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'Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity' (366)


Dec
1969

It is known that adenosine and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) are excitatory mediators involved in carotid body (CB) hypoxic signaling. The CBs are peripheral chemoreceptors classically defined by O, CO, and pH sensors. When hypoxia activates the CB, it induces the release of neurotransmitters from chemoreceptor cells leading to an increase in the action potentials frequency at the carotid sinus nerve (CSN).

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Oct
2017

The arterial baroreflex is crucial for short-term blood pressure control - abnormal baroreflex function predisposes to syncope and falling. Hypersensitive responses to carotid baroreflex stimulation using carotid sinus massage (CSM) are common in older adults and may be associated with syncope. The pathophysiology of this hypersensitivity is unknown, but chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in elderly patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), and is proposed to interfere with normal integration of afferent firing from the carotid baroreceptors with proprioceptive feedback from the sternocleidomastoids, producing large responses to CSM.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus massage for diagnosis and termination of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is still a widely used vagal manoeuvre in the A&E department. However, itsefficacy is limited (termination of the SVT in approximately 20%) and carotid sinus massage may be complicated by (potentially devastating) neurologic complications in 0.2-1% of the patients.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus massage is a widely used method for diagnosis and treatment of supraventricular tachycardia and carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Complications, mostly neurological, can occur but are rare. Carotid stenosis is a risk factor for complications.

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Dec
1969

Swallow induced syncope is a rare clinical condition which is thought to result from an abnormal vagal reflex leading to bradycardia and cerebral hypoperfusion. It mostly occurs in patients with organic or functional disorders of the esophagus, and often requires permanent pacemaker implantation, along with treatment of the underlying esophageal pathology. In the following case, we report of a 71-year-old male with achalasia post per oral endoscopic myectomy, who presented with syncope and documented AV-block while eating solid food.

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Aug
2017

To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope.
MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest.

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Aug
2017

To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope.
MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest.

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Aug
2017

To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope.
MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest.

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Dec
1969

We present a case of a patient with multinodular goiter disease who suffered asystole during head hyperextension for surgical positioning on the operational table.
Manipulation of carotid sinus may trigger bradycardia or even asystole even in patients without prior history of carotid sinus hypersensitivity. The time proximity between patient positioning and asystole, the late responsiveness to atropine, the immediate increase of heart rate after head elevation and the lack of any other trigger factor or prior history support the hypothesis of carotid sinus syndrome.

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Sep
2016

Syncope is a commonly encountered problem in an emergency hospital. Global cerebral hypoperfusion is the final pathway common to all presentations of syncope, but this symptom presentation has a broad differential diagnosis. It is important to identify patients for whom syncope is a symptom of a potentially life-threatening condition.

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Dec
1969

Neurocardiovascular Instability and Cognition.

Yale J Biol Med 2016 03 24;89(1):59-71. Epub 2016 Mar 24.
Susan O'Callaghan, Rose Anne Kenny
Neurocardiovascular instability (NCVI) refers to abnormal neural control of the cardiovascular system affecting blood pressure and heart rate behavior. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in aging contribute to this phenomenon characterized by hypotension and bradyarrhythmia. Ultimately, this increases the risk of falls and syncope in older people.

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Aug
2016

Syncope: Case Studies.

Neurol Clin 2016 Aug;34(3):525-45
Inna Kleyman, Louis H Weimer
Syncope, or the sudden loss of consciousness, is a common presenting symptom for evaluation by neurologists. It is not a unique diagnosis but rather a common manifestation of disorders with diverse mechanisms. Loss of consciousness is typically preceded by a prodrome of symptoms and sometimes there is a clear trigger.

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Dec
1969

Carotid bodies play a critical role in protecting against hypoxemia, and their activation increases sympathetic activity, arterial pressure, and ventilation, responses opposed by acute stimulation of the baroreflex. Although chemoreceptor hypersensitivity is associated with sympathetically mediated hypertension, the mechanisms involved and their significance in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unclear. We investigated the chronic interactions of these reflexes in dogs with sympathetically mediated, obesity-induced hypertension based on the hypothesis that hypoxemia and tonic activation of carotid chemoreceptors may be associated with obesity.

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Jul
2016

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is arbitrarily defined as ≥3 s asystole or vasodepression of ≥50 mmHg in response to carotid sinus massage (CSM). Using this definition, 39% of older people meet the criteria for CSH. It has been suggested that current criteria are too sensitive.

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Mar
2016

A tilt table test (TTT) is an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for the differential diagnosis of syncope and orthostatic intolerance and has good diagnostic yield. The autonomic system malfunction which underlines the reflex syncope is manifested as either hypotension or bradycardia, while an orthostatic challenge is applied. The timing of the response to the orthostatic challenge, as well as the predominant component of the response help to differentiate between various forms of neurocardiogenic syncope, orthostatic hypotension and non-cardiovascular conditions (e.

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Mar
2016

Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care.
Systematic review.

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Dec
1969

Nowadays, syncope still generates complicated challenges for clinicians for the alarm it arises in patients and, at the same time, for the multiple causes it has determined by. In almost one third of cases, syncope is neuromediated, in young subjects in vasovagal, whereas in elderly is often determinated by carotid sinus hypersensitivity. These two kinds of syncope have two completely different diagnostic approach.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity.
Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited.

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Dec
1969

Syncope: epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis.

Front Physiol 2014 8;5:471. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Rose M F L da Silva
Syncope is a common medical problem, with a frequency between 15% and 39%. In the general population, the annual number episodes are 18.1-39.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus syndrome: Progress in understanding and management.

Glob Cardiol Sci Pract 2014 18;2014(2):1-8. Epub 2014 Jun 18.
Richard Sutton
Carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) is a disease of the autonomic nervous system presenting with syncope, especially in older males who often have cardiovascular disease. The aetiology is unknown and epidemiological data is limited. Forty new patients/million population have been estimated to require pacing for CSS and these patients represent ∼9% of those presenting syncope to a specialist facility.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus syndrome.

Cardiol Rev 2015 May-Jun;23(3):130-4
Vaibhav Amin, Behzad B Pavri
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity, first described less than 65 years ago, is an important and often undiagnosed cause of syncope in the elderly. Its pathophysiology is complex and certain aspects are not completely understood. The timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition can improve morbidity and prevent complications in the elderly.

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Jan
2015

Life expectancy increases progressively and nonagenarians are a growing population. We report trends in pacing and long-term outcome in nonagenarians over a 20-year period in a single center compared with those of younger patients.
We retrospectively reviewed all the patients who underwent their first pacemaker implantation from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2010 and were followed through December 31, 2013.

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Jan
2015

Syncope is a medical emergency, which is more or less frequent. Its prevalence increases with age. It is defined as the loss of consciousness and postural tone resulting from a transient alteration of cerebral flow.

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Apr
2014

A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with mild right-sided hemiparesis and orthostatic hypotension. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed stenosis of the left distal carotid sinus surrounded by intraluminal hyperintensities on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, representing a periluminal hematoma secondary to carotid artery dissection. The dissection hyper-extended the carotid artery wall and stimulated baroreceptors in the carotid sinus.

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Jun
2014

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is associated with syncope, unexplained falls, and drop attacks in older people but occurs asymptomatically in 35% of community-dwelling elders. We hypothesized that impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with the conversion of asymptomatic CSH to symptomatic CSH. We therefore conducted a case-control study evaluating individuals with CSH with and without the symptoms of syncope or unexplained falls, as well as non-CSH controls, to determine whether the blood pressure and heart rate changes associated with CSH are associated with symptoms only when cerebral autoregulation is altered.

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Mar
2014


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Apr
2014

Falls are common among elderly people, leading to increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. A broad-based interdisciplinary study, for example in an outpatient clinic specialising in falls, has been recommended in light of the multiple and complex causes that tend to be involved. At present there are few outpatient clinics in Norway specialising in falls, and no data from such studies have yet been published.

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Jan
2014

Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century.

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May
2014

IMPORTANCE Carotid body tumors are rare neoplasms of neural crest origin that are both highly vascularized and locally invasive. Treatment options for these tumors often include surgery with preoperative embolization, which can pose major cardiovascular risk to patients. As demonstrated by this case report, hemodynamic instability following preoperative embolization of a carotid body tumor may indicate severe carotid sinus hypersensitivity and the need for temporary cardiac pacing.

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Oct
2013

We report a case of a 19-year-old male with rocuronium-induced anaphylactic shock. He was scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis under general anesthesia. Induction of anesthesia was done with fentanyl, propofol and sevoflurane.

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Dec
2013

Vasodepressive carotid sinus hypersensitivity (V-CSH) is a common but incurable etiology for fainting in older adults with diabetes (OADM), and is diagnosed by carotid sinus massage (CSM). Aerobic exercise has been shown to be an effective therapy for other neuroautonomic etiologies of syncope (such as orthostatic hypotension), but the effectiveness of aerobic training in V-CSH remains unknown. We examined whether aerobic training could attenuate the vasodepressive response to CSM in OADM (older adults with type 2 diabetes) subjects complicated by V-CSH.

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Nov
2013

The purpose of the prospective study is to investigate the cardiovascular effects of abduction shoulder sling (ASS) in elderly patients who underwent rotator cuff surgery.
The study included 49 consecutive patients older than 50 years (mean 59.3 ± 8.

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Dec
1969

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity has a high prevalence in the elderly and is a possible cause of falls. In carotid sinus hypersensitivity, external triggers cause sudden reductions in blood pressure, leading to dizziness or syncope, resulting in falls. Turning of the head is considered an important example of such an external trigger in everyday life, wherein rotation of the neck is thought to manipulate the hypersensitive carotid sinus.

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Jul
2013

Falls often result in soft tissue injuries, dislocations, fractures, longstanding pain and reduced quality of life. Therefore, fall preventive programmes have been developed.
In this review, we evaluate programmes that in randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been shown with fall reducing effect.

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Jan
2013

Neurocardiogenic syncope is known to be associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction, although the mechanism has not been entirely elucidated. In this study, we sought to highlight the pathogenic role of the autonomic nervous system in neurocardiogenic syncope and to review the associated co-morbidities known to have a dysautonomic basis. Herein we discuss migraine, orthostatic hypotension, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, chronic fatigue syndrome, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity with a focus on the pathogenic role of the autonomic nervous system and any consecutive clinical implications.

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Apr
2013

The aim of the study was to investigate the resting levels of novel cardiovascular biomarkers in common types of noncardiac syncope.
An observational study was conducted including 255 patients (mean age 60 years, range 15-93; 45% men) with unexplained syncopal attacks. Subjects underwent an expanded head-up tilt test including carotid sinus massage, and nitroglycerin provocation if indicated.

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Apr
2013

The aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying reflex syncope. Carotid sinus syncope will be used as the classical example of an autonomic reflex with relatively well-established afferent, central and efferent pathways. These pathways, as well as the pathophysiology of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) and the haemodynamic effects of cardiac standstill and vasodilatation will be discussed.

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May
2013

To investigate the etiologies of syncope and predictors of all-cause mortality, rehospitalization, and cardiac syncope in consecutive elderly patients presenting with syncope to our emergency department.
Participants were 352 consecutive patients aged 65 years or older with syncope admitted to hospital from the emergency department.
Observational retrospective study.

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Mar
2013

Prevention of falls in the elderly--a review.

Osteoporos Int 2013 Mar 8;24(3):747-62. Epub 2013 Jan 8.
M K Karlsson, H Magnusson, T von Schewelov, B E Rosengren
The proportion of elderly in the society increases and fall frequency increases with advancing age. Many falls result in fractures and also soft tissue injuries, longstanding pain, functional impairment, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and excess in healthcare costs. Due to the magnitude of these negative effects, a variety of single- and multicomponent fall-preventive intervention programs has been initiated.

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Feb
2013

To investigate the association of the hypotensive syndromes orthostatic hypotension (OH), postprandial hypotension (PPH), and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment/dementia). Continuous measurements of blood pressure (Finapres) were performed during active standing, meal test, and carotid sinus massage, among 184 elderly patients presenting with falls. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia were diagnosed following a multidisciplinary assessment.

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Feb
2013

Carotid sinus syndrome.

Cardiol Clin 2013 Feb;31(1):111-21
Colette Seifer
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was first reported more than 200 years ago. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of this relatively common clinical finding in older patients has proven elusive. There is evidence to support an association between symptoms, particularly syncope, and a hypersensitive response to carotid sinus massage.

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May
2013

Though highly prevalent, the pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension (OH), postprandial hypotension (PPH), and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are rarely studied together. Therefore, we conducted such a comprehensive study focusing on the common role of the cardiovascular autonomic system. We hypothesized that in geriatric patients, OH, PPH, and CSH are manifestations of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and investigated state-of-the-art cardiovascular autonomic function indices in a group of geriatric falls or syncope patients.

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Dec
1969

Syncope recurrence in pacemaker-implanted subjects for the cardio-inhibitory response to sinus carotid massage (SCM) was investigated. The study-hypothesis was that recurrences had significant vasodepressor responses that could justify the loss of consciousness. Forty-six patients were enrolled (16 patients and 30 controls), followed and revaluated after 5-7 years.

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Sep
2012

Approximately 30% of people over 65 years of age living in the community fall each year. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009.
To assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce the incidence of falls in older people living in the community.

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Sep
2012

Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to cerebral hypoperfusion followed by spontaneous recovery. Common causes of syncope include vasovagal syncope, situational syncope, orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, left- and right-sided obstructive cardiac lesions, and cardiac arrhythmias. History and physical examination often provide valuable clues about the underlying etiology of syncope.

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Dec
1969

The beach chair position is one of the most commonly used positions in arthroscopic shoulder surgery because of its anatomical nature and easy modifiability to open surgery. Despite these advantages, thromboembolic and neurologic complications have been reported. We report a case of carotid sinus hypersensitivity due to shoulder sling pressure after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

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Sep
2012

The peripheral chemoreflex is known to be enhanced in individuals with hypertension. In pre-hypertensive (PH) and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) carotid body type I (glomus) cells exhibit hypersensitivity to chemosensory stimuli and elevated sympathoexcitatory responses to peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation. Herein, we eliminated carotid body inputs in both PH-SHRs and SHRs to test the hypothesis that heightened peripheral chemoreceptor activity contributes to both the development and maintenance of hypertension.

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Jul
2012

Pacemaker therapy is effective in reducing recurrent syncope in patients with symptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), yet the optimal pacing modality for this syndrome is not known. The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate the impact of three pacing methods (DDDR vs DDDR with sudden bradycardia response [SBR] vs VVI) on recurrent syncope and quality of life.
Twenty-one patients with symptomatic CSH (syncope or near syncope) were randomized to VVI, DDDR, or DDDR with SBR on a double-blinded basis in a sequential crossover fashion with 6 months in each mode.

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