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'Bronchi' (45644)


Dec
1969

To utilize Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the combined use of multiple types of quantification.
Eighty-seven patients (67 men, 20 women; age, 67.4 ± 11.

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Feb
2018

Objective Tracheal anastomosis can be performed with different suture techniques. In this experimental work, the resilience of anastomotic techniques to pressure and tensile stress was studied. Study Design Ex vivo pig model.

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Feb
2018

Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) develops at unpredictable locations around lung bronchi following pulmonary inflammation. The formation and composition of BALT have primarily been investigated by immunohistology that, due to the size of the invested organ, is usually restricted to a limited number of histological sections. To assess the entire BALT of the lung, other approaches are urgently needed.

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Feb
2018

To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease.Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years.

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Feb
2018

Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection.

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Feb
2018

To characterize the socioeconomic and clinical profile of adult cancer patients in palliative therapy.
Cross-sectional study in an oncology hospital in Paraná, with 124 adult patients who started palliative therapy in the period from Jan. 2 to June 30, 2015.

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Dec
1969

To investigate the clinical and functional parameters in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) versus those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
A total of 129 people were examined. 51 patients with ACOS were followed up in Group 1; Group 2 included 38 patients with severe asthma; Group 3 consisted of 40 patients with severe COPD.

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Feb
2018

Extended sleeve lobectomy (ESL), an atypical bronchoplasty with resection of more than 1 lobe, might be technically demanding but has certain theoretical advantages, including the avoidance of pneumonectomy. However, clinical outcomes after ESL are not well known.
Between March 1995 and December 2015, 540 patients with centrally located non-small-cell lung cancer underwent sleeve resection.

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Jan
2018

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a main characteristic of horses with severe equine asthma syndrome. The presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airways of horses is thought to play a crucial role in the clinical expression of this disorder. This study pharmacologically characterized the effect of LPS on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of postoperative respiratory failure after surgical tracheoplasty for congenital tracheal stenosis.
Between February 2011 and April 2017, 16 infants underwent congenital tracheal stenosis repair. Preoperative computed tomography evaluation of the trachea and mainstem bronchi was performed.

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Jan
2018

Cough, as a defensive reflux mechanism, removes foreign objects and secretions from bronchi and bronchioles of airways. Zataria multiflora is a popular plant for treatment of cough in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this review was to evaluate the potency of Z.

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Feb
2018

A first case of endobronchial mucosal neuroma with sarcoidosis is hereby reported. A 67-year female patient, who was diagnosed as sarcoidosis previously, was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of dyspnea, chest pain and fatigue. Middle lobe atelectasis and endobronchial lesion were observed in thorax computed tomography (CT).

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Dec
2017

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a kind of small round cell tumor derived from primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
PNET is a highly malignant tumor that is subordinated to Ewing sarcoma. It occurs predominantly in soft tissue and bone and rarely in the bronchi and lung.

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Jan
2018

The challenge of identifying cause of death in discarded bycaught marine mammals stems from a combination of the non-specific nature of the lesions of drowning, the complex physiologic adaptations unique to breath-holding marine mammals, lack of case histories, and the diverse nature of fishing gear. While no pathognomonic lesions are recognized, signs of acute external entanglement, bulging or reddened eyes, recently ingested gastric contents, pulmonary changes, and decompression-associated gas bubbles have been identified in the condition of peracute underwater entrapment (PUE) syndrome in previous studies of marine mammals. We reviewed the gross necropsy and histopathology reports of 36 cetaceans and pinnipeds including 20 directly observed bycaught and 16 live stranded animals that were euthanized between 2005 and 2011 for lesions consistent with PUE.

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Jan
2018

Pulmonary lymphatic fluid predominately flows along the bronchi. However, there are reports suggesting that an alternative lymphatic pathway exist, which may result in skip metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subpleural lymph flow in vivo using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence.

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Jan
2018

Herpestes auropunctatus, the small Indian mongoose, is an invasive omnivore introduced to the Caribbean, including the island of St. Kitts over 150 years ago. It has played a role in changing native fauna and can carry zoonotic pathogens of public health importance.

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Jan
2018

Anthracofibrosis is a lesser known clinical entity. Patients present with chronic symptoms of cough and breathlessness with a history of biofuel/wood fire smoke exposure. There are distinct computed tomography (CT) imaging features of anthracofibrosis that can differentiate it from more common conditions such as tuberculosis (TB) and bronchogenic carcinoma.

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Jan
2018

This study aimed to assess the effect of matrix size on the spatial resolution and image quality of ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT).
Slit phantoms and 11 cadaveric lungs were scanned on U-HRCT. Slit phantom scans were reconstructed using a 20-mm field of view (FOV) with 1024 matrix size and a 320-mm FOV with 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes.

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Feb
2018

We describe a rare case of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TBO) in a 35-year-old man who presented with recurrent chest infection and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy and computed tomography scan revealed a single 1.5-cm hard nodular mass lesion in the lingular bronchus associated with collapse and bronchiectasis of the lingula.

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Jan
2018

Irreversible destruction of bronchi and alveoli can lead to multiple incurable lung diseases. Identifying lung stem/progenitor cells with regenerative capacity and utilizing them to reconstruct functional tissue is one of the biggest hopes to reverse the damage and cure such diseases. Here we showed that a rare population of SOX9basal cells (BCs) located at airway epithelium rugae can regenerate adult human lung.

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Dec
1969

COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and the available prognostic indexes are therefore limited. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with acute exacerbation leading to hospitalization.
This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients with COPD (meeting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] diagnostic criteria) hospitalized at the Ninth Hospital of Xi'an Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between October 2014 and September 2016.

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Jan
2018

Persistent air leak or bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a challenging and frequently observed problem after pulmonary resection and may lead to prolonged chest tube therapy. One efficient nonsurgical approach to manage such a fistula is the application of intrabronchial valves. This may support earlier chest tube removal and hospital discharge.

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Jan
2018

Asthma has been associated with increased collagen deposition in both conducting airways and alveolar parenchyma. Mast cells (MCs) are key effector cells in asthma and have the ability to affect collagen synthesis. However, the link between clinical control and changes in bronchial and alveolar MC phenotypes and specific collagens in controlled and uncontrolled asthma remains unknown.

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Dec
1969

Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the feasibility of simulating transient airflow in a CT-based airway tree with more than 100 outlets for a whole respiratory period is studied, and the influence of truncations of terminal bronchi on CFD characteristics is investigated. After an airway model with 122 outlets is extracted from CT images, the transient airflow is simulated. Spatial and temporal variations of flow velocity, wall pressure, and wall shear stress are presented; the flow pattern and lobar distribution of air are gotten as well.

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Jan
2018

Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts.

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Jan
2018

To observe the morphological changes of bronchovascular bundles within subsolid nodules on high-resolution (HR) computed tomography (CT) and analyse the correlation with the new adenocarcinoma classification.
Two hundred and sixteen lesions (absent consolidation on mediastinal window) were reviewed retrospectively. CT features including dimensions, contour, morphological changes of the blood vessels, and bronchi/bronchioles, vacuole signs, and their correlation with histopathology were evaluated.

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Jan
2018

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation.

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Jan
2018

Optimal identification of the intersegmental plane can be challenging during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy for lung cancer. We describe a simple new method of infrared-fluorescence-enhanced thoracoscopy with selected injection of indocyanine green into the bronchi not targeted for resection, which allows us to clearly identify the intersegmental plane in thoracoscopic segmentectomy.

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Jan
2018

Respiratory impedance comprises the resistance and reactance of the respiratory system and can provide detailed information on respiratory function. However, details of the relationship between impedance and morphological airway changes in asthma are unknown.
We aimed to evaluate the correlation between imaging-based airway changes and respiratory impedance in patients with asthma.

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Dec
2017

We used the powered vascular staple (PVS) instead of the conventional staple technique [the utilization of the powered linier cutter (PLC)] or ligation for total 23 segmental or subsegmental bronchi with less than 10 mm in the bronchial luminal size on computed tomography (CT) in thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Our results suggested that the availability of the PVS represents a novel advance in the armamentarium and may have a possibility of being pervasive widely however, more observative periods and further sample accumulation are needed.

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Dec
1969

One important risk factor for the development of asthma is allergen sensitization. Recent increasing evidence suggests a prominent role of mast cells in asthma pathophysiology. Since Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid mediator chemically related to - and co-released with- the endocannabinoid anandamide, behaves as a local autacoid down-regulator of mast cell activation and inflammation, we explored the possible contribution of PEA in allergic sensitization, by using ovalbumin (OVA) as sensitizing agent in the mouse.

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Dec
1969

Bronchiectasis is a clinically important, but poorly understood, pulmonary condition characterized by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. Bronchiectasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Targeted effort to early high-resolution computed tomography diagnosis and detailed confirmation of causation are in the spotlight of respiratory physicians in the developed countries.

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Jan
2018

Hemokinin-1 (HK-1) is a novel neuropeptide produced by human bronchial cells and macrophages and causes contraction of human bronchi ex vivo. It is also generated by antigen/IgE-activated murine mast cells (MCs) and contributes to experimental chronic allergic airway inflammation via the activation of the neurokinin receptor-1 (NK-1R) expressed on murine MCs. We found elevated MC numbers in the lungs of individuals who died from asthma (asthma) when compared to lungs of individuals who died from other causes (non-asthma).

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Dec
2017

Lakartidningen 2017 Dec 18;114. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
Andreas Palm, Erik Wilander, Stig Wallgren, Gunnar Hillerdal
Black smoke lung disease - a new disease in Sweden We describe two elderly female patients, immigrants to Sweden from Afghanistan, with intensive longtime exposure to smoke from biomass, and who presented with bronchial stenosis and severe bronchial obstruction. CT and X-ray showed bizarre perihilar infiltrates in the lungs. Bronchoscopy revealed black narrow bronchi with a middle lobe stenosis in one of the patients.

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Dec
1969

Eighty percent of lung cancers originate as subtle premalignant changes in the airway mucosal epithelial layer of bronchi and alveoli, which evolve and penetrate deeper into the parenchyma. Liquid-ventilation, with perfluorocarbons (PFC) was first demonstrated in rodents in 1966 then subsequently applied as lipid-encapsulated PFC emulsions to improve pulmonary function in neonatal infants suffering with respiratory distress syndrome in 1996. Subsequently, PFC nanoparticles (NP) were extensively studied as intravenous (IV) vascular-constrained nanotechnologies for diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery applications.

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Dec
1969

Bronchoscopic removal of foreign body in the airway is one of the important life-saving procedure and demands skill and expertise on the part of the surgeon and anesthesiologist.
To study the outcome of controlled ventilation during rigid bronchoscopy in children with foreign body aspiration.
A review of fifty cases of foreign body in the bronchi, from January 2014 to December 2015 was undertaken in Vittal Institute of Child Care Hospital, Dharwad, through patient case records.

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Dec
1969

Airway mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defense mechanism against pulmonary infections and is compromised in cystic fibrosis (CF). Cl- and HCO3- epithelial transport are integral to MCC. During pulmonary infections prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is abundant.

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Dec
1969

For patients with suspicious lung lesions found on chest x-ray or CT, endo/trans- bronchial biopsy of the lung is the preferred method for obtaining a diagnosis. With the addition of new screening programs, a higher number of patients will require diagnostic biopsy which will prove even more challenging due to the small size of lesions found with screening. There are many endobronchial tools available on the market today and a wide range of new tools under investigation to improve diagnostic yield.

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Jan
2018

Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi. Despite its rarity, TBM has been reported to accompany several conditions, particularly Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Herein, we report on a 15-year-old patient who was diagnosed with TBM on the basis of radiologic and endoscopic findings and with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IVB presenting with marfanoid features, severe kyphoscoliosis, increased skin elasticity, and ongoing hypotonia since the neonatal period.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to acquire normative data on central airway dimensions on chest CT scans in the pediatric population.
Chest CT findings reported as normal by a radiologist were collected retrospectively at 10 international centers. An experienced and independent thoracic radiologist reevaluated all CT scans for image quality and for normal findings.

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Dec
2017

This manuscript describes the anatomy of the lower respiratory tract in domestic bird species including the chicken and pigeon. The here described anatomical structures play a major role avian respiration, which is fundamentally different from respiration in mammals. During inspiration and expiration, a continuous caudocranial airflow is present within the tertiary bronchi of the Paleopulmo, while the Neopulmo, which is only present in phylogenetically recent species, is characterized by tidal respiration.

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Dec
2017

Cases of acute respiratory tract infection caused by Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) of the genus Orthoreovirus (family: Reoviridae) have been reported in Southeast Asia, where it was isolated from humans and bats. It is possible that PRV-associated respiratory infections might be prevalent in Southeast Asia. The clinical course of PRV is not fully elucidated.

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Jan
2018

A 55-year-old woman was referred to our department with a bilateral stenosis of both main bronchi starting at the level of the carina and a blind-ended pouch originating from the carina. Differential diagnosis of diffuse narrowing of the intrathoracic central airways was excluded during the diagnostic workup. Recurrent infection of the blind-ended pouch remained a possible explanation of this unusual type of stenosis.

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Dec
2017

Insulin resistance plays an important role in obesity-associated asthma exacerbations. Using a murine model of allergic airway inflammation, we evaluated the insulin signaling transmission in lungs of obese compared with lean mice. We further evaluated the effects of the polyphenol resveratrol in the pulmonary insulin signaling.

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Dec
2017

Systemic morphine has evidence to support its use for reducing breathlessness in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effectiveness of the nebulized route, however, has not yet been confirmed. Recent studies have shown that opioid receptors are localized within epithelium of human trachea and large bronchi, a target site for a dosimetric nebulizer.

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Dec
2017

8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is responsible for repairing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Our previous study demonstrated that α-OGG1 protects cells from oxidative damage-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human lung cancer cells. However, the function of β-OGG1 remains to be elucidated.

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Dec
2017

An infant with pulmonary atresia/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collateral arteries underwent unifocalization, ventriculoseptal defect closure and placement of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit via median sternotomy. Aortopexy and pulmonary arteriopexy via redo sternotomy were insufficient to allow weaning of continuous positive airway pressure and he required direct tracheobronchopexy via left lateral thoracotomy to alleviate posterior trachealis intrusion along the length of the trachea and left main bronchus. He also underwent laryngotracheoplasty with placement of a posterior costal cartilage graft for bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

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Sep
2017

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is hyperplasia of noninvasive neuroendocrine cells originating from Kultchitsky cells. This is a rare pathological condition, suspected to be a precursor lesion of carcinoid, together with tumorlet. In the WHO histological classification (4th edition) revised in 2015, DIPNECH was added to the category that includes neuroendocrine tumors.

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