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'Azotemia' (2578)


Feb
2018

Urea was identified as a urinary salt in 1662 and was the first organic bodily product to be synthesized in vitro in 1828. This heralded the end of an era that defined disease as an imbalance between vital life forces, and catalyzed the merging of organic chemical sciences into clinical medicine. The term urée (urea) was introduced in 1803, its accumulation in blood was dubbed urémie (uremia) in 1847, and the procedure for its removal from urine across semi-permeable membranes designated dialysis in 1861.

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Feb
2018

Worsening renal function and azotemia in patients with heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis. Increasing interest in this correlation led to the description and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). We evaluated the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the early detection of CRS in dogs with HF.

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Feb
2018

To describe the management of cyclosporine overdose using hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in a dog.
A 6-year-old, spayed female Australian Shepherd was presented for treatment of cyclosporine overdose and acute kidney injury. Five days prior to presentation, the dog had been diagnosed by its referring veterinarian with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

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Jan
2018

Hyperthyroidism can complicate (mask) the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because it increases glomerular filtration rate and decreases body muscle mass, both of which can lower serum creatinine concentrations. Currently, there is no clinical test that can reliably predict which hyperthyroid cats have concurrent azotemic CKD that will become apparent after treatment of the hyperthyroidism.
To investigate serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration as a potential marker of masked azotemia in untreated hyperthyroid cats.

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Jan
2018

Current approaches to determine the cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis are suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of fractional excretion of urea (FEUrea) for the differential diagnosis of AKI in cirrhotic patients. A retrospective analysis was performed in patients (n=50) with cirrhosis and ascites admitted with AKI.

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Dec
2017

Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit.

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Jan
2017

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recently has been recognized as a common cause of proteinuria in dogs in general, and in Miniature Schnauzer dogs in particular. This study describes the morphologic features present in the kidneys of 8 related proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The FSGS, characterized by solidification of portions of the capillary tuft, affected 32% to 49% of examined glomeruli in these dogs.

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Jan
2018

Regional Citrate Anticoagulation for Intermittent Hemodialysis in Dogs.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Jan 24;32(1):147-156. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
T Francey, A Schweighauser
The traditional systemic heparinization used for anticoagulation in extracorporeal therapies may cause fatal complications in animals at risk of bleeding.
To develop and validate a protocol of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) for intermittent hemodialysis in dogs.
A total of 172 dogs treated with hemodialysis for acute kidney injury.

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Dec
2017

Lespedeza species have been used as a traditional medicine to treat nephritis, azotemia, inflammation, energy depletion, diabetes, and diuresis.
The purpose of this study is to screen the most potent Lespedeza species against methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced glucotoxicity, and to elucidate the mechanisms of action. Also, we will attempt to identify small chemical metabolites that might be responsible for such anti-glucotoxicity effects.

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Nov
2017

A wide spectrum of clinical and clinicopathological findings in dogs with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum exists. However, the majority of clinical descriptions have been published a long time ago and recent studies in Europe are almost lacking. In addition, clinical classification of sick dogs is not well-standardized, with different classification systems used by clinical and epidemiological studies, making comparison of studies a difficult task.

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Dec
1969

This report documents a case of secondary inappropriate erythrocytosis in a cat with renal cell adenocarcinoma, its stabilization through manual erythrocytapheresis, and the EPO-immunostaining on the affected kidney. An 11-year-old cat was presented with lethargy, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. An abdominal mass was detected upon physical examination.

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Oct
2017

/ To determine the early diagnostic criteria for acute kidney injury in patients with combined trauma using serum cystatin C as a biomarker in the diagnostic work-up of the affected patients.
/ The study comprised 42 patients who suffered combined trauma from 2015 to 2016. Cystatin C level was measured in serum.

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Nov
2017

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children less than 1 year of age is a rare occurrence. Typical presentation includes a prodrome of weight loss and polyuria with subsequent presentation to medical care when acidosis becomes symptomatic.
We describe an unusual case of a previously healthy infant with a 3 days' history of constipation, presenting acutely with abdominal pain, lethargy, and dehydration.

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Feb
2018

Podocytes contain an intricate actin cytoskeleton that is essential for the specialized function of this cell type in renal filtration. Serum response factor (SRF) is a master transcription factor for the actin cytoskeleton, but theexpression and function of SRF in podocytes are unknown. We found that SRF protein colocalizes with podocyte markers in human and mouse kidneys.

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Nov
2017

An 8-week-old puppy was presented to the clinic because of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia and azotemia. The urinary sediment displayed large amounts of protozoan-like organisms, which could be identified by PCR as Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I. In the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) an antibody titer against E.

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Nov
2017

Recent data pose the question whether conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by means of a low-protein diet can be a safe and effective means to avoid or defer transition to dialysis therapy without causing protein-energy wasting or cachexia. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the controlled clinical trials with adequate participants in each trial, providing rigorous contemporary evidence of the impact of a low-protein diet in the management of uraemia and its complications in patients with CKD.
We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and other sources for controlled trials on CKD to compare clinical management of CKD patients under various levels of dietary protein intake or to compare restricted protein intake with other interventions.

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Jan
2018

Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common bladder cancer of dogs. Cisplatin combined with piroxicam provides superior response rates, but unacceptable rates of nephrotoxicity. Tavocept is a chemoprotectant that has mitigated cisplatin toxicity and decreased the required infusion/diuresis volume in clinical trials in humans.

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Mar
2018

Cyanotic nephropathy (CN), seen in 30-50% of patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease (CCHD), affects both tubular and glomerular function, resulting in proteinuria and azotemia. Microalbuminuria is an early marker for glomerular damage and an independent predictor of progressive renal disease.
A cross-sectional study was conducted.

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Oct
2017

Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence in the canine population between 0.06% and 0.28%.

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Nov
2017

To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus.
Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014).
Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers.

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Jan
2018

An 80-year-old man presented at our hospital with renal failure. He had been treated with edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, for deep vein thrombosis for 10 months prior to admission. Although the pulses in his bilateral pedal arteries were palpable, cyanosis was present in the bilateral toes.

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Nov
2017

Primary hypertriglyceridemia is a common condition in older Miniature Schnauzers that recently has been associated with proteinuria and underlying glomerular pathology, particularly glomerular lipid thromboemboli. Consequences of glomerular disease can include hypertension, thromboembolic disease, and cardiac disease. The incidence of these sequelae in Miniature Schnauzers with hypertriglyceridemia-associated proteinuria (HTGP) is unknown.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate predictive factors for retrograde ureteral stent failure in patients with non-urological malignant ureteral obstruction.
Between 2005 and 2014, medical records of 284 malignant ureteral obstruction patients with 712 retrograde ureteral stent trials including 63 (22.2%) having bilateral malignant ureteral obstruction were retrospectively reviewed.

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Sep
2017

A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.

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Dec
2017

An 18-year-old male castrated jaguar (Panthera onca) was presented with anorexia and continuous bleeding from the oral cavity after a history of fighting with the partner animal. Clinical evaluation revealed ulcerating lesions on the gingiva and hard palate and a hematoma on the tongue. Computed tomography of the head and endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach were unremarkable.

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Sep
2017

This article describes a 71-year-old man with right knee pain, prerenal azotemia, hypercalcemia, and a mass in the distal femur. Although testing, including bone marrow biopsy, initially ruled out myeloma, an open surgical biopsy eventually confirmed the diagnosis as lymphoma involving the bone with classic histologic findings of mature B-cell neoplasm of germinal cell origin.

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Nov
2017

Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 Nov 23;27(6):707-712. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
Elizabeth M Yi, Elizabeth Leech
To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure.
A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel.

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Dec
1969

Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital.

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Sep
2017

Hepatocutaneous syndrome (HS) is an uncommon skin disorder that occurs in conjunction with liver disease and is diagnosed based on decreased plasma concentrations of amino acids and the histopathology of skin lesions. The survival period generally is <6 months. A 10-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented for evaluation of lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, and skin lesions including alopecia, erythema, and crusts.

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May
2017

To determine the diagnostic value of serum cystatin C (Cys C) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with liver cirrhosis.Serum Cys C levels in 150 liver cirrhosis patients (88 AKI and 62 non-AKI patients) were measured by the Particle-Enhanced Nephelometric Immuno-Assay. The accuracy of serum Cys C for the diagnosis of AKI in liver cirrhosis was evaluated by the ROC curve.

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May
2017

A 30-year-old female was symptomatic with headache, fatigue, and weakness since October 2011 and was told to have anemia. In January 2012, she was admitted outside with pulmonary edema. Investigations revealed advanced azotemia, anemia, and hypercalcemia.

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Jul
2017

EDL peptide produced a nephroprotective effect on experimental models gentamycin-induced nephropathy and ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury in rats. The nephroprotective effect of EDL peptide manifested in prevention of oliguria and retention azotemia, a decrease in proteinuria and sodium excretion, prevention of critical decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes, suppression of LPO, and normalization of energy supply to kidneys cells. Our findings confirm the prospects of further studies of the nephroprotective properties of peptide EDL in various pathologies of the kidneys.

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Jul
2017

The study reports a female neonate with a gestational age of 29weeks and a birth weight of 1 210 g. Ten minutes after birth, the neonate was admitted to the hospital due to shortness of breath. Several days after birth, the neonate presented with hyperglycemia, polyuria, and poor weight gain, accompanied by azotemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia.

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Mar
2017

Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade.

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Jun
2017

To present a case of a Hutch bladder diverticulum containing the ureteral opening.
An 83-year-old man presented a giant bladder diverticulum causing obstructive azotemia due to bilateral ureteral compression. Endoscopy revealed an unusual and potentially harmful anatomical alteration: the left ureteral orifice was inside in the diverticulum.

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Sep
2017

The objectives of this study were to determine which serum thyroid hormone test best identifies iatrogenic hypothyroidism in cats that develop azotaemia after radioiodine treatment and to determine which thyroid test best differentiates these azotaemic, hypothyroid cats from azotaemic, radioiodine-treated euthyroid cats, as well as from azotaemic cats with chronic kidney disease and no history of thyroid disease.
A total of 42 hyperthyroid cats that developed azotaemia (serum creatinine ê220 µmol/L) after radioiodine treatment had serum concentrations of thyroxine and free thyroxine by dialysis and thyroid--stimulating hormone measured at 3, 6 and 12 months. Iatrogenic hypothyroidism was confirmed (n=28) or excluded (n=14) on the basis of thyroid scintigraphy.

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Jul
2017

Although multiple myeloma (MM) is typically a disease of the elderly, a certain subset of extremely young patients exists. It is necessary to establish clinicopathological characteristics for this population.
We reviewed the medical records of MM patients whose age was 40 years or younger at diagnosis.

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Aug
2017

McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is characterized by extracellular volume depletion and severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance caused by secretory tumors of the rectum, usually villous adenomas. Patients usually present signs of dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia due to the chronic diarrhea, rich in ions and water. Since this is a potencially lethal entity without treatment, and a very unusual condition, we report a clinical case.

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Feb
2018

New Developments in Hepatorenal Syndrome.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Feb 7;16(2):162-177.e1. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
Ayse L Mindikoglu, Stephen C Pappas
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) continues to be one of the major complications of decompensated cirrhosis, leading to death in the absence of liver transplantation. Challenges in precisely evaluating renal function in the patient with cirrhosis remain because of the limitations of serum creatinine (Cr) alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR); current GFR estimating models appear to underestimate renal dysfunction. Newer models incorporating renal biomarkers, such as the Cr-Cystatin C GFR Equation for Cirrhosis appear to estimate measured GFR more accurately.

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Dec
1969

Glomerular lipidosis (GL) is characterized by dilated glomerular capillary loops containing lipid-laden cells (foam cells). Previously, GL was considered to be an incidental finding because affected dogs were typically not azotemic. However, the International Renal Interest Society staging system for canine chronic kidney disease has increased the awareness of other clinical parameters (eg, proteinuria and hypertension) that should be included in the assessment of renal function.

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Feb
2018

Increases in the systemic vasodilator adrenomedullin and the renal vasoconstrictors thromboxane Ain cirrhotic patients are pathogenic factors for the development of functional acute kidney injury (AKI), including pre-renal azotemia (PRA) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with high mortality. This study aims to find biomarkers that can diagnose HRS at an early stage, to enable treatment as soon as possible.
Acute decompensated cirrhotic patients who had been admitted to hospital were enrolled in this prospective cohort study.

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Jun
2017

A 3-year-old, spayed female, Domestic Shorthair cat presented with anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, probable hemoabdomen, and multiple masses on the right lateral liver lobe. Clinicopathologic and imaging abnormalities included anemia, azotemia, icterus, and hepatomegaly with hypoechoic masses. On cytologic evaluation of a fine-needle aspiration of a liver mass there was abundant extracellular pink- to purple-colored material between hepatocytes.

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May
2017

BACKGROUND Polyomavirus nephropathy has emerged as an important cause of graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Polyomavirus rarely affects the native kidneys of an immunocompetent individual. Until now, polyomavirus nephropathy in native kidneys of an immunocompetent individual has not been reported, as far as we know.

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Dec
1969

Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations.

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May
2017

Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered a biomarker for early detection of renal dysfunction in human patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). At present, no studies exist analyzing the relevance of SDMA in dogs with AKI.
SDMA would correctly identify dogs with renal disease but would not be able to differentiate between AKI and CKD.

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May
2017

Increased concentrations of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in dogs with azotemia have been documented. Knowledge of mechanisms behind increased concentrations of cardiac biomarkers in dogs with azotemia is warranted for correct interpretation of test results.
The aim of the article was to investigate possible associations between plasma concentrations of cTnI and NT-proBNP, respectively, and patient characteristics, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a plasma volume factor (PVF) derived from scintigraphic examination (PVf), systolic blood pressure (SBP), selected hematologic and biochemical variables, and echocardiographic measurements in dogs with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in healthy dogs.

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Mar
2017

Canine tick-borne bacteria; Ehrlichia canis, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Anaplasma spp., are organisms transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

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Mar
2017

The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood cultures and radiologic imaging studies for developing therapeutic strategies in community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) patients.
We prospectively collected the clinical data of CA-APN patients who visited 11 hospitals from March 2010 to February 2011.
Positive urine and blood cultures were obtained in 69.

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