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'Electrical Alternans' (502)


Dec
1969

Arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans are thought to be an important determinant for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. There is limited information on the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on alternans in the intact heart and the conclusions of existing studies, focused on investigating electrical alternans, are conflicted. Meanwhile, several lines of evidence implicate instabilities in Ca handling, not electrical restitution, as the primary mechanism underpinning alternans.

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Dec
1969

A chronic heart failure (CHF) rat underwent epicardial programmed electrical stimulation (PES). Ventricular tachycardia (VT) developed during PES. Mechanical alternans was noted despite fixed tachycardia cycle length.

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Sep
2017

This article characterizes the cardiac autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechanical deformations in the cardiac tissue through the mechano-electric feedback. A simplified and qualitative model is used to describe the system and we also account for temperature effects. The analysis emphasizes a very rich dynamics for the system, with periodic solutions, alternans, chaotic behaviors, etc.

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Sep
2017

Reentrant electrical scroll waves have been shown to underlie many cardiac arrhythmias, but the inability to observe locations away from the heart surfaces and the restriction of observations to only one or two state variables have made understanding arrhythmia mechanisms challenging. Recently, we showed that data assimilation from spatiotemporally sparse surrogate observations could be used to reconstruct a reliable time series of state estimates of reentrant cardiac electrical waves including unobserved variables in one and three spatial dimensions. However, real cardiac tissue is unlikely to be described accurately by mathematical models because of errors in model formulation and parameterization as well as intrinsic but poorly described spatial heterogeneity of electrophysiological properties in the heart.

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Sep
2017

Cardiac memory is the dependence of electrical activity on the prior history of one or more system state variables, including transmembrane potential (V), ionic current gating, and ion concentrations. While prior work has represented memory either phenomenologically or with biophysical detail, in this study, we consider an intermediate approach of a minimal three-variable cardiomyocyte model, modified with fractional-order dynamics, i.e.

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Sep
2017

Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model.

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Jan
2018

Muscular connections between the coronary sinus (CS) and left atrium probably impact distribution of electrical activity. Double atrial potentials (DP) may be their presentation. The aim was to investigate the presence of DP in CS recordings during atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and its contribution to the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF).

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Dec
2017

Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than three million people per year in the United States and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both electrical and structural remodeling contribute to AF, but the molecular pathways underlying AF pathogenesis are not well understood. Recently, a role for Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the regulation of persistent "late" Nacurrent ( I) has been identified.

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Jul
2017

T wave alternans (TWA) is a promising non-invasive risk stratification tool for sudden cardiac death which can be detected from surface ECG. This paper proposes a novel method to automatically detect TWA based on tensor decomposition methods.
Two different tensor decomposition approaches are examined and compared, namely canonical polyadic decomposition and the more generalized variation PARAFAC2 which allows the T waves to shift in time.

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Dec
1969

The development of prognostic factors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to maintain its priority and relevance in cardiology. The development of a method of personalised prognosis based on multifactorial analysis of the risk factors associated with life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances is considered a key research and clinical task.
To design a prognostic and mathematical model to define personalised risk for life-threatening VTA in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

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Jul
2017

Myeloid differentiation protein 1 (MD1) has been implicated in numerous pathophysiological processes, including immune regulation, obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. However, the role of MD1 in cardiac remodelling remains incompletely understood. We used MD1-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates to determine the functional significance of MD1 in the regulation of aortic banding (AB)-induced left ventricular (LV) structural and electrical remodelling and its underlying mechanisms.

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Oct
2017

Obesity/hyperlipidemia is closely related to both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. CaMKII, a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, has been involved in cardiac arrhythmias of different etiologies. However, its role in obesity/hyperlipidemia-related cardiac arrhythmia is unexplored.

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Aug
2017

The border zone (BZ) of the viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodeling and is prone to repolarization alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodeling processes may promote or inhibit Caand/or repolarization alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we used a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation.

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Apr
2017

Cardiac arrhythmias are common causes of death in patients with myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica [DM]). Evidence shows that atrial tachyarrhythmia is an independent risk factor for sudden death; however, the relationship is unclear.
Control wild-type () and DM mutant () mice were generated by crossing double heterozygous knockout () mice.

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Mar
2017

Pseudoelectrical alternans during supraventricular tachycardia.

Turk J Emerg Med 2017 Mar 13;17(1):32-33. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Hesham R Omar, Enrico M Camporesi
We present a case of pseudoelectrical alternans occurring during supraventricular tachycardia.

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Feb
2017

Pulmonary veins (PVs) are thought to play an important role in the initiation of atrial fibrillation. However, systematic microelectrode studies from different regions of the left atria and PV myocardium remain limited.
A 2-microelectrode technique was used to characterize electrophysiological properties of rat left atrial and PV myocardium, at baseline and during electrical stimulation.

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Dec
1969

Clinically, healthy hearts have been associated with a high ventricular heart rate variability (HRV) while diseased hearts have been known to exhibit low ventricular HRV. Hence, low HRV is suggested to be a marker of cardiac ventricular arrhythmias. Over the past few years, there has been considerable amount of interest in incorporating HRV in pacing to emulate healthy heart conditions and re-stabilize the electrical activity in diseased hearts.

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Apr
2017

The E23K variant of the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel has been implicated in cardiac remodeling. However, the effects of E23K variant on ventricular electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis remain unclear.

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Nov
2016

The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown.

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Dec
1969

Electrogram-based identification of the regions maintaining persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a subject of ongoing debate. Here, we explore the concept of local electrical dyssynchrony to identify AF drivers.
Local electrical dyssynchrony was calculated using mean phase coherence.

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Oct
2016

Pre-existing heterogeneities present in cardiac tissue are essential for maintaining the normal electrical and mechanical functions of the heart. Exacerbation of such heterogeneities or the emergence of dynamic factors can produce repolarization alternans, which are beat-to-beat alternations in the action potential time course. Traditionally, this was explained by restitution, but additional factors, such as cardiac memory, calcium handling dynamics, refractory period restitution, and mechano-electric feedback, are increasingly recognized as the underlying causes.

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Sep
2016

The beating of the heart is a synchronized contraction of muscle cells (myocytes) that is triggered by a periodic sequence of electrical waves (action potentials) originating in the sino-atrial node and propagating over the atria and the ventricles. Cardiac arrhythmias like atrial and ventricular fibrillation (AF,VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) are caused by disruptions and instabilities of these electrical excitations, that lead to the emergence of rotating waves (VT) and turbulent wave patterns (AF,VF). Numerous simulation and experimental studies during the last 20 years have addressed these topics.

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Dec
1969

T-wave alternans (TWA) is defined as a consistent variation in the repolarization morphology that repeats on every other beat. This study aimed to evaluate beat-to-beat TWA detection using the Ensemble EMD (EEMD) method.
A total of 108 recordings of standard 12-lead ECGs of 69 healthy subjects (17 females, 42±18 years; 52 males, 40±13 years) and 39 cardiac-condition patients (ischemic cardiomyopathy; ICM and dilated cardiomyopathy; DCM) with left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) ≤40% were studied.

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Nov
2016

This study investigated the effects and associated underlying mechanisms of molsidomine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on cardiac electrical remodeling and ventricular tachycardias (VTs) induced by chronic isoprenaline (ISO) stimulation in rats. The rats were randomly divided into groups that were treated with saline (control group), ISO (ISO group), ISO + molsidomine (ISO + M group), and ISO + molsidomine + the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, ISO + M + O group) for 14 days. An electrophysiological study was performed to assess cardiac repolarization, action potential duration restitution, and the induction of action potential duration alternans and VTs in vitro.

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Sep
2016

Reports of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac pathology at postmortem examination of patients with epilepsy suggest a possible cardiac component of risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). T-wave alternans (TWA) is an established marker of cardiac electrical instability and risk for sudden death in patients with cardiovascular disease. We determined the TWA level before vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) system implantation and subsequently the effect of VNS on TWA in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

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Dec
1969

Cardiac electrical dynamics are governed by cellular-level properties, such as action potential duration (APD) restitution and intracellular calcium (Ca) handling, and tissue-level properties, including conduction velocity restitution and cell-cell coupling. Irregular dynamics at the cellular level can lead to instabilities in cardiac tissue, including alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential and/or the intracellular Ca transient. In this study, we incorporate a detailed single cell coupled map model of Ca cycling and bidirectional APD-Ca coupling into a spatially extended tissue model to investigate the influence of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca uptake and release properties on alternans and conduction block.

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Jun
2016

To observe the effects of local radiofrequency denervation on ventricular effective refractory periods, electrical alternans and ventricular arrhythmia susceptibility post myocardial infarction.
Thirty-four mongrel dogs were randomly divided into the normal heart group (n = 16, 8 in sham and 8 in local sympathetic denervation - LSD) and the acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) group (n = 18, 9 in control and 9 in LSD). The left cardiac sympathetic nerve was denervated with irrigated catheter radiofrequency ablation.

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Jun
2016

Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart.

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Jun
2016

Cardiac alternans has been linked to the onset of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, leading to life-threatening arrhythmias. Here, we investigated the effects of stretch-activated currents (ISAC) on alternans using a physiologically detailed model of the ventricular myocyte. We found that increasing ISAC suppresses alternans if the voltage-Ca coupling is positive or the alternans is voltage driven.

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Dec
1969

Cardiac electrical alternans is a period-2 dynamical behavior with alternating long and short action potential durations (APD) that often precedes dangerous arrhythmias associated with cardiac arrest. Despite the importance of alternans, many current ordinary differential equations models of cardiac electrophysiology do not produce alternans, thereby limiting the use of these models for studying the mechanisms that underlie this condition. Because delay differential equations (DDEs) commonly induce complex dynamics in other biological systems, we investigate whether incorporating DDEs can lead to alternans development in cardiac models by studying the Fox et al.

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May
2016

Studies reveal that the microvolt T wave alternans (MTWA) test has a high negative predictive value for arrhythmic mortality among patients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we investigate the effects of trimetazidine treatment on MTWA and several echocardiographic parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
One hundred patients (23 females, mean age 55.

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Dec
1969

Mechanisms of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with heart failure (HF) are undefined.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate VT/VF mechanisms in HF by using a computational-clinical approach.
In 53 patients with HF and 18 control patients, we established the relationship between low-amplitude action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT) during ventricular pacing at near-resting heart rates and VT/VF on long-term follow-up.

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Dec
1969

Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a common, life-threatening arrhythmia responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Due to challenges in safely mapping VF, a comprehensive understanding of its mechanisms remains elusive. Recent findings have provided new insights into mechanisms that sustain early VF.

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Apr
2016

Fibrosis and altered gap junctional coupling are key features of ventricular remodelling and are associated with abnormal electrical impulse generation and propagation. Such abnormalities predispose to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. In the absence of tissue heterogeneity, high-frequency impulse generation can also induce dynamic electrical instabilities leading to reentrant arrhythmias.

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Dec
1969

Local Heterogeneous Electrical Restitution Properties of Rabbit Atria.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2016 06 28;27(6):743-53. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
Amr Al Abed, Nigel H Lovell, Socrates Dokos
This study aims to characterize the regional variability in rate-adaptation in the atria.
Action potential (AP) responses to pulses with uniform as well as pseudo-random non-uniform pacing intervals were recorded from rabbit sino-atrial node, right and left atrial pectinate as well as pulmonary vein antrum tissue preparations using conventional intracellular glass microelectrodes. Steady-state restitution curves were reconstructed for various AP waveform metrics.

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Apr
2016

Cardiac alternans has been associated with the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of impaired mitochondrial function in the genesis of cellular alternans and to examine whether modulating the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)ameliorates the level of alternans. Cardiomyocytes isolated from control and doxycyline-induced sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)-upregulated mice were loaded with two different Ca(2+)indicators to selectively measure mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+)using a custom-made fluorescence photometry system.

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Jan
2016

For many years, reentrant scroll waves have been predicted and studied as an underlying mechanism for cardiac arrhythmias using numerical techniques, and high-resolution mapping studies using fluorescence recordings from the surfaces of cardiac tissue preparations have confirmed the presence of visible spiral waves. However, assessing the three-dimensional dynamics of these reentrant waves using experimental techniques has been limited to verifying stable scroll-wave dynamics in relatively thin preparations. We propose a different approach to recovering the three-dimensional dynamics of reentrant waves in the heart.

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Dec
1969

Cardiac restitution is the shortening of the action potential duration with an increase in the heart rate. A shorter action potential duration enables a longer diastolic interval which ensures that the heart gets adequate time to refill with blood. At higher rates however, restitution becomes steep and thus, can lead to unstable electrical activity (alternans) in the heart, leading to fatal cardiac rhythms.

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Jan
2016

Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA.

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Mar
2015

A previously fit and well 57-year-old gentleman who had recently undergone a colonoscopy and biopsy of a polyp presented with a 4-day history of progressive breathlessness and abdominal discomfort. The day after admission, he became haemodynamically unstable, developed ischaemic legs and suffered a brief cardiac arrest. Blood tests demonstrated a coagulopathy and hypoglycaemia.

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Dec
1969

Diabetes mellitus is not just a simple metabolic disorder, however, it is considered to be a cardiovascular disease of a metabolic origin. This is apparent especially when speaking about type 2 diabetes (DM II). The objective of our study was to determine whether a comprehensive spa treatment (procedures and drinking cure) may affect the level of the sympathetic tone of patients suffering from DM II.

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Jan
2016

Release of Ca(2+) ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into myocyte cytoplasm and their binding to troponin C is the final signal form myocardial contraction. Synchronous contraction of ventricular myocytes is necessary for efficient cardiac pumping function. This requires both shuttling of Ca(2+) between SR and cytoplasm in individual myocytes, and organ-level synchronization of this process by means of electrical coupling among ventricular myocytes.

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Jan
2016

In contrast to the current textbook model and the current clinical index of dual pathway atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction, here we summarize the discovery and validation of Zhang's phenomenon (originally His electrogram alternans) as a new index of dual pathway conduction. We also describe the new findings of transverse-versus-longitudinal electrical propagation within the AV node as the electrophysiological basis underlining this new index. Thus, a new index and a new model of dual pathway AV conduction are being developed.

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Jan
2016

Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes.

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Mar
2016

Autonomic regulation therapy (ART) with chronic vagus nerve stimulation improves ventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure, but its effects on quantitative T-wave alternans (TWA), ventricular tachycardia (VT), baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic tone remained unknown.
Effects on TWA, a marker of risk of life-threatening arrhythmias; heart rate turbulence (HRT), an indicator of baroreflex sensitivity; heart rate variability; and VT incidence were studied in 25 patients with chronic symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction enrolled in the ANTHEM-HF study (NCT01823887).
Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings made before ART system (Cyberonics, Inc.

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Apr
2016

Detection of atrial repolarization waves free of far-field signal contamination by ventricular activation would allow investigation of atrial electrophysiology and factors that influence susceptibility to atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation (AF).
The purpose of this study was to identify means for high-resolution intracardiac recording of atrial repolarization (Ta) waves using standard clinical electrocatheters and to assess fundamental electrophysiologic properties relevant to AF risk.
In alpha-chloralose anesthetized Yorkshire pigs, we studied effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on PTa and QT intervals and effects of acute atrial ischemia or administration of intrapericardial acetylcholine followed by intravenous epinephrine on susceptibility to AF.

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Mar
2016

The rate of repolarization (RRepol) and so the duration of the cardiac action potential are determined by the balance of inward and outward currents across the cardiac membrane (net ionic current). Plotting action potential duration (APD) as a function of the RRepol reveals an inverse non-linear relationship, arising from the geometric association between these two factors. From the RRepol-APD relationship, it can be observed that a longer action potential will exhibit a greater propensity to shorten, or prolong, for a given change in the RRepol (i.

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