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'Brain Overview' (9059)


Dec
1969

Protein misfolding refers to a process where proteins become structurally abnormal and lose their specific 3-dimensional spatial configuration. The histopathological presence of misfolded protein (MP) aggregates has been associated as the primary evidence of multiple neurological diseases, including Prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. However, the exact mechanisms of MP aggregation and propagation, as well as their impact in the long-term patient's clinical condition are still not well understood.

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Dec
1969

The developing neocortex in the mammalian brain is composed of multiple cell types including apical progenitors (AP), basal progenitors (BP), and neurons that populate three different layers, the ventricular zone (VZ), the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the cortical plate (CP). Despite recent advances, the diversity of the existing cell populations including those which are differentiating and mature, their biogenesis and the underlying gene regulatory mechanisms remain poorly known. Recent studies have taken advantage of the rapidly emerging single-cell technologies to decode the heterogeneity of cell populations at the transcriptome level during cortical development and their molecular details.

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Feb
2018

The marked increase in the size of the brain, and consequently, in neural processing capability, throughout human evolution is the basis of the higher cognitive function in humans. However, greater neural, and thus information processing capability, comes at a significant metabolic cost; despite its relatively small size, the modern human brain consumes almost a quarter of the glucose and oxygen supply in the human body. Fortunately, several vascular mechanisms ensure sufficient delivery of glucose and oxygen to the active neural tissue (neurovascular coupling), prompt removal of neural metabolic by-products (cerebral vasoreactivity), and constant global blood supply despite daily variations in perfusion pressure (cerebral autoregulation).

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Jan
2018

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly pressing worldwide public-health, social, political and economic concern. Despite significant investment in multiple traditional therapeutic strategies that have achieved success in preclinical models addressing the pathological hallmarks of the disease, these efforts have not translated into any effective disease-modifying therapies. This could be because interventions are being tested too late in the disease process.

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Jun
2017

There is a constant need for better stroke treatments. Neurons at the periphery of an ischemic stroke affected brain tissue remains metabolically active for several hours or days after stroke onset. They later undergo mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis.

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Dec
1969

Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing.

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Feb
2018

Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion.

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Feb
2018

The β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques presented within the brain parenchyma have been widely proved to be one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, the accumulation of Aβ plaques in brain is intrinsic and fundamental for disease onset, and much research about the early diagnosis of AD has based on this. A recent development in Aβ detection has focused on the mapping of the molecule events in the brain using an exquisite, noninvasive, and inexpensive optical imaging technique, which has stimulated the rapid development of Aβ-specific fluorescent probes.

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Feb
2018

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe condition that can affect almost 1 out of 4 patients on current or previous antipsychotic treatment, including both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While two novel vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, have shown acute efficacy for TD, the majority of patients do not remit, and TD appears to recur once treatment is withdrawn. Hence, prevention of TD remains a crucial goal.

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Feb
2018

Over the past decades, the importance of the immune system in a broad scope of pathologies, has drawn attention towards tissue-resident macrophages, such as microglia in the brain. To enable the study of for instance microglia, it is crucial to recreate in vitro (and in vivo) assays. However, very fast loss of tissue-specific features of primary tissue resident macrophages, including microglia, upon in vitro culture has complicated such studies.

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Feb
2018

It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging.

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Feb
2018

This Preface introduces the articles of the special issue on "Vascular Dementia" in which several recognized experts provide an overview of this research field. The brain is a highly vascularized organ and consequently, vascular dysfunction and related pathways affect cognitive performance and memory. Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and both disorders often occur in parallel.

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Feb
2018

Recent proteome analyses have provided a comprehensive overview of various posttranslational modifications (PTMs); however, PTMs involving protein citrullination remain unclear. We performed a proteomic analysis of citrullinated proteins, and we identified more than 100 PAD4 (peptidyl arginine deiminase 4) substrates. Approximately one-fifth of the PAD4 substrates contained an RG/RGG motif, and PAD4 competitively inhibited the methylation of the RGG motif in FET proteins (FUS, EWS, and TAF15) and hnRNPA1, which are causative genes for ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).

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Feb
2018

Flavonoids are phytochemicals present in almost all terrestrial plants and, as a consequence, in plant-based foods, and thus consumed by humans through the diet. Recent evidences suggest that several flavonoids have positive effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease, reversing age-related declines in neurocognitive performances. In this review, we provide a general classification of natural and synthetic flavonoids, a description of their physico-chemical properties, in particular their redox properties and stability, and an extensive overview about their biological activities and structure-activity relationship in the field of neurodegenerative diseases.

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Feb
2018

In eukaryotes, the cellular functions are segregated to membrane-bound organelles. This inherently requires sorting of metabolites to membrane-limited locations. Sorting the metabolites from ribosomes to various organelles along the intracellular trafficking pathways involves several integral cellular processes, including an energy-dependent step, in which the sorting of metabolites between organelles is catalyzed by membrane-anchoring protein Rab-GTPases (Rab).

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Feb
2018

Epidemiological studies suggest that a single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD). Histopathological studies describe complex neurodegenerative pathologies in individuals exposed to single moderate-to-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, the clinicopathological links between TBI and post-traumatic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, PD, and CTE remain poorly understood.

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Feb
2018

Today, over 20 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide. AD has become a critical issue to human health, especially in aging societies, and therefore it is a research hotspot in the global scientific community. The technology flow method differs from traditional reviews generating an informative overview of the research and development (R&D) landscape in a specific technological area.

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Feb
2018

Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety.

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Dec
1969

The annual Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Think Tank provides a focal opportunity for a multidisciplinary ensemble of experts in the field of neuromodulation to discuss advancements and forthcoming opportunities and challenges in the field. The proceedings of the fifth Think Tank summarize progress in neuromodulation neurotechnology and techniques for the treatment of a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy and cognitive, and motor disorders. Each section of this overview of the meeting provides insight to the critical elements of discussion, current challenges, and identified future directions of scientific and technological development and application.

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Feb
2018

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and decreases in striatal dopamine levels. These changes led to several clinical symptoms: rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Although the cause of PD remains unclear, it is widely accepted that oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insufficient support of neurotrophic factors are involved in the pathophysiology of the disease.

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Mar
2018

Approved medications for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have shown to be effective in terms of their anti-inflammatory potential. However, it is also crucial to evaluate what long-term effects a patient can expect from current MS drugs in terms of preventing neurodegeneration. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current treatment strategies in MS with a specific focus on potential neuroprotective effects.

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Feb
2018

Prophylactic cranial irradiation halves the rate of brain metastases in patients with small cell lung cancer. Individual randomized trials conducted on patients in complete remission were unable to clarify whether this treatment improves survival.
This study aims to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival of patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission.

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Jan
2018

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are among the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. In addition to being serious mental illnesses, these disorders are associated with considerable systemic physiological dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. The advent of sophisticated sequencing techniques has led to a growing interest in the potential role of gut microbiota in human health and disease.

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Dec
1969

This article presents an overview of the literature publications concerning pathological changes in the cerebral blood vessels and the factors underlying the development of hemorrhagic complications leading to sudden death of young people. The special emphasis is placed on the most important causes behind the changes in the vascular wall (including the congenital ones) responsible for the high risk of rupture of the intracerebral vessels associated with the development of hemorrhagic complications.

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Jan
2018

Measuring brain activity in developmental populations remains a major challenge despite great technological advances. Among the numerous available methods, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging modality that probes the hemodynamic response, is a powerful tool for recording brain activity in a great variety of situations and populations. Neurocognitive studies with infants have often reported inverted hemodynamic responses, i.

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Jan
2018

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel method for studying the changes of brain networks due to acupuncture treatment. In recent years, more and more studies have focused on the brain functional connectivity network of acupuncture stimulation.
To offer an overview of the different influences of acupuncture on the brain functional connectivity network from studies using resting-state fMRI.

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Feb
2018

Contrary to what is commonly believed, music therapy is an old cure, the use of which is lost in the mists of time. Music always has been perceived to have particular healing powers, and the entire history of civilization contains aspects that link music to physical and mental healing. It seems that the adoption of music for therapeutic purposes harks back to a distant past, probably since the Paleolithic period: it was believed that listening to music could affect the behavior of human beings.

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Dec
1969

Neurological function deficits due to cerebral ischemia or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) have long been considered a thorny issue in clinical treatment. Recovery after neurologic impairment is fairly limited, which poses a major threat to health and quality of life. Accumulating evidences support that ROS and autophagy are both implicated in the onset and development of neurological disorders.

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Feb
2018

GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 are three orphan receptors that belong to the Class A family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These GPCRs share over 60% of sequence similarity among them. Because of their close phylogenetic relationship, GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 share a high percentage of homology with other lipid receptors such as the lysophospholipid and the cannabinoid receptors.

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Dec
1969

Astrocytes have long been regarded as essentially unexcitable cells that do not contribute to active signaling and information processing in the brain. Contrary to this classical view, it is now firmly established that astrocytes can specifically respond to glutamate released from neurons. Astrocyte glutamate signaling is initiated upon binding of glutamate to ionotropic and/or metabotropic receptors, which can result in calcium signaling, a major form of glial excitability.

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Jan
2018

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as "tractography", has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and diseases. More recently, tractography has been used to assist with neurosurgical targeting in functional neurosurgery.

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Jan
2018

Our experiences and memories define who we are and evidence accumulates that memory formation is dependent on functional and structural adaptations of synaptic structures in our brain. Especially dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments of synapses, show a strong structure-to-function relationship and a high degree of structural plasticity. Although the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood, it is known that these modifications are highly dependent on the actin-cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal component of the spine.

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Jan
2018

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis and transport of drugs to the brain. The conventional animal and Transwell BBB models along with emerging microfluidic-based BBB-on-chip systems have provided fundamental functionalities of the BBB and facilitated the testing of drug delivery to the brain tissue. However, developing biomimetic and predictive BBB models capable of reasonably mimicking essential characteristics of the BBB functions is still a challenge.

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Dec
1969

The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses.

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Dec
1969

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) uses low intensity current to alter neuronal activity in superficial cortical regions, and has gained popularity as a tool for modulating several aspects of perception and cognition. This mini-review article provides an overview of tES and its potential for modulating spatial processes underlying successful navigation, including spatial attention, spatial perception, mental rotation and visualization. Also considered are recent advances in empirical research and computational modeling elucidating several stable cortical-subcortical networks with dynamic involvement in spatial processing and navigation.

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Dec
1969

AMPA Receptor Trafficking in Natural and Pathological Aging.

Front Mol Neurosci 2017 9;10:446. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
Sandra Jurado
α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) enable most excitatory transmission in the brain and are crucial for mediating basal synaptic strength and plasticity. Because of the importance of their function, AMPAR dynamics, activity and subunit composition undergo a tight regulation which begins as early as prenatal development and continues through adulthood. Accumulating evidence suggests that the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in orchestrating AMPAR trafficking are challenged in the aging brain.

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Dec
1969

In the retina, like in most other brain regions, developing neurons are arranged into distinct layers giving the mature tissue its stratified appearance. This process needs to be highly controlled and orchestrated, as neuronal layering defects lead to impaired retinal function. To achieve successful neuronal layering and lamination in the retina and beyond, three main developmental steps need to be executed: First, the correct type of neuron has to be generated at a precise developmental time.

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Dec
1969

Effective inferential statistical analysis is essential for high quality studies in neuroscience. However, recently, neuroscience has been criticised for the poor use of experimental design and statistical analysis. Many of the statistical issues confronting neuroscience are similar to other areas of biology; however, there are some that occur more regularly in neuroscience studies.

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Jan
2018

Cell death-based treatment of neuroblastoma.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Jan 25;9(2):113. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
Kadri Valter, Boris Zhivotovsky, Vladimir Gogvadze
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common solid childhood tumor outside the brain and causes 15% of childhood cancer-related mortality. The main drivers of NB formation are neural crest cell-derived sympathoadrenal cells that undergo abnormal genetic arrangements. Moreover, NB is a complex disease that has high heterogeneity and is therefore difficult to target for successful therapy.

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Mar
2018

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophysiology.

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Jan
2018

Bipolar disorder is a complex illness often requiring combinations of therapies to successfully treat symptoms. In recent years, there have been significant advancements in a number of therapies for bipolar disorder. It is therefore timely to provide an overview of current adjunctive therapeutic options to help treating clinicians to inform their patients and work towards optimal outcomes.

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Jan
2018

Maintaining brain function and integrity is a pivotal part of anesthesiological practice. The present overview aims to describe the current role of the 2 most frequently used monitoring methods for evaluation brain function in the perioperative period, ie, electroencephalography (EEG) and brain oxygenation monitoring. Available evidence suggests that EEG-derived parameters give additional information about depth of anesthesia for optimizing anesthetic titration.

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Feb
2018

Obesity constitutes a major global health threat. Despite the success of bariatric surgery in delivering sustainable weight loss and improvement in obesity-related morbidity, effective non-surgical treatments are urgently needed, necessitating an increased understanding of body weight regulation. Neuroimaging studies undertaken in people with healthy weight, overweight, obesity and following bariatric surgery have contributed to identifying the neurophysiological changes seen in obesity and help increase our understanding of the mechanisms driving the favourable eating behaviour changes and sustained weight loss engendered by bariatric surgery.

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Feb
2018

The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol use, abuse, and dependence.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
David E Moorman
One of the major functions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to promote flexible motivated behavior. It is no surprise, therefore, that recent work has demonstrated a prominent impact of chronic drug use on the OFC and a potential role for OFC disruption in drug abuse and addiction. Among drugs of abuse, the use of alcohol is particularly salient with respect to OFC function.

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Jan
2018

Resting-state fMRI assessment of instrinsic functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) allows assessment of participants with a wide range of functioning levels, and collection of multisite databases that facilitate large-scale analysis. These heterogeneous multisite data present both promise and methodological challenge. Herein, we provide an overview of recent (1 October 2016-1 November 2017) empirical research on ASD rs-fcMRI, focusing on work that helps clarify how best to leverage the power of these data.

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Jan
2018

Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

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Jan
2018

Biofabrication techniques have endeavored to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but nothing has surpassed the performance of current clinical practices. However, these current approaches have intrinsic limitations that compromise patient care. The "gold standard" autograft provides the best outcomes but requires suitable donor material, while implantable hollow nerve guide conduits (NGCs) can only repair small nerve defects.

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Dec
1969

Adenosine receptors are G-protein coupled P1 purinergic receptors that are broadly expressed in the peripheral immune system, vasculature, and the central nervous system (CNS). Within the immune system, adenosine 2A (A) receptor-mediated signaling exerts a suppressive effect on ongoing inflammation. In healthy CNS, Areceptors are expressed mainly within the neurons of the basal ganglia.

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Dec
1969

Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) allows for retrieval of specific cell populations in situ. By combining immunofluorescent labeling with LCM, mRNAs can be probed by qRT-PCR for determining in situ gene expression during health and disease. This approach permits obtaining and analyzing histologically enriched cell populations in a tissue that can be hardly obtained from other methods such as white matter astrocytes from rodents or any individual cell population from archival human or rodent brain tissues.

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