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'Cardiomyopathy Cocaine' (214)


Dec
1969

Cocaine use has been associated with cardiovascular complications such as coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery spasm, cardiac arrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathies. Aortic dissection is a rare but life-threatening complication of cocaine use. Cocaine and stimulant use can cause aortic aneurysm by increasing the aortic wall stress, and the most feared complications are dissection, rupture, and death.

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Oct
2017

Although sexual activity can cause moderate stress, it can cause natural death in individuals with pre-existing illness. The aim of this study was to identify additional pre-existing health problems, sexual practices, and potential circumstances that may trigger fatal events.
This medicolegal postmortem, retrospective, and prospective study is based on data of autopsies performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University hospital, Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

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Jul
2017

Cocaine is the leading cause for drug-abuse-related visits to emergency departments, most of which are due to cardiovascular complaints. Through its diverse pathophysiological mechanisms, cocaine exerts various adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, many times with grave results. Described here are the varied cardiovascular effects of cocaine, areas of controversy, and therapeutic options.

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May
2017

Cocaine is associated with important cardiac complications such as sudden death, acute myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, life-threatening arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia as well as infarction. It is well known that cocaine may induce vasospasm through adrenergic stimulation of the coronary arteries. Moreover, cocaine may promote intracoronary thrombosis, triggered by alterations in the plasma constituents, and platelet aggregation, leading to subsequent myocardial infarction.

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Dec
2015

Approach to the Adolescent with Chest Pain.

Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2015 Dec;26(3):528-51

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Jul
2016

The problem of police-related cardiac arrest.

J Forensic Leg Med 2016 Jul 9;41:36-41. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
Steven B Karch
The term "positional asphyxia" was originally used to describe the situation in which the upper airways becomes compromised by sharp angulation of the head or neck, or where the chest wall is splinted and the diaphragm is prevented from moving because of an unusual position of the body. The term was redefined in the early 1980s to describe sudden death during physical restraint of an individual who is in a prone position. A large percent of reported victims were overweight males.

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Sep
2016

Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders.

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Feb
2016

Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function.

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Oct
2016

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of methamphetamine-associated congestive heart failure (MAC) and to evaluate the relationship between methamphetamine abuse and EF and functional status over time. A retrospective review of records from 2009 to 2014 was carried out. Prevalence of methamphetamine abuse among all patients admitted with CHF was calculated for each of the 6 years of the study (n = 141) and was compared with prevalence of cocaine abuse and alcohol abuse.

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Dec
2015

Mechanisms of Cardiotoxicity and the Development of Heart Failure.

Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2015 Dec 19;27(4):469-81. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
Christopher S Lee
Cardiotoxicity is a broad term that refers to the negative effects of toxic substances on the heart. Cancer drugs can cause cardiotoxicity by effects on heart cells, thromboembolic events, and/or hypertension that can lead to heart failure. Rheumatoid arthritis biologics may interfere with ischemic preconditioning and cause/worsen heart failure.

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Nov
2015

Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2015 Nov 18;309(9):H1453-67. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
Zoltán V Varga, Peter Ferdinandy, Lucas Liaudet, Pál Pacher
Mitochondria has an essential role in myocardial tissue homeostasis; thus deterioration in mitochondrial function eventually leads to cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell death and consequent cardiovascular dysfunction. Several chemical compounds and drugs have been known to directly or indirectly modulate cardiac mitochondrial function, which can account both for the toxicological and pharmacological properties of these substances. In many cases, toxicity problems appear only in the presence of additional cardiovascular disease conditions or develop months/years following the exposure, making the diagnosis difficult.

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Dec
1969

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but devastating event. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of pregnancy-related AMI.
A retrospective study was conducted using Texas hospital inpatient data (years 2004-2007).

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Mar
2015

Recent reports suggest that 20 million people worldwide are regularly using khat as a stimulant, even though the habit of chewing khat is known to cause serious health issues. Historical evidence suggests khat use has existed since the 13th century in Ethiopia and the southwestern Arabian regions even before the cultivation and use of coffee. In the past three decades, its availability and use spread all over the world including the United States and Europe.

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May
2015


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Mar
2015

The pathogenesis of cocaine-related cardiomyopathy (CCM) is still unclear. Oxidative damage from cocaine-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) overcoming myocardial antioxidant reserve has been hypothesized by experimental studies.
Ten (2.

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Apr
2015

Acute cocaine myocarditis: a word of caution.

Eur Heart J 2015 Apr 8;36(15):946. Epub 2015 Feb 8.
Shasank Rijal, João L Cavalcante

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Aug
2015

Cardiovascular consequences of cocaine use.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2015 Aug 26;25(6):517-26. Epub 2014 Dec 26.
Rachel V Stankowski, Robert A Kloner, Shereif H Rezkalla
The cardiovascular consequences of cocaine use are numerous and can be severe, with mechanisms of cardiotoxicity unique to cocaine that include sympathomimetic effects, blockade of sodium and potassium channels, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, and disruption of excitation-contraction coupling. In combination, these effects increase myocardial oxygen demand while simultaneously decreasing oxygen supply. Cocaine-associated chest pain is particularly common and, in some instances, associated with a more severe cardiac syndrome, such as myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, or endocarditis.

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Jan
2015

Cocaine and alcohol toxicity is well known, especially when simultaneously abused. These drugs perform both acute and chronic harmfulness, with significant cardiac events such as ventricular arrhythmias, tachycardia, systemic hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, ventricular hypertrophy, and acute coronary syndrome. The present report refers about a patient who died after a documented episode of psychomotor agitation followed by cardiac arrest.

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Mar
2015

Stimulant-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

Am J Emerg Med 2015 Mar 6;33(3):476.e1-3. Epub 2014 Sep 6.
Mike Butterfield, Christine Riguzzi, Oron Frenkel, Arun Nagdev
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare but increasingly recognized mimic of acute coronary syndrome. Patients present with angina,ST-segment changes on electrocardiogram (both elevations and depressions),and rapid rises in cardiac biomarkers. Many kinds of stressful events have been associated with TC, but only a handful of drug-related cases have previously been reported.

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Nov
2014

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently result from the rupture or erosion of a vulnerable coronary plaque, with associated intracoronary thrombosis. ACS also may occur in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Some of these patients, however, still have angiographically silent underlying coronary artery disease.

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Nov
2014

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a recently increasing diagnosed disease showed by transient apical or mid-apical left ventricular dysfunction. It is known as a disease of postmenopausal women, which is usually triggered by emotional or physical stress. Although the trigger is mostly endogenous, some drugs have also been reported as the cause.

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Jul
2014

The femoral artery has been the traditional approach for implantation of the Impella left ventricular assist device. We describe the case of a young man with toxic (cocaine-related) cardiomyopathy, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate mitral insufficiency who received a transfemoral Impella left ventricular assist device that was relocated to the right axillary artery due to uncontrolled femoral access bleeding. The patient immediately stabilized post-implantation and was successfully bridged to a full recovery 6 days later.

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Feb
2014

A 67-year-old man underwent surgery under general anaesthesia to obtain a biopsy from a tumour in the left maxillary sinus. Before the procedure a mucosal detumescence containing epinephrine and cocaine was applied onto the nasal mucosa. Shortly after termination of anaesthesia the patient developed tachycardia and an abrupt rise in blood pressure followed by a drop to critical levels.

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Nov
2014

Overactivation of the sympatho-adrenergic system is an essential mechanism providing short-term adaptation to the stressful conditions of critical illnesses. In the same way, the administration of exogenous catecholamines is mandatory to support the failing circulation in acutely ill patients. In contrast to these short-term benefits, prolonged adrenergic stress is detrimental to the cardiovascular system by initiating a series of adverse effects triggering significant cardiotoxicity, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and only partially elucidated.

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Dec
2013

Cocaine is a potent sympathomimetic agent associated with the development of possible fatal cardiovascular complications. Dysrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy are just some of many cardiovascular effects related to the abuse of cocaine.
A 38-year-old Hispanic male with a past medical history of hypertension presented with a chief complaint of progressive shortness of breath.

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Dec
2013

Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2013 Dec 10;67(3):434-45. Epub 2013 Sep 10.
Josef Finsterer, Peter Ohnsorge
Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents. In humans, cardiotoxic agents due to mitochondrial dysfunction include anthracyclines (particularly doxorubicin), mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, fluorouracil, imatinib, bortezomib, trastuzumab, arsenic trioxide, cyclosporine-A, zidovudine, lamotrigine, glycosides, lidocain, isoproterenol, nitroprusside, pivalic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, cadmium, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, meat meal, or carbon monoxide.

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Dec
1969

Male, 27 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Bath salt induced cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Agitation • fever • pedal edema
Intravenous nor-epinephrine for less than 6 hours Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Internal medicine • cardiology.
Unusual clinical course.
"Bath salts" is the street name for a group of recently identified and increasingly abused stimulant synthetic cathinones that are associated with multiple systemic effects.

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Apr
2014

Sepsis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with the appearance of cardiac dysfunction. This is a challenge, both when making the differential diagnosis and determining the proper treatment, as there are numerous risk factors: Myocarditis due to the HIV itself, the presence or absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, toxic substances, and cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to an HIV positive patient with septic shock and cardiac dysfunction is described, as well as a brief review of the different causes of cardiomyopathy which may affect this group of patients is also presented.

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Apr
2014

Myocardial injury in previously healthy children is rare, with a wide range of aetiologies. It is increasingly being identified on the basis of elevated troponin levels during routine evaluation of cardiorespiratory symptoms. Establishing the aetiology remains challenging because of the lack of an accepted work-up algorithm.

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May
2013

Obstructive coronary artery disease is not detected in up to 14% of patients who present with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Diagnosis of the underlying cause is usually not made and there is much controversy regarding prognosis. Those patients who develop ACS while having normal or near normal coronary arteries are more frequently young women and have fewer cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF).

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Aug
2012

We describe how the use of multiple drugs and excessive alcohol intake caused a dilated cardiomyopathy complicated by cardiogenic shock and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in an otherwise healthy young man. The diagnosis was made by exclusion of other causes of cardiomyopathy. Surprisingly an ischaemic scar without significant coronary artery disease was also found on cardiac MRI, most likely related to vasoactive drugs (cocaine).

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Dec
1969

Cocaine is a powerful stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting catecholamine reuptake, stimulating central sympathetic outflow, and increasing the sensitivity of adrenergic nerve endings to norepinephrine (NE). It is known, from numerous studies, that cocaine causes irreversible structural changes on the brain, heart, lung and other organs such as liver and kidney and there are many mechanisms involved in the genesis of these damages. Some effects are determined by the overstimulation of the adrenergic system.

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Mar
2013

An unusual cardiomyopathy in a cocaine user.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2013 Mar 30;9(1):125-7. Epub 2012 Jun 30.
Bela Kubat, Robert-Jan van Suylen

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Dec
1969

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial disease that includes both hereditary and acquired forms. It is estimated that around 20-35% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have hereditary forms.

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Jun
2012

To analyse postmortem cases of myocardial infarction (MI) with normal coronary arteries in terms of patient characteristics, features of the MI and risk factors.
This retrospective non-case controlled study was carried out at a specialist cardiac pathology department at a tertiary cardiac referral centre. Cases of histologically confirmed MI and normal coronary arteries during the period 1996-2010 were identified and analysed for the presence of risk factors.

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Nov
2011

Doping and thrombosis in sports.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2011 Nov 23;37(8):918-28. Epub 2011 Dec 23.
Giuseppe Lippi, Giuseppe Banfi
Historically, humans have long sought to enhance their "athletic" performance to increase body weight, aggressiveness, mental concentration and physical strength, contextually reducing fatigue, pain, and improving recovery. Although regular training is the mainstay for achieving these targets, the ancillary use of ergogenic aids has become commonplace in all sports. The demarcation between ergogenic aids and doping substances or practices is continuously challenging and mostly based on perceptions regarding the corruption of the fairness of competition and the potential side effects or adverse events arising from the use of otherwise unnecessary ergogenic substances.

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Dec
2011

Every year more than 500,000 patients present to the emergency department with cocaine-associated complications, most commonly chest pain. Many of these patients undergo extensive work-up and treatment. Much of the evidence regarding cocaine's cardiovascular effects, as well as the current management of cocaine-associated chest pain and acute coronary syndromes, is anecdotally derived and based on studies written more than 2 decades ago that involved only a few patients.

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Dec
2011

Cocaine addiction is associated with either ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiac complications. The prevalence of myocardial damage in asymptomatic addicts has never been evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), which allows non-invasive detection of myocardial oedema and fibrosis.
To prospectively evaluate the prevalence of myocardial damage in cocaine addicts with no history of cardiac disease by CMR.

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Jun
2011

The heart is a target of injury for many chemical compounds, both medically prescribed and not medically prescribed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of chemical-induced cardiomyopathies vary depending on the inciting agent, including direct toxic effects, neurohormonal activation, altered calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress. Numerous chemicals and drugs are implicated in cardiomyopathy.

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Jul
2011

The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.

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Jul
2011

Ankylosing spondylitis presents challenges for the obstetric anesthesiologist in administering neuraxial anesthesia or managing the airway. A pregnant patient with ankylosing spondylitis, cardiomyopathy and preeclampsia requiring cesarean delivery was managed with an awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation. The use of topical cocaine, epinephrine, phenylephrine, and oxymetazoline to produce nasal vasoconstriction is discussed.

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