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'Emphysema' (34295)


Feb
2018

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to sixparalogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintupleknockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

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Feb
2018

Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, (COPD); a detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed.
To identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a nested case-control study of COPDGene subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45-80, who smoked at least 10-pack years. Baseline evaluation included: spirometry, high-resolution chest CT, and respiratory questionnaires.

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Jan
2018


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Feb
2018

The toxicology of indium oxide.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Feb 7;58:250-258. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
Ernst M Bomhard
Indium oxide (InO) is a technologically important semiconductor essentially used, doped with tin oxide, to form indium tin oxide (ITO). It is poorly soluble in all so far tested physiologic media. After repeated inhalation, InOparticles accumulate in the lungs.

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Feb
2018

Cigarette smoke (CS) affects DNA damage and cellular senescence signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). p16(INK4a) (p16: a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) is a key marker of cellular senescence, which is induced by CS in lung cells. It is thought that removal of p16 attenuates premature aging by removing senesced cells.

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Feb
2018

To compare characteristics of patients readmitted after discharge by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation with those who were not readmitted and to identify factors associated with readmission risk.
We randomly selected a group of 40 COPD patients with high frequency of readmissions (HFR), who had ≥ 2 admissions by COPD exacerbation within 30 days after the last admission in 2015, and another group of 40 COPD patients with low frequency of readmissions (LFR), with 0-1 admissions in that period.
Patients of the HFR group, compared to those in LFR group, were more frequently males (p = 0.

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Dec
1969

The presence of air leak following lung resection remains a frequent problem, which may prolong hospital stay and increase hospital costs. In the past, some studies documented the efficacy of soft and flexible chest tube in patients who underwent thoracic surgery. Nevertheless, safety in case of post-operative large air or liquid leak remains questionable.

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Dec
1969

Bronchoscopic valve implantation is an established treatment in selected patients with severe lung emphysema. There is evidence in literature of increased bacterial colonization of various implants. So far, it is unclear if an increased bacterial colonization can also be observed after endoscopic valve therapy.

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Dec
1969

The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between computed tomography (CT) densitometry and routine clinical markers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency (AATD).
Multiple databases were searched using a combination of pertinent terms and those articles relating quantitatively measured CT densitometry to clinical outcomes. Studies that used visual scoring only were excluded, as were those measured in expiration only.

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Dec
1969

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading risk factor for COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. A common characteristic of COPD is impaired phagocytosis that causes frequent exacerbations in patients leading to increased morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear.

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Dec
1969

To utilize Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the combined use of multiple types of quantification.
Eighty-seven patients (67 men, 20 women; age, 67.4 ± 11.

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Feb
2018

Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for both. The presence of emphysema, an irreversible lung disease, further raises the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. The mechanisms involved in smoke-induced tumorigenesis and emphysema are not fully understood, attributable to a lack of appropriate animal models.

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Dec
1969

Endobronchial valve placement has potential as a treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, a robust evidence base will be needed to convince commissioners of healthcare that it is a high-value treatment. We sought to develop the evidence base by performing an individual patient-level analysis of randomised controlled trials in people with heterogeneous emphysema and an absence of collateral ventilation.

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Dec
1969

Endoscopic valve therapy aims at target lobe volume reduction (TLVR) that is associated with improved lung function, exercise tolerance and quality of life in emphysema patients. So far, a TLVR of >350 mL was considered to be indicative of a positive response to treatment. However, it is not really known what amount of TLVR is crucial following valve implantation.

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Feb
2018

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 11;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 11.
Shilpa Ojha, Julian Gaskin
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is the presence of free air within the mediastinum that is not associated with trauma. It is a rare, self-limiting condition that can cause widespread subcutaneous surgical emphysema. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with widespread spontaneous surgical emphysema and pneumomediastinum, with no history of trauma or respiratory tract disease.

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Feb
2018

Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) results in alveolar parenchyma destruction due to chronic inflammatory response and the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, and proteases and antiproteases. Emphysema is the main symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current treatment focuses on relieving respiratory symptoms, and inflammation resolution failure is an important pathophysiological element of the disease.

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Feb
2018

The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age).
The LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent's smoking history.

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Feb
2018

We tested whether emphysema progression accompanies enhanced tissue loss in other body compartments in 1817 patients from the ECLIPSE chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohort.Clinical and selected systemic biomarker measurements were compared in subjects grouped by quantitative tomography scan emphysema quartiles using the percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%). Lowest and highest quartile patients had amino-acid metabolomic profiles.

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Feb
2018

To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate patient-specific goals before and after coil treatment in severe emphysema. Thirteen patients reported in the Patient-Specific-Complaints-questionnaire their personal 3 most important treatment goals, and scored on a VAS-scale (0-10) the level of disability per activity before and 1 year after treatment. Most frequently reported goals were walking(n=12), taking a shower/washing(n=5) and cycling(n=3).

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Dec
1969

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by progressive airflow obstruction due to the combined effects of emphysema and small airways disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The complex link between emphysema and airways disease is associated with significant heterogeneity in clinical presentation. Spirometry is the current gold standard for diagnosis and stratification of the severity of airflow obstruction in COPD.

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Dec
1969

Quantitative CT (QCT) imaging-based metrics have quantified disease alterations in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respectively. We seek to characterise the similarity and disparity between these groups using QCT-derived airway and parenchymal metrics.
Asthma and COPD subjects (former-smoker status) were selected with a criterion of post-bronchodilator FEV<80%.

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Dec
1969

We compared the predictive value of prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) features and outcomes.
We analysed COPDGene data of 10 192 subjects with smoking history. We created regressions models with the following dependent variables: clinical, functional and radiographic features, and the following independent variables: prebronchodilator airflow obstruction (PREO) and postbronchodilator airflow obstruction (POSTO), prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV% predicted.

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Mar
2018

Since the publication of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial study, lung volume reduction (LVR) has been considered a therapeutic alternative for patients with advanced obstructive lung disease. The high complication rate of surgical LVR has led to the development of bronchoscopic LVR (BLVR). Of the currently available BLVR alternatives, coils and unidirectional endobronchial valves lead the list.

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Feb
2018

A 9-year-old intact male Bluetick Coonhound presented for progressive subcutaneous emphysema of 5 days' duration due to a suspected tracheal tear. Cervical computed tomography (CT) and thoracic CT were performed after failure to identify the tracheal tear with tracheoscopy. A longitudinal tracheal tear was identified starting 4.

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Dec
1969

Neonatal pneumopericardium (PPC) is a rare form of neonatal air leak syndrome with high morbidity and mortality. Air leak syndrome in the newborn is usually associated with active resuscitation, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation, or trauma associated with labour. Neonatal PPC can be associated with other air leak syndromes such as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and subcutaneous and interstitial emphysema.

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Dec
1969

Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is a hereditary condition characterized by low alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (also known as alpha 1 antitrypsin [AAT]) serum levels. Reduced levels of AAT allow abnormal degradation of lung tissue, which may ultimately lead to the development of early-onset emphysema. Intravenous infusion of AAT is the only therapeutic option that can be used to maintain levels above the protective threshold.

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Dec
1969

In 2013, the Australasian Society of Lifestyle Medicine (ASLM) introduced shared medical appointments (SMAs) for managing chronic disease in clinical practice. The popularity of SMAs has increased with the shift towards a Health Care Homes model. Programmed shared medical appointments (PSMAs) are an extension of the standard SMA model, designed to help manage more complex and specific chronic disease issues.

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Feb
2018

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop.

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Dec
1969

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g.

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Jan
2018

Autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) have been linked to the existence of emphysema in never-smokers. We aimed to quantify emphysema prevalence in RA-ILD never-smokers and investigate whether combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) results in a worsened prognosis independent of baseline disease extent.
RA-ILD patients presenting to the Royal Brompton Hospital (n=90) and Asan Medical Center (n=155) had CT's evaluated for a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, and visual extents of emphysema and ILD.

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Feb
2018


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Feb
2018

α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency-related emphysema is the fourth leading indication for lung transplantation. Chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (Cela1) is a digestive protease that is expressed during lung development in association with regions of elastin remodeling, exhibits stretch-dependent expression during lung regeneration, and binds lung elastin in a stretch-dependent manner. AAT covalently neutralizes Cela1 in vitro.

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Feb
2018

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease, mostly caused by gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were identified as a causative organism in relatively small number of cases. Although, antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli is common cause of gram-negative endocarditis, AmpC beta-lactamase (BL)-harboring E coli is very rare cause of IE.

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Feb
2018

Purpose/Aim of the study: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) present oxidative stress in lung cells, with production of free radicals and DNA lesions in pulmonary and adjacent cells. Once the DNA molecule is damaged, a set of enzymatic mechanisms are trigged to preserve genetic code integrity and cellular homeostasis. These enzymatic mechanisms include the base and the nucleotide excision repair pathways, as well as telomere regulation.

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Dec
1969

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis) of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.
The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture ofwere also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.

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Feb
2018

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent and devastating condition for which no curative treatment is available. Exaggerated lung cell senescence may be a major pathogenic factor. Here, we investigated the potential role for mTOR signaling in lung cell senescence and alterations in COPD using lung tissue and derived cultured cells from patients with COPD and from age- and sex-matched control smokers.

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Feb
2018

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as free air or gas contained within the mediastinum, which almost invariably originates from the alveolar space or the conducting airways. It is rare in pediatric patients; however, occasional cases are reported to result from forced Valsalva's maneuver due to cough, emesis, a first attack of wheeze, or asthma exacerbations. We report the case of a 7-year-old previously healthy girl, with a history of persistent dry cough one day before, who was brought to our unit with face, neck and chest swelling.

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Jan
2018

To compare the presence and extent of several high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) observations in different subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and to examine associations between radiological findings, hospitalization, age, RA duration, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and survival.
HRCTs from 60 RA-ILD patients were independently evaluated and re-categorized into usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and unclassified subtypes by two radiologists. The presence and extent, which was reported using a semi-quantitative scoring system, of e.

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Feb
2018

Cyclical inflation of the lungs depends on the elasticity of lung parenchymal tissues, a mechanical property that is largely determined by elastic fibers and collagen fibers contained therein. Breakdown of elastic fibers in lungs and lack of the ability to repair damaged elastic fibers causes emphysema, and excessive collagen fibrillogenesis in lung parenchyma is critical for the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Recent studies revealed that fibulin-3, 4, and 5, which are matricellular proteins collectively termed "short fibulins" or "elastic fibulins", play crucial roles in the assembly of elastic fibers.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathologic characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). We investigated the association between CPFE, the cancer survival, and the pathological features of clinical stage I NSCLC patients. Between 2005 and 2014, 218 consecutive patients with clinical stage I NSCLC underwent complete resection with systematic lymph node dissection.

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Jan
2018

The incidence and risk factors of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been poorly investigated. We conducted a retrospective study of 632 patients with IPF to assess the incidence and risk factors of lung cancer development. Seventy patients developed lung cancer over a median follow-up period of 3.

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Dec
1969

Among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, 1-18% have an underlying diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and it is suspected that there is under-recognition of this disease. Our intention was to evaluate the specific features of PCD seen on computed tomography (CT) in the cohort of bronchiectasis in order to facilitate the diagnosis.
One hundred and twenty-one CTs performed in patients with bronchiectasis were scored for the involvement, type, and lobar distribution of bronchiectasis, bronchial dilatation, and bronchial wall thickening.

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Jan
2018

Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) into various prostanoids which exert different functions in mammalian physiology. One of these prostanoids, prostaglandin E(PGE), interacts with four different G protein-coupled receptors, named EP, EP, EPand EP, to initiate different downstream signalling pathways. Prostanoid receptors are diversely expressed throughout different tissues all over the body and PGEis responsible for a large variety of beneficial and disadvantageous effects.

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Jan
2018

Lung transplantation is a common treatment for various indications, but undiagnosed neoplasms are found in 0.5% to 2.4% of explanted lungs.

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Feb
2018

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder with varying presentations and progression, but limited disease-modifying therapies. Trajectories of lung function decline in COPD differ significantly between individuals, with differences detectable in young adulthood. "Early disease" (initial manifestations in young individuals) should be distinguished from "late mild disease" (disease of mild severity in older individuals potentially present for decades).

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