding episodes that arise from narrowing of the safe perforation area due to a higher location of the basilar artery (BA) may have tragic consequences. Liliequist membrane (LM) or other membranous structures located in the prepontine cistern also affect the success rates with ETV and complicate the procedure.

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Dec
1969

The recently introduced rabbit blood shunt subarachnoid haemorrhage model is based on the two standard procedures of subclavian artery cannulation and transcutaneous cisterna magna puncture. An extracorporeal shunt placed in between the arterial system and the subarachnoid space allows examiner-independent SAH in a closed cranium. Despite its straightforwardness, it is worth examining some specific features and characteristics of the model.

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May
2015

Brain edema and increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) contribute to intracranial hypertension and hence to unfavorable outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The increased post-traumatic CBV may be caused in part by arterial vasodilatation. The aim of the current study was to uncover the largely unknown mechanisms of post-traumatic arteriolar vasodilatation.

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