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'Breast Anatomy' (447150)


Feb
2018

The rapid growth of point-of-care tests demands for biosensors with high sensitivity and small size. This paper demonstrates an optofluidic metasurface that combines silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonics and nanofluidics to realize a high-performance, lateral flow-through biosensor. The metasurface is made of a periodic array of silicon nanoposts on an SOI substrate, and functionalized with specific receptor molecules.

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Feb
2018

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an efficient drug for breast cancer chemotherapy, however, its toxic side effects on non-tumor tissues, especially on myocardial cells, sometimes limit its clinical application. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new drug, which can be combined with Dox to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of Dox at a lower concentration and attenuate the toxic side effects of it. Quercetin (Que) has anti-tumor activity in addition to its protective effects on various cells.

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Feb
2018

In the last decades the survival rate of patients diagnosed with cancer - both in childhood and adulthood - significantly improved, leading to a growing number of cancer survivors (CS) within general population. Despite the better survival rate related to the cancer diagnosis, CS show increased mortality and morbidity if compared to non-cancer population, due to the occurrence of health conditions categorized as late effects of previous anticancer treatments. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are one of the main responsible for this increased morbidity of CS.

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Feb
2018

This is a single center retrospective analysis of patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer progressing after ≥ 4 treatment lines treated with palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy within a compassionate use program. Thirty-four patients were included between 10/2015 and 02/2017, the majority (82.4%) being previously treated with mTOR inhibitors.

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Feb
2018

Fingolimod, taken orally once per day, is approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). It should be stopped at least two months before conception as it is not considered safe during pregnancy or when breast feeding. In vitro and animal studies have found a possibly increased risk of congenital abnormalities following exposure to Fingolimod.

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Feb
2018

A genetically engineered human ferritin heavy chain (HFt)-based construct has been recently shown by our group to efficiently entrap and deliver doxorubicin to cancer cells. This construct, named HFt-MP-PAS, contained a tumor-selective sequence (MP) responsive to proteolytic cleavage by tumor proteases (MMPs), located between each HFt subunit and an outer shielding polypeptide sequence rich in proline (P), serine (S) and alanine (A) residues (PAS). HFt-MP-PAS displayed excellent therapeutic efficacy in xenogenic pancreatic and head and neck cancer models in vivo, leading to a significant increase in overall animal survivals.

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Feb
2018

Milk lipids, important for infant growth and development, are produced and secreted by mammary gland under the regulation of steroid hormones, growth factors, and microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-221 has been identified in milk and adipocytes and it plays important roles in regulating normal mammary epithelial hierarchy and breast cancer stem cells; however, its roles in lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells (MECs), the cells of lipid synthesis and secretion, are as yet unknown. Through overexpression or inhibition of miR-221 expression, we found that it regulated lipid metabolism in MECs and was expressed differentially at various stages during murine mammary gland development.

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Feb
2018

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) is one of the most common herbs used in alternative medicines for its varied range of bioactivity. In Ecuador (South America), use of fennel in traditional cancer treatment is on record.

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Feb
2018

Metastatic spread of malignant tumours to skin is a well described phenomenon with incidence of approximately 0.7-9% of all metastases depending on histological type of primary cancer. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an efficient local tumour ablation modality that has proven clinical efficacy in the treatment of various types of tumours metastasis to skin.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate microRNA-140-3p expression level in breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls.
Serum microRNA-140-3p level was quantified by realtime quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 40 women with breast cancer and 40 healthy subjects.
Serum microRNA-140-3p level in patients compared to healthy subjects was significantly up-regulated (P = 0.

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Feb
2018

There is a critical gap between the resources available to promote health and wellness after cancer and services that address these public health goals. Researchers, policy makers, healthcare providers, and community stakeholders increasingly recognize the benefits of filling this gap with trained peer mentors who can provide health-promotion services to fellow cancer survivors. This commentary addresses a mixed-method study by Pinto and colleagues that investigated the responses and experiences of trained peer mentors who delivered their telephone-based physical activity intervention for breast cancer survivors.

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Feb
2018

To investigate the contribution of serum levels of testosterone (TS) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in association with body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker of obesity, to the predictive capability of tumor size (T), lymph node (N) and estrogen receptor (ER) status and proliferative activity (TLI).
We investigated 120 women with primary breast cancer and median follow-up of 138 months. Serum levels of TS and SHBG and patient's BMI were evaluated before surgery.

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Feb
2018

Many multicellular systems problems can only be understood by studying how cells move, grow, divide, interact, and die. Tissue-scale dynamics emerge from systems of many interacting cells as they respond to and influence their microenvironment. The ideal "virtual laboratory" for such multicellular systems simulates both the biochemical microenvironment (the "stage") and many mechanically and biochemically interacting cells (the "players" upon the stage).

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Dec
1969

The objective was to examine the effect of Expressive Writing Intervention (EWI) on self-reported physical symptoms and healthcare utilization in a nationwide randomized controlled trial with Danish women treated for primary breast cancer, and to explore participant characteristics related to emotion regulation as possible moderators of the effect. Women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer (n = 507) were randomly assigned to three 20 min. home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on emotional disclosure (EWI) of a distressing experience (their cancer or a non-cancer topic) or a non-disclosing topic (control).

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Dec
1969

Paclitaxel belongs to the taxanes family and it is used, alone or in multidrug regimens, for the therapy of several solid tumours, such as breast-, lung-, head and neck-, and ovarian cancer. Standard dosing of chemotherapy does not take into account the many inter-patient differences that make drug exposure highly variable, thus leading to the insurgence of severe toxicity. This is particularly true for paclitaxel considering that a relationship between haematological toxicity and plasma exposure was found.

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Dec
1969

The high incidence of meat of impaired quality poses a serious problem in the poultry industry. In recent years, the incidence of the pectoralis major muscle that appeared pale colored, remarkably hardened, and exudative, called "wooden breast" or "woody breast" has increased in slaughter houses. In the present study, 19-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens affected (n = 10) and unaffected (n = 10) with remarkably hardened breast were selected from a commercial broiler farm, and reared to 55 days of age under a controlled environment.

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Feb
2018

Receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 has been introduced as an interesting prognostic cancer marker in histopathology. The aim of this study was to produce a polyclonal antibody (PAb) against recombinant human ROR1 protein to be used as a tool for investigation of ROR1 expression in human cancer tissue blocks. The extracellular part of human ROR1 recombinant protein was expressed using pET-28b(+) plasmid in Escherichia coli Bl21(DE3) host.

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Feb
2018

Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues.

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Feb
2018

To compare the dosimetric outcomes of four radiotherapy (RT) techniques for treating the chest wall plus draining nodes after mastectomy and breast reconstruction.
Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), linac-based intensity modulated radiotherapy, helical tomotherapy (HT) and direct tomotherapy (DT) treatments were planned for 40 breast cancer patients. Dose prescription was 50 Gy.

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Feb
2018

To identify breast-specific factors and the role of tumor, treatment, and patient-related items in influencing patient opinion on cosmesis and satisfaction after breast-conserving therapy (BCT).
Data from the randomized COBALT study was used. At 3, 12, and 36 months, 128 patients with T1-T2 breast cancer completed a questionnaire on breast-specific factors and overall cosmetic outcome and patient satisfaction, using a 4-point Likert scale.

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Feb
2018

l-Phosphinothricin (glufosinate or 2-amino-4-((hydroxy(methyl) phosphinyl) butyric acid ammonium salt (AHPB)), which is a structural analog of glutamate, is a recognized herbicide that acts on weeds through inhibition of glutamine synthetase. Due to the structural similarity between phosphinothricin and some bisphosphonates (BPs), this study focuses on investigating the possibility of repurposing phosphinothricin as a bisphosphonate analogue, particularly in two medicine-related activities: image probing and as an anti-cancer drug. As BP is a competitive inhibitor of human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (HFPPS), in silico molecular docking and dynamic simulations studies were established to evaluate the binding and stability of phosphinothricin with HFPPS, while the results showed good binding and stability in the active site of the enzyme in relation to alendronate.

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Feb
2018

Microwave Sensors for Breast Cancer Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Feb 23;18(2). Epub 2018 Feb 23.
Lulu Wang
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among females, early diagnostic methods with suitable treatments improve the 5-year survival rates significantly. Microwave breast imaging has been reported as the most potential to become the alternative or additional tool to the current gold standard X-ray mammography for detecting breast cancer. The microwave breast image quality is affected by the microwave sensor, sensor array, the number of sensors in the array and the size of the sensor.

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Feb
2018

Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses.

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Feb
2018

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a well-known oncogene, has garnered wide attention because of its tumor-specific expression pattern and actions as a carcinogenic factor. Although CYP1B1 might play a crucial role in carcinogenesis, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic involvement in cancer development remain unclear. The present study investigated the manner in which CYP1B1 promotes survival of various cancer cells.

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Feb
2018

Various delivery vectors have been integrated within biologically derived membrane systems to extend their residential time and reduce their reticuloendothelial system (RES) clearance during systemic circulation. However, rational design is still needed to further improve the in situ penetration efficiency of chemo-drug-loaded membrane delivery-system formulations and their release profiles at the tumor site. Here, a macrophage-membrane-coated nanoparticle is developed for tumor-targeted chemotherapy delivery with a controlled release profile in response to tumor microenvironment stimuli.

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Dec
1969

Breast cancer incidence has been increasing consistently in Vietnam. Thus far, there have been no analytical reviews of research produced within this area.
We sought to analyse the nature andextent of empirical studies about breast cancer in Vietnam, identifying areas for future research and systemsstrengthening.

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Feb
2018

To evaluate prospective surveillance and targeted physiotherapy (PSTP) compared to education (EDU) on the prevalence of arm morbidity and describe the associated program cost.
Pilot randomized single-blinded controlled trial.
Urban with assessments and treatment delivered in hospitals.

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Feb
2018

Wilhelm Fabricius von Hilden (1560-1634) or also known with his Latinized name Guilielmus Fabricius Hildanus is considered the founder of scientific German surgery. He introduced new surgical techniques and invented new surgical instruments for the surgical treatment of nasal polyps, stone bladder, breast and ocular cancer, hydrocele, and ascites, while very ingenious were his amputation techniques. His most important surgical treatise was Observationem et curationem chirurgicam centuriae sex ( Six Hundred Surgical Observations and Treatments) first published in 1606.

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Feb
2018

One new triterpenoid saponin (1), as well as six known ones (2-7), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the thorns of Gleditsia sinensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis in conjunction with chemical evidence. Cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-6 was evaluated against human breast cancer MCF 7 cells in vitro by the MTT method.

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Feb
2018

We propose a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system (PFMS) for intraoperative display of biliary structure and prevention of iatrogenic injuries during cholecystectomy. The system consists of a light source module, a camera module, and a Raspberry Pi computer with an LCD. Indocyanine green (ICG) is used as a fluorescent contrast agent for experimental validation of the system.

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Feb
2018

The risk factors for morbidity and mortality in breast cancer lung metastases (BCLM) patients still remain poorly identified. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and survival of BCLM and associated risk factors. Patients with BCLM were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

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Feb
2018

To study the regulatory effect of lncRNA HOTAIR/miR-20a-5p/HMGA2 axis on breast cancer (BC) cell growth, cell mobility, invasiveness, and apoptosis. The microarray data of lncRNAs and mRNAs with differential expression in BC tissues were analyzed in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. LncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (lncRNA HOTAIR) expression in BC was assessed by qRT-PCR.

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Feb
2018

Emerging evidence shows that ring finger protein 144A (RNF144A), a poorly characterized member of the Ring-between-Ring (RBR) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, is a potential tumor suppressor gene. However, its regulatory mechanism in breast cancer remains undefined. Here, we report that RNF144A promoter contains a putative CpG island and the methylation levels of RNF144A promoter are higher in primary breast tumors than those in normal breast tissues.

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Feb
2018

We previously reported a phase I clinical trial of a peptide vaccine ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) and 34-kDa translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM34) combined with uracil-tegafur (UFT)/LV for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), and demonstrated the safety and immunological responsiveness of this combination therapy. In this study, we evaluated vaccination-induced immune responses to clarify the survival benefit of the combination therapy as adjuvant treatment. We enrolled 44 patients initially in an HLA-masked fashion.

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Feb
2018

Although cancer incidence and mortality is declining, cancer remains among the leading causes of death in the United States. Research shows that cancer morbidity and mortality can be reduced by early detection. Yet, both cancer risks and screening behavior remain understudied in the homeless population.

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Feb
2018

Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions.

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Feb
2018

This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT) includes the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for using CYP2D6 genotyping to guide tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients. CYP2D6 metabolizes tamoxifen to its more active metabolite, endoxifen, and patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity have reduced circulating endoxifen concentrations. In this associated commentary, we recognize and honor the late Dr.

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Dec
1969

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a belligerent carcinoma that is unresponsive to targeted receptor therapies. Development of new treatment strategies would benefit from an expanded repertoire ofcell culture systems, such as those that support tridimensional growth in the presence of hydrogel scaffolds. To this end, we established protocols for maintenance of the TNBC cell line HCC70 in monolayer culture and in a commercially available basement membrane matrix hydrogel.

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Feb
2018

The development of smart theranostic systems with favourable biocompatibility, high loading efficiency, excellent circulation stability, potent anti-tumour activity, and multimodal diagnostic functionalities is of importance for future clinical application. The premature burst release and poor degradation kinetics indicative of polymer-based nanomedicines remain the major obstacles for clinical translation. Herein we prepare theranostic shell-crosslinked nanoparticles (SCNPs) using a β-cyclodextrin-based polyrotaxane (PDI-PCL-b-PEG-RGD⊃β-CD-NH) to avoid premature drug leakage and achieve precisely controllable release, enhancing the maximum tolerated dose of the supramolecular nanomedicines.

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Feb
2018

Previous work using non-invasive radiofrequency field treatment (RFT) in cancer has demonstrated its therapeutic potential as it can increase intratumoral blood perfusion, localization of intravenously delivered drugs, and promote a hyperthermic intratumoral state. Despite the well-known immunologic benefits that febrile hyperthermia can induce, an investigation of how RFT could modulate the intra-tumoral immune microenvironment had not been studied. Thus, using an established 4T1 breast cancer model in immune competent mice, we demonstrate that RFT induces a transient, localized, and T-cell dependent intratumoral inflammatory response.

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Feb
2018

BACKGROUND Breast metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare primary breast carcinoma, and overexpression of HER2 in this carcinoma is extremely uncommon. CASE REPORT We presented a case of a 48-year-old Asian female with breast metaplastic SCC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core needle biopsy (CNB) of the lesion were taken prior to surgical resection.

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Feb
2018

Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is frequently observed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), yet PI3K inhibitors have shown limited clinical activity. To investigate intrinsic and adaptive mechanisms of resistance, we analyzed a panel of patient-derived xenograft models of TNBC with varying responsiveness to buparlisib, a pan-PI3K inhibitor. In a subset of patient-derived xenografts, resistance was associated with incomplete inhibition of PI3K signaling and upregulated MAPK/MEK signaling in response to buparlisib.

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Feb
2018

Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) have recently emerged as robust preclinical models; however, their potential to predict clinical outcomes in patients has remained unclear. We report on a living biobank of PDOs from metastatic, heavily pretreated colorectal and gastroesophageal cancer patients recruited in phase 1/2 clinical trials. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of PDOs showed a high degree of similarity to the original patient tumors.

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Feb
2018

Fork Protection and Therapy Resistance in Hereditary Breast Cancer.

Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
Sharon B Cantor, Jennifer A Calvo
The BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway preserves the genome and suppresses cancer and is a main determinant of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The hereditary breast cancer genesandfunction in DNA double-strand break repair mediating distinct steps of homologous recombination (HR). More recently, independent of DNA repair, functions in the replication stress response have come to light, providing insight as to how the BRCA-FA pathway also balances genome preservation with proliferation.

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Feb
2018

Chemotherapy has been the historical mainstay of treatment for patients with breast cancer, with immunohistochemical markers and tumor characteristics driving treatment decisions. The discovery of different intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding of breast cancer, with gene-based assays shedding further light on tumor behavior and response to treatment.
This review focuses on the landscape of the luminal A subtype, its definition based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene assays, the prognostic and predictive value of these assays, guideline recommendations, and treatment implications.

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Feb
2018

To define a standard set of outcomes and the most appropriate instruments to measure them for managing newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
A literature review and five discussion groups facilitated the design of two-round Delphi questionnaire. Delphi panellists (haematologists, hospital pharmacists and patients) were identified by the scientific committee, the Spanish Program of Haematology Treatments Foundation, the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacies and the Spanish Community of Patients with MM.

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Feb
2018

The impact of some prognostic factors on breast cancer survival has been shown to vary with time since diagnosis. However, this phenomenon has not been evaluated in Asians. In the present study, 4886 patients were recruited from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a longitudinal study of patients diagnosed during 2002-2006, with a median follow-up time of 11.

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Jan
2018

The dosimetric differences between four radiation therapy techniques for left sided whole breast irradiation were evaluated side by side in the same patient population.
Radiotherapy treatment plans were retrospectively created with Accuray TomoDirect (TD), Elekta Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (E-VMAT), Varian RapidArc (RA) and Field-in-field (FinF) technique for 20 patients, who had received left breast irradiation during deep-inspiration breath-hold. Dose characteristics of planning target volume and organs at risk were compared.

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