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'Brachial Plexus' (28571)


Feb
2018

Patients with an upper brachial plexus lesion can suffer from dysfunction, joint deformities and instability of the shoulder. The goal of this study was to determine pain, shoulder function, patient satisfaction and muscle strength in shoulder arthrodesis in patients with an upper brachial plexus lesion more than 15 years after surgery.
We retrospectively studied 12 patients with a brachial plexus lesion of mean age 46 years (27-61).

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Jan
2018

If a partial contralateral Cnerve is transferred to a recipient injured nerve, results are not satisfactory. However, if an entire contralateral Cnerve is used to repair two nerves, both recipient nerves show good recovery. These findings seem contradictory, as the above two methods use the same donor nerve, only the cutting method of the contralateral Cnerve is different.

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Mar
2017

Obstetric brachial plexus palsy aredue to elongation of the brachial plexus during delivery by increasing thedistance between the head and shoulder. The majority of paralysis recoverspontaneously, but in some cases, nerve repair is necessary. The timing of thisnerve surgery and criteria for its indication are topics of discussion in theworld literature.

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Dec
1969

Even though reconstructive surgery of the nerves underwent significant progress due to experimental and clinical research over the past 40 years, injuries to the peripheral nerves still remain a great challenge for microsurgery. Literature results of these procedures are often evaluated as very good but the final result is often characterized by an achievement of only a useful and not full function, which is rather rare. It is not only a simple suture; the success is also based on functional regeneration and interconnection of the nerve fibres.

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Dec
1969

To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of crossing nerve transfer for brachial plexus injuries in human patients, we investigated the cortical responses after crossing nerve transfer in mice using conventional and tomographic optical imaging. The distal cut ends of the left median and ulnar nerves were connected to the central cut ends of the right median and ulnar nerves with a sciatic nerve graft at 8 weeks of age. Eight weeks after the operation, the responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the left forepaw were visualized based on activity-dependent flavoprotein fluorescence changes.

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Feb
2018

Adult brachial plexus injuries frequently lead to significant and permanent physical disabilities. Investigating the mechanism of the injury using biomechanical approaches may lead to further knowledge with regard to preventing brachial plexus injuries. However, there are no reports of biomechanical studies of brachial plexus injuries till date.

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Jan
2018

Spinal accessory nerve grafting requires identification of both nerve stumps in the scar tissue, which is sometimes difficult. We propose a direct nerve transfer using a fascicle from the posterior division of the upper trunk. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients with trapezius palsy due to an iatrogenic injury of the spinal accessory nerve in nine cases.

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Feb
2018

To study the sources of emboli in patients with pulmonary embolism diagnosed by autopsy, and therefore to provide help in the diagnosis and treatment of thromboembolism.We retrospectively analyzed the pathology and clinical data of 43 patients with pulmonary embolism diagnosed by autopsy from 1962 to 2012 in Beijing Hospital.In patients with pulmonary embolism diagnosed by autopsy, 32.

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Feb
2018

Body weight affects outcomes of surgical treatment for various conditions, but its effects on the treatment of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of body weight on technical and functional outcomes of surgical treatment for NTOS.
A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted for 265 patients who underwent supraclavicular decompression for NTOS between January 1, 2014 and March 31, 2016.

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Feb
2018

Brachial plexus birth injuries are rare, with treatment and follow-up often required from infancy until skeletal maturity. We review complications that may occur related to primary nerve surgery or secondary musculoskeletal procedures, and discuss how these may be avoided.

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Feb
2018

The effect of stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) was examined in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) of the upper body.
A total of 287 SGB were given to patients with documented CRPS on medications. Spontaneous and provoked pain assessment was done with numeric pain rating scale (NPRS).

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Feb
2018

Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery.
Retrospective study.

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Jan
2018

Brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) is a type of injury that leads to motor function loss as a result of motoneurons (MNs) degeneration. Here we identified that the reduced expression of rat miR-137-3p in the ventral horn of spinal cord was associated with MNs death. However, the pathophysiological role of miR-137-3p in root avulsion remains poorly understood.

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Dec
1969

Ipsilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common adverse event after an interscalene brachial plexus block, which can result in respiratory deterioration in patients with preexisting pulmonary conditions. Diaphragm-sparing nerve block techniques are continuing to evolve, with the intention of providing satisfactory postoperative analgesia while minimizing hemidiaphragmatic paralysis after shoulder surgery.
We report the successful application of a combined ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block and suprascapular nerve block in a patient with a complicated pulmonary history undergoing a total shoulder replacement.

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Feb
2018

The physical and psychological impact of brachial plexus injury (BPI) has not been comprehensively measured with BPI-specific scales. Our objective was to develop and test a patient-derived questionnaire to measure the impact and outcomes of BPI.
We developed a questionnaire in 3 phases with preoperative and postoperative patients.

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Dec
1969

Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is an uncommon cause of myelopathy. Documented trauma is a rare cause, and most cases are idiopathic. One special type of trauma that may lead to SCH is a brachial plexus injury.

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Jan
2018

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is a relatively common disorder and often affects younger, physically active populations. The modern American military is a population at risk for the development of nTOS given the intense physical training requirements. The purpose of this study is to determine functional recovery in the active duty military population resulting in full, unrestricted return-to-duty status following supraclavicular thoracic outlet decompression with partial first rib resection, partial anterior scalenectomy, and brachial plexus neurolysis.

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Dec
1969

Lower motor neurons are the only neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) with the ability to regenerate without any intervention after an axotomy.
This present study was conducted to analyze clinical and electrophysiological parameters in four groups of upper limb peripheral neuropathies, before and after treatment, comparing the results obtained after three cures of complex rehabilitation therapy.
We selected a number of 107 patients (66 women and 41 men) aged between 29 and 77 years (mean age = 49.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this study was to analyze the elasticity characteristics of the brachial plexus by shear wave elastography (SWE) in patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer and to compare them with their contralateral brachial plexus to evaluate whether elasticity properties can be used as supporting findings for the early diagnosis of brachial plexus involvement in patients receiving RT.
A prospective analysis with electromyography and SWE was performed on 23 brachial plexuses of patients receiving RT for breast cancer and their contralateral brachial plexuses. An electromyographic device was used for nerve conduction studies.

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Sep
2017

To describe a novel in-plane ultrasound (US)-guided approach to the sixth (C6), seventh (C7), eighth (C8) cervical and to the first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves.
Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomic study.
A total of seven canine Beagle cadavers.

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Feb
2018

As endovascular therapy becomes increasingly complex, adjunct techniques such as upper extremity arterial access facilitate visceral branch interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of axillary artery percutaneous access in endovascular repair.
Records of all patients undergoing axillary artery percutaneous access as part of an endovascular intervention from December 2015 to December 2016 were examined.

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Feb
2018

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a cause of upper extremity and shoulder dysfunction. TOS can present with a wide range of symptoms due to compression of the brachial plexus or its branches during their passage through the cervicothoracobrachial region or scalene triangle. There are three types of TOS: arterial, venous, and neurogenic.

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Jan
2018

Clinical measurement and cross-sectional study.
Numerous scales have been developed to examine activities of daily living and function in children with brachial plexus palsy. The Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) scale was developed in 2012 by Emily S.

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Jan
2018

Brachial plexus birth injuries with multiple nerve root avulsions present a particularly difficult reconstructive challenge because of the limited availability of donor nerves. The contralateral C7 has been described for brachial plexus reconstruction in adults but has not been well-studied in the pediatric population. We present our technique and results for retropharyngeal contralateral C7 nerve transfer to the lower trunk for brachial plexus birth injury.

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Jan
2018

There is lack of knowledge, evidence, and guidelines for rehabilitation interventions for persons with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) or brachial plexus pathology. A first pilot study, evaluating the effect of an integrated rehabilitation programme, showed improvements in activity and participation levels.
To gain insight, from the perspective of patients and therapists, into the critical ingredients of the programme, that contributed to improvements in activity and participation.

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Jan
2018

Mastery of shoulder dystocia management skills acquired via simulation training can reduce neonatal brachial plexus injury by 66% to 90%. However, the correlation between simulation drills and reduction in clinical injuries has been inconsistently replicated, and establishing a causal relationship between simulation training and reduction of adverse clinical events from shoulder dystocia is infeasible due to ethical limitations. Nevertheless, professional liability insurance carriers increasingly are mandating simulation-based rehearsal and competency assessment of their covered obstetric providers' shoulder dystocia management skills-a high-stakes demand that will require rapid scaling up of access to quality shoulder dystocia simulation.

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Jan
2018

We describe the unique case of a 51-year-old lady who developed a contralateral lumbosacral plexopathy two days after a lumbar microdiscectomy. This is the first report to date of this complication occurring following this procedure. We review the literature regarding lumbosacral plexopathy and discuss the evidence base behind investigating and managing this condition and the potential pathophysiological mechanisms which underlie its development.

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Jan
2018

OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment.

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Jan
2018

Brachial plexopathy is not uncommon after shoulder surgery. Although thought to be due to stretch neuropathy, its etiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to identify arm positions and maneuvers that may risk causing brachial plexopathy during shoulder arthroplasty.

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Jan
2018

Forearm supination contractures can occur as a result of neurological derangement of the upper extremity. Primarily, this is observed in patients with neonatal brachial plexus birth palsy. The contractures develop slowly over time and become problematic in childhood as the patients begin requiring forearm pronation for activities of daily living including typing on a keyboard and writing.

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Feb
2018

Lymphangiomas are rare malformations of the lymphatic system and can often be found in the neck region, where its proximity to the brachial plexus may cause compressive neuropathy and possible iatrogenic injuries during dissection. We report 4 cases of lymphangiomas with compression of the brachial plexus that were successfully removed without permanent nerve injuries and present a literature review of the preoperative approach and surgical techniques. A preoperative multidisciplinary approach can help surgeons predict what they may encounter during the surgery.

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Feb
2018

This study is aimed at comparing the functional outcome of axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch through the axillary approach and posterior arm approach.
The study included 27 patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus injury treated with axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch for functional recovery of shoulder abduction and external rotation. The patients were retrospectively evaluated and two groups were identified, one with 13 patients undergoing axillary nerve neurotization by an axillary approach and the second with 14 patients using the posterior arm approach.

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Dec
2017

To describe the ventral spinal nerve rami contribution to the formation of the brachial plexus (BP), and to compare ease of performing and nerve staining between three blind techniques for BP blockade in dogs.
Prospective, randomized, blind study.
A total of 18 dog cadavers weighing 28.

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Jan
2018

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a modern technique, widely used in human radiotherapy, which allows a high dose to be delivered to tumor volumes and low doses to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). Veterinary clinics takes advantage of this feature due to the small target volumes and distances between the target and the OAR. Sparing the OAR permits dose escalation, and hypofractionation regimens reduce the number of treatment sessions with a simpler manageability in the veterinary field.

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Jan
2018

Brachial plexus block is often utilised for proximal arm arteriovenous access creation. However, the medial upper arm and axilla are often inadequately anaesthetised, requiring repeated, intraoperative local anaesthetic supplementation, or conversion into general anaesthesia. We hypothesised that the addition of a PECS II block would improve anaesthesia and analgesia for proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery.

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Jan
2018

Nerve transfers for brachial plexus reconstruction and the treatment of peripheral nerve injury have demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes and may be superior to nerve grafting. Previously described nerve transfers for restoration of elbow flexion include the Oberlin (ulnar to musculocutaneous) and double fasicular (median to biceps and ulnar to brachialis) transfers. However, these transfers cannot be performed in patients with loss of elbow flexion and concomitant high median and ulnar nerve injury.

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Jan
2018

Common peroneal nerve (CPN) compressive neuropathy is the most common lower-extremity entrapment neuropathy.
A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained single-institution database of all patients with CPN palsy who underwent decompression and neuroplasty over a 5-year period was performed.
Thirty patients underwent a neuroplasty of the CPN over a 5-year period (2010-2015) at our institution.

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Aug
2017

Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed in both the beach chair and lateral decubitus positions. The beach chair position is a reliable, safe, and effective position to perform nearly all types of shoulder arthroscopic procedures. The advantages of the beach chair position include the ease of setup, limited brachial plexus stress, increased glenohumeral and subacromial visualization, anesthesia flexibility, and the ability to easily convert to an open procedure.

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Feb
2018

Additional landmarks for identifying the suprascapular nerve at its entrance into the suprascapular foramen from an anterior approach would be useful to the surgeon.
To identify landmarks for the identification of this hidden site within an anterior approach.
In 8 adult cadavers (16 sides), lines were used to connect the superior angle of the scapula, the acromion, and the coracoid process tip thus creating an anatomic triangle.

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Jun
2017

Pseudoaneurysm formation caused by iatrogenic arterial injury during a regional anesthetic block is a rare complication. We report a case of a 56-year-old male patient who developed an axillary artery pseudoaneurysm caused by brachial plexus block performed for an upper extremity dialysis access operation. Successful repair of this pseudoaneurysm was achieved with endovascular stent graft exclusion.

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Jun
2017

Electrical current can cause neurological damage directly or by conversion to thermal energy. However, electrical injury causing isolated brachial plexus injury without cutaneous burns is extremely rare. We present a case of a 17-year-old boy who sustained accidental electrical injury to left upper extremity with no associated entry or exit wounds.

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Jan
2018

Rotator cuff tears are believed to coexist with cervical spine lesions. In cases of preexisting neuropathy, such as cervical spine lesions, fatty degeneration has likely already occurred due to the neuropathy. In these cases, rotator cuff tear is thought to occur easily because of preexisting extensive fatty degeneration and degeneration of the tendons due to neuropathy.

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Jan
2018

The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between intraneural and perineural injection pressures in human cadavers. Targeted nerves included the cervical roots, the supraclavicular and infraclavicular brachial plexus, the sciatic-subgluteal nerve and the common peroneal and tibial nerves.
Ten readings were obtained for each nerve location.

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Jan
2018

Subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears are a challenging problem because they can significantly alter shoulder mechanics and function. Tendon retraction and advanced fatty degeneration associated with a chronic tear may make it irreparable. Tendon transfers options for such tears are viable, but results in the setting of associated glenohumeral instability are inconsistent.

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Jan
2018

We report a rare case of multiple hereditary exostosis where patient presented with bilateral base of neck exostoses with concurrent compression of brachial plexus and subclavian artery and vein. The patient was a young 26-year-old woman with chief complaints of pain in the left upper extremity, paresthesia in the left ring and little finger, and weakness in hand movement and grip. On referral, history, physical examination, radiological imaging, and electrodiagnostic tests evaluated the patient.

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