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'Eyeball' (575283)


Feb
2018

Today, the search for therapeutic options to treat retinal degeneration often relies on an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathological events. Alternatively, it is conceivable to search, in an undirected screening approach, for chemical compounds affecting disease outcome. For both approaches, there is an urgent need for in vitro and, ideally, in vivo disease models that adequately reflect the site of pathology.

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Feb
2018

Cyclic strabismus is a rare disease of unknown origin. If untreated, it leads to manifest strabismus with the risk of amblyopia in children. Treatment is generally surgical.

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Feb
2018

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with POAG in Asians. We carried out a genome-wide association study and a replication study that included a total of 7,378 POAG cases and 36,385 controls from a Japanese population.

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Feb
2018

Work was undertaken to investigate the potential use of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae reared on broiler manure as a source of nutrition for poultry production in the United Kingdom. Nutritional analysis showed that larvae have a high (>45% dry wt.) protein content and a favorable amino acid profile that is rich in key amino acids, such as lysine and methionine.

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Feb
2018

In this research, we examined effects of higher versus lower threat contexts on attention biases in more and less pain-fearful chronic pain subgroups via eye-tracking methodology. Within a mixed chronic pain sample (69 women, 29 men), biases in orienting and maintenance of visual attention were assessed during the standardized image pair presentation phase (2000ms) of a modified visual dot probe task featuring painful-neutral (P-N) image pairs (lower threat context) and a parallel task in which these P-N pairs cued potential pain (higher threat context). Across both tasks, participants more often oriented towards, gazed longer at, and made more unique fixations upon pain images during P-N pair presentations.

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Feb
2018


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Feb
2018

We recently discovered that the anti-glaucoma pharmaceuticals timolol, a β adrenergic antagonist, and pilocarpine, a cholinergic compound, negatively influence the morphology, proliferative capacity and survival of human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). We hypothesize that another class of anti-glaucoma drugs, the α2 adrenergic agonists, also acts directly on HMGECs to affect their structure and function. We tested this hypothesis.

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Feb
2018

The trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue residing in the iridocorneal angle of the eye, is the primary site of aqueous humor outflow and often develops abnormally in children with anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD). However, the cellular mechanisms underlying both normal and pathophysiological TM formation are poorly understood. Here, we improve the characterization of TM development via morphological and molecular analyses.

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Feb
2018

We have investigated the long term effects of two different models of unilateral optic nerve (ON) lesion on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, in the injured and contralateral retinas of adult albino mice. Intact animals were used as controls. The left ON was intraorbitally crushed or transected at 0.

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Feb
2018

Purpose/aims: Dry eye is a common multi-factorial disease characterized by tearfilm dysfunction. Diagnosis of dry eye requires documentation of tear status with non-invasive tear break up times (NIBUT), tear meniscal height (TMH), and tearfilm lipid layer. These parameters objectively assess tear stability and indirectly, the functional impact of meibomian gland dysfunction.

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Feb
2018

In recent years, amblyopia treatment device that can be used with both eyes open have been reported. The Occlu-pad is a device that can present images of tablet terminals to one eye only under binocular open conditions. Till date, no study has reported the effectiveness of Occlu-pad training for anisometropic amblyopia in a series of cases.

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Feb
2018

This study aimed to calculate a predicted integrated visual field (IVF) based on predicted monocular visual fields (MVFs) derived, with a new method, from wide-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) data.
Visual field testing used the central (6 × 4) 24 points of the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 program. OCT scans of a corresponding retinal area, centered on the fovea, were divided into a 6 × 4 grid.

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Feb
2018

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) still represents the main long-term complication of cataract surgery. Research into pharmacologic PCO prophylaxis is extensive. One promising candidate drug is methotrexate (MTX).

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Feb
2018

To investigate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area after surgery in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) that involved or uninvolved the macula, and to evaluate the correlation between FAZ area and visual outcomes using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
This retrospective case-control study included 34 eyes (34 patients) with recent onset RRD that were successfully repaired with a single, uncomplicated surgical procedure (pars plana vitrectomy with gas tamponade). The changes of FAZ area were examined by OCTA after surgery.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of sex on choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy adults.
Healthy Chinese adults were recruited and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. The choroid was imaged by swept-source optical coherence tomography and the macular CT in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grids was obtained by the intrinsic automated segmentation software.

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Feb
2018

To analyze the retinal radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Twenty-two patients with NTG, 22 patients with unilateral chronic NAION, and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled. Patients underwent OCTA to obtain en face angiograms of the peripapillary region.

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Feb
2018

The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of nailfold videocapillaroscopic examination in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) in comparison to age-matched individuals without glaucoma and young healthy volunteers and to assess the relation between the results of this examination with clinical status in NTG group.
The studied group consisted of 188 patients: 80 patients with NTG and 2 control groups (58 young healthy and 50 age-matched volunteers). The nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) was performed in all participants.

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Feb
2018

Delta Opioids: Neuroprotective Roles in Preclinical Studies.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jan/Feb;34(1-2):119-128
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases.Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses.

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Feb
2018

To assess treatment outcomes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis and relapse rates upon discontinuation of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT).
Medical records of patients with JIA-associated uveitis seen at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the F.I.

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Feb
2018

An exclusive human milk diet (EHM) fortified with human milk-based fortifier decreases necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to maternal milk supplemented with preterm formula and bovine fortifier (PTF). Growth has been less with EHM and also maternal milk supplemented with donor human milk and bovine fortifier (HMBF). The objective was to evaluate the effect of a standardized feeding protocol on the growth of infants ≤1250 g birth weight supported with EHM and HMBF.

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Feb
2018

To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) to determine the need of health policies to diminish prevalence and avoid complications.
To assess frequency, we analyzed data from the National Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance (SUIVE) from 2000 to 2013; to assess the discharge data of varicella and HZ, we evaluated information from the National System of health information (Sinais).
The average annual cases of chickenpox were 296 733, 57% mostly children under 9 years, most of them from March to May.

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May
2018

Retargeting aims at adapting an original high-resolution photograph/video to a low-resolution screen with an arbitrary aspect ratio. Conventional approaches are generally based on desktop PCs, since the computation might be intolerable for mobile platforms (especially when retargeting videos). Typically, only low-level visual features are exploited, and human visual perception is not well encoded.

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Nov
2017

The trigeminal nerve provides corneal sensitivity and trophic supply to corneal tissues. The impairment of corneal innervation leads to development of neurotrophic keratitis (NK). NK is a rare, degenerative corneal disease characterized by corneal hypo/anesthesia and development of nonhealing corneal epithelial defects and ulcers.

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Jan
2018

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy.

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Feb
2018

Humans effortlessly establish a gist-like memory of their environment whenever they enter a new place, a memory that can guide action even in the absence of vision. Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey exhibit a form of this environmental memory. These neurons respond when a monkey makes a saccade that brings the spatial location of a stimulus that appeared on a number of prior trials, but not on the present trial, into their receptive fields (RFs).

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Feb
2018

In a human-automation interaction study, automation assistance level (AL) was investigated for its effects on operator performance in a dynamic, multi-tasking environment. Participants supervised a convoy of manned and unmanned vehicles traversing a simulated environment in three AL conditions, while maintaining situation awareness and identifying targets. Operators' situation awareness, target detection performance, workload, and individual differences were evaluated.

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Feb
2018

Deficits in facial affect recognition (FAR) are often reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to inappropriate visual search strategies. It is unclear, however, whether or not deficits in subliminal FAR are still present in autism when visual focus is controlled. Thirteen persons with ASD and 13 healthy participants took part in this experiment.

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Feb
2018

Microphthalmia is a developmental eye defect that is highly variable in severity and in its potential for systemic association. Despite the discovery of many disease genes in microphthalmia, at least 50% of patients remain undiagnosed genetically. Here, we describe a cohort of 147 patients (93 families) from our highly consanguineous population with various forms of microphthalmia (including the distinct entity of posterior microphthalmos) that were investigated using a next-generation sequencing multi-gene panel (i-panel) as well as whole exome sequencing (WES) and molecular karyotyping.

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Feb
2018

We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in which participants freely moved their eyes to process short paragraphs, while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded in synchronization with their EM. A general linear model was used to estimate at best EFRP, taking account of the overlap between adjacent potentials, and more precisely with the potential elicited at text onset, as well as saccadic potentials.

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Feb
2018

Clark's nutcrackers exhibit remarkable cache recovery behavior, remembering thousands of seed locations over the winter. No direct laboratory test of their visual memory capacity, however, has yet been performed. Here, two nutcrackers were tested in an operant procedure used to measure different species' visual memory capacities.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this study is to determine and compare the changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) or normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
The right eyes of 43 HTG subjects, 33 NTG subjects, and 51 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. Signals were projected from the internal limiting membrane to retinal pigment epithelium.

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Feb
2018

We establish and characterize the chronic retinal neovascularization (RNV) induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-α-aminoadipic acid (AAA) in a rabbit model and investigate the extent and duration of inhibitory actions induced by IVT aflibercept on the RNV.
Rabbits received a single IVT injection of AAA, with weekly follow-up fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). After 10 weeks, they received a single IVT aflibercept or control injection.

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Feb
2018

To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma.
We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18).
A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0.

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Feb
2018

Antitumor T cells need expression of HLA class I molecules but can be inhibited by ligands such as programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). We determined expression and regulation of these molecules in human conjunctival melanoma (CM) samples, cell lines, and murine xenografts.
Immunofluorescence staining was performed to examine the expression of HLA-A, HLA-B/C, and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) in 23 primary CM samples.

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Feb
2018

The compound heterozygous mutations in the β subunit of chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT), encoded by CCT2, lead to the Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). In this study, a cct2 mutant line of zebrafish was established to investigate the role of CCT2 mutations in LCA in vertebrates.
A cct2 mutant zebrafish line was produced using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

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Feb
2018

To investigate the relation between optical properties, population receptive fields (pRFs), visual function, and subjectively perceived quality of vision after cataract surgery.
The study includes 30 patients who had recently undergone bilateral sequential cataract surgery. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and pRF modelling methods to assess pRF sizes across visual cortical regions (V1-V3).

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Feb
2018

Genome-wide association studies suggest a role for the complement system in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We characterized ocular complement activation and evaluated a complement factor D (FD) neutralizing antibody.
Mice were treated with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, intravitreal injection (IVT), or corneal debridement.

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Feb
2018

We sought to determine whether big data from social media might reveal seasonal trends of conjunctivitis, most forms of which are nonreportable.
Social media posts (from Twitter, and from online forums and blogs) were classified by age and by conjunctivitis type (allergic or infectious) using Boolean and machine learning methods. Based on spline smoothing, we estimated the circular mean occurrence time (a measure of central tendency for occurrence) and the circular variance (a measure of uniformity of occurrence throughout the year, providing an index of seasonality).

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Feb
2018

Nitric oxide (NO) has gained attention for its role in facilitating wound healing by promoting cell migration, while being cytoprotective in a variety of cell types. We determined the efficacy of NO, administered using a novel application of copper-chitosan treatments (Cu-Ch), in facilitating corneal epithelial wound healing using an in vitro model of corneal epithelial and limbal epithelial cell injury.
Human corneal epithelial (HCE) and human limbal epithelial (HLE) cells were monitored under no-scratch (CON), untreated scratch (CS), scratch + plain chitosan composite (0%), scratch + 1% copper solution Cu-Ch (1%), and scratch + 2% copper solution Cu-Ch (2%) conditions.

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Feb
2018

Individuals of African descent have been reported to be at higher risk for becoming visually impaired from glaucoma compared with individuals of European descent.
To investigate racial differences in longitudinal visual field variability and their impact on time to detect visual field progression.
This multicenter prospective observational cohort study included 236 eyes of 173 individuals of European descent and 235 eyes of 171 individuals of African descent followed up for a mean (SD) time of 7.

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Feb
2018

Accurate clinical differentiation between skew deviation and fourth nerve palsy (4NP) is critical in the acute and subacute settings.
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the upright-supine test to detect vertical misalignment changes using different head positions for the diagnosis of acute or subacute skew deviation vs 4NP.
This multicenter study enrolled consecutive patients from Coimbra University Hospital Centre, Coimbra, Portugal, and Michigan State University, Lansing, within 2 months of presenting with vertical diplopia and diagnosed as having skew deviation or acquired unilateral 4NP.

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Feb
2018

From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena.
To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena.
Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba.

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Feb
2018


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Feb
2018

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic skin disorder mainly encountered during infancy and childhood. Although with multiple potential localizations, less than 1% of the cases exhibit ocular manifestations. Some of these might lead to serious complications, specifically, secondary glaucoma that can result in severe and blinding eye disease.

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