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'Arteriovenous Fistulas' (23310)


Feb
2018

Arteriovenous malformations consist of tangles of arteries and veins that are often connected by a fistula. The causes and mechanisms of these clinical entities are not fully understood. We discovered that suturing an arterial patch into the common jugular vein of rabbits led to spontaneous neovascularization, the formation of an arteriovenous fistula and the development of an arteriovenous shunt.

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Feb
2018

Duplex ultrasound (DUS) mapping of the veins and arteries of the upper extremity is a well-established practice in arteriovenous fistula creation for long-term hemodialysis access. Previous publications have shown that vein diameters varying from 2 to 3 mm are predictive of success. Regional anesthesia is known to result in vasodilation and thus to increase the diameter of upper extremity veins.

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Feb
2018

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an imbalanced human microbiome due not only to CKD-associated factors such as uremia, increased inflammation and immunosuppression, but also to pharmacological therapies and dietary restrictions. End-stage renal disease patients require renal replacement therapies commonly in the form of hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HD implies the existence of a vascular access, such as an arteriovenous fistula/graft or a venous catheter, whereas PD implies a long-term peritoneal catheter and the constant inflow of peritoneal dialysate.

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Feb
2018

Therapeutic plasma exchange is an apheresis modality in which plasma is separated from the blood cellular components ex vivo, discarded, and replaced with an isosmotic fluid (most commonly 5% albumin) to maintain appropriate oncotic pressure in the patient. Therapeutic plasma exchange is used in the treatment of many diseases and indications. The recent seventh edition of the American Society for Apheresis guidelines indicates approximately 72 diseases and 116 indications for which therapeutic plasma exchange may be effective.

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Dec
2017

Internal carotid arterial system is the main source of blood supply in brain. In forensic identification practice, blunt injures of internal carotid arterial system usually cause complications such as thrombus, aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula, etc. The deaths following delayed cerebral infarction or intracranial haemorrhage are not rare.

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Feb
2018

In addition to haematoma and arteriovenous fistula, the iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm is a common complication of vascular access that is caused by a perforation in the arterial wall. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms can progress in size and lead to rupture and active bleeding. Over the previous few decades, therapeutic methods have evolved from surgical repair to less invasive options, such as ultrasound-guided compression therapy (UGCT) and ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI).

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Feb
2018

Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding external acoustic stimulus, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 10% to 15% in adults. Tinnitus may be classified as pulsatile (PT) or continuous (non-PT), and may be subjective (heard only by the patient) or objective (also audible to the examiner). PT is usually related to vascular causes and is pulse synchronous (coinciding with the patient's heartbeat).

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Feb
2018

Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage due to dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is extremely rare and has been reported only a few times in the literature. The pathophysiological cause of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage in these cases was hypothetically attributed to retrograde venous flow into subependymal vessels, although none of these cases demonstrated radiographic evidence of such reflux. We present the first case of a dAVF with radiographic evidence of severe cortical venous reflux into the subependymal venous network causing isolated intraventricular hemorrhage, thus lending proof for the underlying pathophysiology.

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Feb
2018

A 39-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) complicated by paradoxical cerebral infarction during pregnancy. She received an inferior vena cava filter (IVCF), but it was difficult to indwell because of the risk of repeat thromboembolism via PAVF. Therefore, we temporarily occluded the pulmonary artery with a balloon to prevent free thrombi from reaching the IVCF.

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Jan
2018

Background While technological advances have improved the efficacy of endovascular techniques for tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF), superior petrosal sinus (SPS) DAVF with dominant internal carotid artery (ICA) supply frequently require surgical intervention to achieve a definitive cure. Methods To compare the angiographic and clinical outcomes of endovascular and surgical interventions in patients with SPS DAVF, the records of all patients with tentorial DAVF from August 2010 to November 2015 were reviewed. Results Within this cohort, eight patients with nine SPS DAVF were eligible for evaluation.

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Feb
2018

Varicocele consists of abnormally dilated and tortuous veins within the pampiniform plexus, usually in the left scrotum. We reported a rare case of right varicocele due to post traumatic arteriovenous fistula successfully treated by percutaneous embolization.

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Feb
2018

Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare but important cerebrovascular disorder in adults. Little is known about the molecular genetic pathogenesis underlying the development of DAVF.
The present study was conducted to investigate the associations of gene polymorphisms and DAVF.

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Feb
2018

Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred form of hemodialysis vascular access, but maturation failures occur frequently, often resulting in prolonged catheter use. We sought to characterize AVF maturation in a national sample of prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States.
Nonconcurrent observational cohort study.

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Feb
2018

To evaluate the clinical application and effect of preseting Double-J ureteric stent in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.74 cases of renal calculi treated with PCNL in our hospital during June 2014 to February 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 74 cases, 54 was male, 20 was female.

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Feb
2018

Native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered the gold standard of vascular access for hemodialysis due to its longer survival, fewer complications, lower mortality and costs. Patency is important for effective dialysis treatment and this remains a challenge in nephrology. There are no well-defined prognostic factors for early and long-term AVF survival.

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Dec
1969

A spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare type of vascular malformation. If left untreated, these fistulas can result in significant neurological deficits secondary to spinal cord infarct or hemorrhage.
A 70-year-old female with a longstanding history of episodic progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and sensory disturbances was previously misdiagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

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Dec
1969

Spinal lipoma and spinal arteriovenous fistula (sAVF) are different pathologies and their co-existence is extremely rare. Here we reported two cases of adult-onset sAVF occurring within a spinal lipoma and with review the literature in an attempt to identify the mechanisim of and optimal treatment of this condition.
Case 1 was a 51-year-old man who was treated by embolization of the feeding artery and ligation of the draining vein.

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Dec
1969

Cryptogenic stroke is present in about 40% of ischemic stroke patients. Extracardiac shunt related to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) could be a rare potential risk factor for embolic stroke. Most PAVFs are multiple, congenital, and associated with hereditary conditions.

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Dec
1969

Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic's disease, is an autoimmune disorder that leads to the inflammation and demyelination of nerves. Devic's disease primarily affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, but can lead to a significant loss of function throughout the body if not treated with steroid therapy or plasmapheresis. We recently saw a 62-year-old patient who received plasmapheresis for Devic's disease through a PTFE arteriovenous graft in her left arm.

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Feb
2018

Cephalic arch problems, mainly stenosis, are a common cause of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) failure, and the most effective treatment is yet to be clearly defined. Restenosis usually occurs soon, and multiple interventions become necessary to maintain patency and functionality. The authors present the experience of their center with cephalic vein transposition in a group of patients with different problems involving the cephalic arch.

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Feb
2018

 The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) categorizes vascular anomalies into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular malformations are further divided into slow-flow (venous, lymphatic, and capillary malformation) and fast-flow malformations (arteriovenous malformation and arteriovenous fistula). This interdisciplinary classification has therapeutic implications.

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Jan
2018

In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies.

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Feb
2018

Although involvement of the osseous component with an anterior condylar dural arteriovenous fistula (AC-DAVF) has been frequently described, osseous venous structures in which AC-DAVFs develop have not been fully elucidated. We investigated osseous venous structures adjacent to the hypoglossal canal in normal controls and patients with AC-DAVFs.
The study included 50 individuals with unruptured aneurysms as normal controls and seven patients with AC-DAVFs.

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Feb
2018

In the surgical treatment spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs), intraoperative definition of dAVFs' anatomical characteristics and identification of fistulous point is mandatory to effectively exclude the dAVF.
Intraoperative ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) integrated with color-doppler sonography was applied in the surgical setting for a cervical dAVF in order to identify fistulous point and evaluation of correct occlusion of the fistula.
and Conclusions: Intraoperative ultrasound and CEUS are a simple, cost-effective technique that give the possibility to have a real-time dynamic visualization of dAVF vascular patterns, identify fistulous point and assess correct exclusion.

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Feb
2018

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) involving the anterior and posterior condylar vein at the skull base are rare but important to recognize. Due to the highly variable anatomy of the venous system of the skull base, detailed anatomical knowledge is essential for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these lesions. In this report we review the normal anatomy of the condylar veins and describe rare and, to our knowledge, not previously reported anatomical variants.

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Feb
2018

The modality by which haemodialysis (HD) is delivered [arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft (AVG) or central venous catheter (CVC)] varies widely and is influenced by clinical evidence, patient factors and the prevailing service configuration. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome and impact of access strategy on patient outcome by mapping out the HD journey in a cohort of incident patients.
A 2-year cohort of consecutive incident HD patients from the point of referral for first dialysis access to completion of the first 365 days of HD was prospectively reviewed.

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Dec
2017

Hemodialysis access thrombosis.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017 Dec;7(Suppl 3):S299-S308
Keith Bertram Quencer, Rahmi Oklu
For the over 400,000 patients in the United States dependent on hemodialysis, arteriovenous (AV) access thrombosis may lead to missed dialysis sessions, inpatient admissions and the need for placement of temporary dialysis catheters. It is also the leading cause of permanent access loss. Percutaneous declotting is generally preferred over surgical thrombectomy.

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Jan
2018

Intracranial multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas (MDAVFs) are rare lesions that are difficult to treat. The key factors involved in the development of MDAVFs remain unknown. At present, the majority of reports on intracranial MDAVFs are confined to case reports and small case series, and thus understanding of MDAVFs is limited.

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Feb
2018

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder that causes angiodysplasia and results in mucocutaneous telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations of organs. Although central nervous system vascular malformations can occur anywhere along the neuraxis, spinal vascular malformations are rare. We present our experience with the presentation and management of spinal vascular malformations in patients with HHT.

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Feb
2018

Half of surgically created arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) require additional intervention to effectively support hemodialysis. Postoperative care and complications may affect clinical maturation.
Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation (HFM) Study, a 7-center prospective cohort study.

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Feb
2018

A pseudoaneurysm or a false aneurysm is the consequence of a persistent blood leak caused generally by iatrogenic rupture of a vessel wall. In hemodialysis fistula, pseudoaneurysm results from repeated puncturing of the vein at the same site. Surgery and endovascular treatment stay widely used as the treatment of pseudoaneurysm compared to the ultrasound-guided manual compression (UGMC).

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Jan
2018

Arteriovenous access failure frequently occurs in people on hemodialysis and is associated with morbidity, mortality and large healthcare expenditures. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may improve access outcomes via pleiotropic effects on access maturation and function, but may cause bleeding complications.
Systematic review with meta-analysis.

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Dec
1969

Cephalic and basilic veins begin their path from around the wrist and continue towards the area above the forearm. The basilic vein becomes deep around the mid-arm, while the cephalic vein becomes deep around the upper forearm, in deltopectoral groove. The superficial veins are most commonly used for vein puncture, transfusion, bypass graft, and cardiac catheterization.

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Oct
2017

Pathological steal is an uncommon but devastating complication after the creation of arteriovenous access for hemodialysis. In this study, we sought to assess predictors of clinically significant steal syndrome and to further evaluate the outcome of differing surgical treatment approaches. A retrospective analysis was performed of 282 consecutive patients undergoing hemodialysis access at a single center from November 2014 to April 2016.

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Oct
2017

Prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis (HD) is associated with greater morbidity and mortality when compared with autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVF). The objective was to assess compliance with CVC guidelines in adults referred for hemoaccess at a county teaching hospital. Out of 256 patients, 172 (67.

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Dec
2017

Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas usually drain into cortical veins and often present with hemorrhage. Treatment goal is occlusion of the draining vein, either by surgery or endovascular techniques. We present the multimodality treatment results of 12 patients with tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

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Dec
1969

Recent studies indicate important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as essential regulators of gene expression. However, the specific roles of lncRNAs in stenotic lesions of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure are still largely unknown. We first analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs in human stenosed and nonstenotic uremic veins using RNA-sequencing methodology.

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Nov
2017

Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVFs) are complex vascular lesions, rarely encountered within the pediatric population. Endovascular embolization has revolutionized the management of these lesions and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for the majority of dAVFs; however, in a subset of particularly complicated lesions, traditional routes of access either do not exist or have been eliminated in the course of prior embolization attempts. We describe the case of an 11-year-old boy with a complicated torcular dAVF refractory to multiple attempts at standard endovascular treatment.

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Jan
2018

Transarterial Onyx embolization is an effective treatment for patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). A study was performed to determine whether the clinical and radiological outcomes after transarterial Onyx treatment were affected by the type of cortical venous drainage (direct vs indirect) of high-grade DAVF.
Between May 2006 and December 2014, demographic data, clinical presentation, angiographic characteristics, and treatment-related outcomes were collected for 54 patients divided into two groups (intracranial DAVF with direct and indirect cortical venous drainage).

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Jan
2018

To determine whether utilization and outcomes of dialysis access maintenance interventions vary by patient race or sex.
Data for this retrospective cohort study of first-time arteriovenous (AV) access recipients were drawn from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries, containing claims from all clinical settings (2009-2014) in 2,693 patients who received their first AV fistula/graft in 2009. Maintenance interventions-angiography, angioplasty, thrombolysis, stent placement, and venous embolization-were identified by corresponding Current Procedural Terminology codes.

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Jan
2018

OBJECTIVE Comorbidities have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Accounting for this effect is especially important in retrospective reviews of large databases; overpowered studies are at risk for finding significant results because of inaccurate patient risk stratification. The authors previously created a neurovascular comorbidities index (NCI) for patients with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm and found that the model's ability to predict patient outcomes was statistically significantly improved over that of the routinely used Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI).

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Jan
2018

Coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAVF) is a rare condition defined as an anomalous termination of the coronary arteries. The etiology of CAVF is either congenital or acquired, and iatrogenic CAVF is most commonly caused by cardiovascular surgery or percutaneous intervention. Most of the prenatally diagnosed CAVFs were related to complex heart disease, and only few cases of an isolated CAVF have been reported to date.

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Jan
2018

The pedicled vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap is a robust flap, which is considered to be a 'workhorse' regional option for chest wall reconstruction. We describe a previously unreported complication of partial flap loss due to 'steal syndrome', whereby arterial supply was diverted away from the flap due to dialysis from an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula.

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Dec
2017

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the preferred procedure for safe and effective surgical treatment of kidney stones. Hemorrhage is the most serious complication of PNL, resulting from pseudoaneurysm (PA) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and can usually be controlled with conservative treatment.
To evaluate endovascular treatments and outcomes of vascular complications observed after PNL.

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Jan
2018

The formation of a fistula between the right pulmonary artery and the left atrium via a sac is a very rare cyanotic congenital cardiopulmonary defect. A fistula between the pulmonary artery and left atrium may cause cardiac failure in utero. It can safely be treated surgically and in selected cases closure can be performed with transcatheter insertion of a device.

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