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'Eyelid Anatomy' (18817)


Feb
2018

The aim of this study was to measure the location of the septoaponeurosis junction relative to the tarsal plate in the upper eyelids of Koreans through a histologic study.Thirty-four upper eyelids from 34 Korean adult cadavers (mean age, 77.8 years) were used.

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Feb
2018

Thick skin presents a unique set of challenges within the realm of facial plastic surgery, and addressing the lower lid complex is no exception. There are several procedures for addressing the lower lids, the first and foremost being lower lid blepharoplasty. However, the remaining procedures combined with surgical techniques have exclusive implications in thick skin.

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Nov
2017

Conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions constitute a significant diagnostic challenge and it is essential to exclude neoplastic lesions. Histopathological and immunohistochemical tests are very useful in establishing the correct diagnosis. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) is part of a spectrum of lymphocytic infiltrative disorders.

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Dec
2017

Alterations of facial muscles may critically humper patients' quality of life. One of the worst conditions is the reduction or abolition of eye blinking. To prevent these adverse effects, surgical rehabilitation of eyelid function is the current treatment choice.

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Dec
2017

Though giant malignant tumors arising in the eyelid are rare, they often require extensive surgery for removal along with orbital exenteration. Because of this, repairing orbital defects is an important factor in the surgical strategy.
Case 1 was a 78-year-old nomad man who presented in the Department of Ophthalmology with a giant tumor in his right eyelid, which had developed over three years.

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Dec
2017

The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data.
A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life).

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Dec
2017

The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the periorbital anthropometry between national Beauty Pageant Contestants and Ordinary Young Women with Korean ethnicity.
Forty-three Beauty Pageant Contestants who were elected for the national beauty contest and forty-eight Ordinary Young Women underwent 3D photography. The authors analyzed 3D photogrammetric measures regarding periorbital soft tissue.

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Feb
2018

Elsahy-Waters syndrome (EWS), also known as branchial-skeletal-genital syndrome, is a distinct dysmorphology syndrome characterized by facial asymmetry, broad forehead, marked hypertelorism with proptosis, short and broad nose, midface hypoplasia, intellectual disability, and hypospadias. We have recently published a homozygous potential loss of function variant in CDH11 in a boy with a striking resemblance to EWS. More recently, another homozygous truncating variant in CDH11 was reported in two siblings with suspected EWS.

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Dec
2017

OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes.

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Dec
1969

  Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute childhood panvasculitis, presents a variety of ocular complications as well as conjunctival injection among the principal symptoms. However, most pediatricians are unfamiliar with the ophthalmological complications of KD. A 2-year-old girl was referred to us from the ophthalmology department due to injected bulbar conjunctivae and optic disc swelling.

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Dec
1969

Reconstruction of the eyelids after skin cancer excision can be challenging. Surgical treatment options are multiple; deep anatomy knowledge of lamellar components is mandatory to choose the most adequate surgical planning. Eyelids' role in vision and social relationship is critical; both function and aesthetics are tough to restore.

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Feb
2018

The Surgical Management of Infantile Hemangiomas.

Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018 Feb;51(1):125-131
Milton Waner
The surgical management of facial infantile hemangiomas presents a unique challenge. The aim of the surgeon should be to remove the hemangioma and to restore normal facial features. Each of the facial zones has its own special features and challenges.

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Dec
2017

To evaluate the use of perforated punctal plugs with adjuvant application of mitomycin-C in the management of acquired external punctal stenosis grades 0 and 1.
This is a prospective interventional case series including 30 eyes of 30 patients with acquired external punctal stenosis of the lower punctum of grades 0 and 1 presenting with epiphora. They were examined to exclude other causes of lacrimation and epiphora: Slit-lamp assessment of the stenosed punctum and grading was done, probing was done to exclude associated canalicular stenosis, and syringing was done to exclude nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

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Dec
2017

The authors describe a minimally invasive surgical technique to re-establish corneal sensibility in a patient with neurotrophic keratopathy with the supraorbital nerve harvested endoscopically.
Pedicled contralateral supraorbital nerve was harvested endoscopically through small eyelid crease and scalp incisions and transferred to the affected eye.
Endoscopic corneal neurotization was successfully performed with restoration of corneal sensibility and corneal epithelial integrity.

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Nov
2017

The S100 fused-type proteins hornerin (HRNR) and filaggrin-2 (FLG2) are members of the epidermal differentiation complex, which is involved in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes via cornification as well as maintenance of the epidermal antimicrobial barrier. We investigated the expression and possible regulation of HRNR and FLG2 at the ocular surface and in the lacrimal apparatus.
Tissues of the lacrimal apparatus and ocular surface were analyzed systematically by means of RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immuntransmission electron microscopy (iTEM) for their ability to express and produce HRNR and FLG2.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the efficacy and complications of a novel surgical technique for cicatricial lower lid ectropion that uses a vertical-to-horizontal (V-to-H) rotational myocutaneous flap procedure (Tsai procedure).
We performed the V-to-H rotational myocutaneous flap procedure on 20 eyelids in 20 patients with mild to moderate cicatricial lower lid ectropion. A vertical myocutaneous flap was created from the anterior lamella of the vertical pedicle in the lateral third of the lower eyelid.

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Dec
1969

Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation and Complications.

Semin Ophthalmol 2018 27;33(1):134-141. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
Jia Yin, Ula Jurkunas
Corneal epithelial stem cells are adult somatic stem cells located at the limbus and represent the ultimate source of transparent corneal epithelium. When these limbal stem cells become dysfunctional or deficient, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) develops. LSCD is a major cause of corneal scarring and is particularly prevalent in chemical and thermal burns of the ocular surface.

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Dec
1969

Bayraktar C, Şimşek A. Evaluation of choroidal thickness measurements in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 62-67.

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Dec
1969

Ascher's syndrome consists of double lip, blepharochalasis and sometimes non-toxic thyroid enlargement. It is a rare, benign, rarely reported, and sometimes misdiagnosed condition that most often affects patients under 20 years old. The etiology remains unknown, although factors such as trauma, hormonal dysfunction and heredity have been suggested.

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Dec
1969

This study aimed to determine the relationship between lower eyelid epiblepharon and epicanthus in Korean children.
We performed a retrospective review of the medical records and preoperative photographs of 119 patients. These patients were aged 18 years or younger who underwent lower lid epiblepharon repair from January 2010 to December 2012.

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Dec
1969

To investigate differences in the palpebral fissure eyelid position in Japanese subjects and in Brazilian subjects of European descent over 50 years of age.
A cross-sectional study evaluating 50 Japanese subjects and 50 Bra---zilian subjects of European descent over 50 years of age was performed to evaluate the effect of aging on eyelid position. Digital photographs were taken with the eyes in the primary position and transferred to a computer to be processed by Scion imaging software for evaluation of palpebral fissure width, height, and margin reflex distance (MRD).

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Dec
1969

To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium.
In this retrospective consecutive case series, 26 pterygium specimens and 15 normal conjunctival specimens of 15 control subjects were in vestigated. Expressions of HBD-1, HBD-2, HBD-3, and LL-37 were assessed using immuno histochemical staining.

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Nov
2017

Diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies, also called ischemic third nerve palsies, are the most common etiologic subset of oculomotor nerve palsy in adults. Diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies typically present with ptosis and diplopia, but pupillary function is often spared. The oculomotor nerve separates into superior division and inferior division, with the superior division innervating the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris.

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Nov
2017

Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign vascular eyelid tumor in childhood. The periocular lesion appears within the first few weeks after birth and usually has superficial or deep components. Primary conjunctival capillary hemangiomas are rarely reported.

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Nov
2017

A 20-year-old girl presented with a large pigmented lesion over the temporal aspect of left lateral canthus involving the lateral one-third of both eyelids, since birth. A slow increase in its size had been noticed for the past 2 years. On examination, a hairy nevus measuring 34 mm × 22 mm was noticed involving left eyelid skin, the mucocutaneous junction (MCJ), palpebral conjunctiva, and lateral canthus.

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Dec
1969

Human subjects with pseudohypoaldosteronism-1 because of loss-of-function mutations in epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits exhibit meibomian gland (MG) dysfunction. A conditional βENaC MG knockout (KO) mouse model was generated to elucidate the pathogenesis of absent ENaC function in the MG and associated ocular surface disease. βENaC MG KO mice exhibited a striking age-dependent, female-predominant MG dysfunction phenotype, with white toothpaste-like secretions observed obstructing MG orifices at 7 weeks of age.

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Nov
2017

Eyelid Reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Nov;140(5):724e-735e
Edward I Chang, Bita Esmaeli, Charles E Butler
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe eyelid anatomy and demonstrate full understanding of the critical structures and basic principles of eyelid reconstruction. 2.

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Nov
2017

Facial rejuvenation continues to be an increasing trend among males. The periorbital region deserves special mention given the overall differences in aesthetics between sexes.
To examine the aesthetics of the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, lateral canthus, and brow with respect to male periorbital rejuvenation.

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Oct
2017

To evaluate the prognosis in Chinese patients with conjunctival melanoma and determine its predictors. Further, to explore the racial differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between Chinese and Caucasian patients.
This cohort study included 57 eyes of 57 consecutive patients with pathologically verified conjunctival melanoma between 1996 and 2016.

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Nov
2017

Clinical and laboratory studies performed over the past few decades have discovered that dry eye is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be initiated by numerous extrinsic or intrinsic factors that promote an unstable and hyperosmolar tear film. These changes in tear composition, in some cases combined with systemic factors, lead to an inflammatory cycle that causes ocular surface epithelial disease and neural stimulation. Acute desiccation activates stress signaling pathways in the ocular surface epithelium and resident immune cells.

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Nov
2017

[Whitnall's ligament suspension technique in ptosis surgery].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2017 Nov 18;40(9):763-769. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
C Daoudi, K O Chahdi, O Lezrek, A Karim, R Daoudi
We report our experience in ptosis surgery using the technique of Whitnall's ligament suspension in congenital ptosis.
A retrospective study of 20 cases of congenital ptosis treated by the technique of Whitnall's ligament suspension, 8 by the posterior approach and 12 by the anterior approach. Patients were randomized into 3 groups according to upper eyelid levator function.

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Dec
1969

This study aimed to determine if rebamipide eyedrops can improve ocular surface damage caused by the use of glaucoma eyedrops.
Female Kbl:Dutch rabbits were used to evaluate glaucoma eyedrop-induced ocular surface damage; one eye of each rabbit was untreated and the other was administered glaucoma eyedrops for 30 days. To evaluate the effects of rebamipide on ocular surface damage, one eye of each rabbit was administered vehicle-treated glaucoma eyedrops and the other was administered rebamipide-treated glaucoma eyedrops for 30 days.

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Oct
2017

Anatomy of lower eyelid and eyelid-cheek junction.

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 14;62(5):365-374. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
A Mojallal, S Cotofana
Understanding the anatomy of the lower eyelid and the lid-cheek junction is important for surgical and non-surgical approaches. It is important to understand the correlation between the clinical presentation and the individual anatomy to direct an adequate treatment.
A review of the literature based on the authors experience combined with anatomical dissections was conducted to reveal the current concepts of the surgical and non-surgical anatomy.

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Oct
2017

Lipoblastoma is a rare tumor that is not commonly seen in the orbit. The authors present clinical features, histopathologic findings, changes in the radiologic findings over time, and the radiological-pathological correlation of orbital lipoblastoma in an infant. A 3-month-old male infant presented with a palpable mass on the left upper eyelid.

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Nov
2017

Postsurgical fibrosis is a critical determinant of the long-term success of glaucoma surgery, but no reliable biomarkers are currently available to stratify the risk of scarring.
To compare the clinical phenotype of patients with conjunctival fibrosis after glaucoma surgery with candidate gene expression tissue biomarkers of fibrosis.
In this cross-sectional study, 42 patients were recruited at the time of glaucoma surgery at the Moorfields Eye Hospital from September 1, 2014, to September 1, 2016.

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Sep
2017

To report the histological microscopic anatomy of the interlower and postlower eyelid retractor (LER) fat pads.
In this experimental microscopic study, 31 exenterated orbits from 31 Japanese cadavers (19 right and 12 left; 15 male and 16 female; mean age of death, 81.0±8.

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Dec
1969

Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage.

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Jan
2018

The nasolacrimal duct (NLD) connects the orbital (often associated with the Deep Anterior Orbital gland: DAOG, a.k.a.

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Dec
1969

Assess potential risk factors for severe Meibomian gland atrophy (SMGA) in a young adult population.
Cross-sectional study using medical history and ocular surface examination to evaluate relationships with study outcomes: SMGA, tear lipid layer (TLL) thickness, non-invasive (NITBUT) and fluorescein (FTBUT) tear breakup times, and symptoms using the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire.
One hundred one participants (101; 202 eyes; Age: mean±SD = 22.

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Dec
1969

Lentigo maligna has an extensive and neoplastic character. It typically progresses slowly and may eventually develop into an invasive melanoma, which is called lentigo maligna melanoma. Ocular melanoma is the second most common type of melanoma.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the clinical results of patients treated by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) following excision of conjunctival and limbal tumors.
A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients who underwent AMT after total lesion-free tumor excision and perilesional cryotherapy were evaluated.
The excised tumors comprised 7 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 conjunctival nevus, 1 primary acquired melanosis, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma.

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Dec
1969

The evaluation of morphological changes of the acini in the meibomian glands is important for the diagnosis and management of dry eye related to meibomian gland dysfunction. While several tools have been developed to detect meibomian gland structure, infrared imaging is generally used in clinical settings. Unlike the lipid component analysis of tear film in which quantitative analysis is possible, the meibomian glands are limited to qualitative analysis because of the low image quality of the diagnostic tools.

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Dec
1969

Meibomian glands secrete meibum, which gives rise to the lipid layer of the tear film and thereby prevents excessive evaporation of tear fluid. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a major causative condition of evaporative dry eye, which is more common than the aqueous-deficient type of dry eye. Noninvasive meibography relies on infrared light and an infrared-sensitive camera to reveal the morphology of meibomian glands in both the upper and lower eyelids, whereas tear interferometry allows both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the lipid layer of the tear film.

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Dec
1969

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has a pivotal role in the regulation of morphogenesis during development and maintenance of homeostasis in adult eyelid and its adnexa. Studies have demonstrated that during eyelid morphogenesis the EGFR signaling pathway is responsible for keratinocyte and mesenchymal cell proliferation and migration at the eyelid tip. For meibomian gland morphogenesis, EGFR signaling activation stimulates meibomian gland epithelial cell proliferation.

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Dec
2017

This study evaluated the effects of cigarette smoking on the ocular surface, tear function, and tear osmolarity.
A total of 50 smokers with at least 5 years of heavy smoking (defined as 1 pack/day) and 51 nonsmoking, healthy individuals were enrolled. Tear osmolarity was measured with an osmometer (TearLabOsmolarity System).

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Dec
2017

Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty.

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Oct
2017

[Botulinum toxin: An important complement for facial rejuvenation surgery].

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 19;62(5):495-519. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
C Le Louarn
The improved understanding of the functional anatomy of the face and of the action of the botulinum toxin A leads us to determine a new injection procedure which consequently decreases the risk of eyebrow and eyelid ptosis and increases the toxin's injection possibilities and efficiencies. With less units of toxin, the technique herein described proposes to be more efficient on more muscles: variable toxin injections concentration adapted to each injected muscle are used. Thanks to a new procedure in the upper face, toxin A injection can be quite close to an endoscopic surgical action.

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