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'Facial Bone Anatomy' (63553)


Feb
2018

Facial nerve anomalies are a potential problem in patients with cochleovestibular malformations. A case of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the presence of intra-temporalbone facial nerve bifurcation is presented. During the first surgery, the facial nerve bifurcation obscured the promontory and round window.

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Feb
2018

This study investigated the effect of periosteal graft + platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination on facial bone defect healing.
Five-millimeter critical sized defects in zygomatic arches of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits were created. Rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: First group (control group): bone defects of left zygomatic arches of 6 rabbits were wrapped with a silicone tube.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to describe the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes in a group of growing skeletal Class III patients treated with hybrid rapid palatal expansion and facemask.
Twenty-eight growing patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were treated using a rapid maxillary expander with hybrid anchorage according to the ALT-Ramec protocol (SKAR III; E.P.

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Feb
2018

Mandibular retrognathism is a type of malocclusion that refers to an abnormal posterior position of the mandible as a result of a developmental abnormality. From the literature, it is evident that the mandibular growth pattern is determined by the intramembranous ossification of the mandibular body and endochondral ossification of the condyle. Matrilin-1 is a cartilage extracellular matrix protein, and matrilin-1 gene (MATN1) polymorphisms have been found to be involved in dental malocclusions of humans.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical success of 2 lingual retainer wires.
The 120 patients included in the study were divided into 2 groups randomly. In group 1, 0.

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Feb
2018

Dentofacial asymmetries are often observed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvements. The aim of this split-face study was to associate types of radiologic TMJ abnormalities with the degree of dentofacial asymmetry in patients with unilateral TMJ involvements assessed with cone-beam computed tomography.
Forty-seven JIA patients and 19 nonarthritic control subjects were included in the study.

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Feb
2018

Orbital compartment syndrome typically occurs due to trauma or burns. Here we discuss a case of spontaneous lamina papyracea dehiscence associated with transient orbital compartment syndrome. A previously healthy woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of unilateral eye pain after nose blowing.

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Nov
2017

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is most often seen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Data about TAO occurred in patients with thyroid carcinoma are rare. We give a report of 5 patients to present the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this type of case.

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Dec
1969

is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. It is one of the best-represented fossil dinosaur taxa, known from hundreds of specimens including at least 13 complete or nearly complete skulls. Surprisingly, the internal cranial anatomy ofhas never been described using computed tomography (CT) methods.

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Nov
2017

This study adds important information regarding the morphological alterations caused by growth hormone hypersecretion in the skull and craniocervical junction (CCJ). A variably asymmetric skull due to acromegaly coexists with expansion of the paranasal sinuses and multiple Wormian bones.
A pathologically asymmetric dry skull of a European male, aged 38 years at death, with cranial vault and skull base thickening is described.

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Dec
1969

We here present a comparative study of the Montmaurin-LN Middle Pleistocene mandible (Haute-Garonne, France). This mandible, of which its right and left molar series are preserved in situ, was found in La Niche cave (Montmaurin's karst system) in 1949, and was first attributed to the 'Mindel-Riss' interglacial (= MIS 9 to 11) based on its geological context. Later studies based on geological and faunal evidence have attributed the Montmaurin-LN mandible to MIS 7.

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Dec
1969

Labial grooves in maxillary incisors have been reported in several wild-type rodent species. Previous studies have reported age-dependent labial grooves occur in moderate prevalence in C57BL/6 mice; however, very little is known about the occurrence of such grooves. In the present study, we observed age-dependent groove formation in C57BL/6 mice up to 26 months after birth and found that not only the frequency of the appearance of incisor grooves but also the number of grooves increased in an age-dependent manner.

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Jan
2018

In this study, we investigated volumetric and dimensional changes to the pharyngeal airway space after isolated mandibular setback surgery for patients with Class III skeletal dysplasia.
Records of 28 patients who had undergone combined orthodontic and mandibular setback surgery were obtained. The sample comprised 17 men and 11 women.

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Jan
2018

Our objective was to investigate craniofacial morphology in women with Class I occlusion and maxillary anterior crowding (MxAC) with bilateral palatal displacement of the lateral incisors and facial displacement of the canines.
Thirty-three women with normal occlusion (mean age, 20.7 ± 2.

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Jan
2018

Skeletal and dental discrepancies cause asymmetric malocclusions in orthodontic patients. It is difficult to achieve adequate functional occlusion and guidance in patients with congenital absence of a mandibular incisor due to the tooth-size discrepancy. Here, we describe the orthodontic treatment of a 22-year-old woman with an asymmetric Angle Class II malocclusion, mandibular deviation to the left, and 3 mandibular incisors.

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Dec
1969

Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is clinically used in dentistry to access the stiffness of dental implants in surrounding bone. However, the clear advantages and disadvantages of this method are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare implant stability quotient (ISQ) values obtained from RFA with parameters obtained from a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the same region.

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Dec
2017

To establish SD rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant chronic periodontitis (CP) and to evaluate the influence of periodontitis on the vascular lesions of type 2 diabetes rats.Totally 241 clean level SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, group A (normal control, NC,27), group B (DM,34), group C (CP,90) and group D (DM+CP,90). The rats of DM group were fed with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 8 to 10 weeks, and then were multiply injected with small dose streptozotocin under the condition of ice bath.

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Dec
1969

Greater understanding and acceptance of the new concept "bone quality", which was proposed by the National Institutes of Health and is based on bone cells and collagen fibers, are required. The novel protein Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is associated with osteoprotection by regulating bone cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mechanical loads on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers around implants in rat maxillae.

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Jun
2017

The Aesthetic Zone Challenge.

Dent Today 2017 Jun;36(6):74, 76-7
George E Kirtley

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Dec
1969

Integrated development of diverse tissues gives rise to a functional, mobile vertebrate musculoskeletal system. However, the genetics and cellular interactions that drive the integration of muscle, tendon, and skeleton are poorly understood. In the vertebrate head, neural crest cells, from which cranial tendons derive, pattern developing muscles just as tendons have been shown to in limb and trunk tissue, yet the mechanisms of this patterning are unknown.

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Jan
2018

Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated.

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Dec
1969

CCN2, also known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is a 38 kDa cysteine-rich extracellular matrix protein that regulates a sequence of cellular functions and participates in multiple complex biological processes, such as chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. In the present study, we provided the first evidence describing the physiological role of CCN2 in condylar chondrocyte proliferation, migration, maturation and differentiation. CCN2 was widely expressed throughout the whole layers of condylar cartilage and predominantly distributed in the proliferative zone.

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Feb
2018

Variation in the shape of the human face and in stature is determined by complex interactions between genetic and environmental influences. One such environmental influence is malnourishment, which can result in growth faltering, usually diagnosed by means of comparing an individual's stature with a set of age-appropriate standards. These standards for stature, however, are typically ascertained in groups where people are at low risk for growth faltering.

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Dec
1969

Alveolar bone remodelling is vital for the success of dental implants and orthodontic treatments. However, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms, in particular the function of the periodontal ligament (PDL) in bone loading and remodelling, are not well understood. The PDL is a soft fibrous connective tissue that joins the tooth root to the alveolar bone and plays a critical role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the surrounding bone.

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May
2017

We report a case of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation in a 3-year-old child, who attended our department, and have carried out a literature review. Clinical relevance: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition but clinicians need to be aware of it as this lesion can have potentially life-threatening complications due to massive haemorrhage.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of growth factor loaded collagen membranes on new bone formation during horizontal bone augmentation. Mandibular defects (4 × 4 × 4 mm) were surgically prepared in six male beagle dogs, which were then protected with one of three types of membranes: (1) titanium mesh, (2) titanium reinforced collagen, or (3) rhBMP-2 loaded titanium reinforced collagen. Animals were euthanized 8 and 16 weeks after surgery, and nondecalcified specimens were prepared and histomorphologically investigated to determine the degree of osteogenesis.

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Dec
1969

Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape.

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Dec
2017

Our objectives were to compare, relative to A-point, (1) bone thickness over the most forward maxillary incisor (MFMI) in 2 dimensions vs 3 dimensions, and (2) bone thickness and inclination of each maxillary incisor in 3 dimensions.
Thirty-four cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were coded, and 2-dimensional (2D) cephalograms were derived from each image using Dolphin software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif). A-point and the MFMI crown were located.

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Dec
2017

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a local unilateral IGF-1 injection into the mandibular condylar cavity can induce unilateral endochondral mandibular growth without any systemic adverse effects.
Seventy-five 3-week-old male Jcl:ICR mice were used in this study. The mice were divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 22) and IGF-1 group (n = 53).

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Dec
2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the distances from the maxillary posterior root apices to the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus using cone-beam computed tomography images and the relationships between roots and maxillary sinus according to age, sex, and skeletal pattern.
Three-dimensional images of each root were checked, and the distances were measured along the true vertical axis from the apex of the root to the sinus floor in 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) aged 10 to 28 years. Compare-means statistic tests were done to assess the differences between groups classified according to age, sex, and skeletal pattern.

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Dec
1969

Ungulate mortality profiles are commonly used to study Neanderthal subsistence strategies. To assess the hunting strategies used by Neanderthals, we studied the ages at death of the cervids and equids found in levels E, H, I, Ja, Jb, K, L and M of the Abric Romaní sequence. These levels date between 43.

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Oct
2017

To evaluate the bone structure of the mandibular condyle through an animal model, after ovariectomy.
Thirty-six female Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups. The OVX group was submitted to bilateral ovariectomy, the SHAM group underwent the same surgical treatment, but without removal of the ovaries.

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Jan
2018

Oral and Maxillofacial Anatomy.

Radiol Clin North Am 2018 Jan 10;56(1):13-29. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
Mitra Sadrameli, Mel Mupparapu
This article deals with identification and descriptions of intraoral and extraoral anatomy of the dental and maxillofacial structures. The anatomic landmarks are highlighted and described based on their radiographic appearance and their clinical significance is provided. Cone beam CT-based images are described in detail using the multiplanar reconstructions.

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Jan
2018

Dental Anatomy and Nomenclature for the Radiologist.

Radiol Clin North Am 2018 Jan 12;56(1):1-11. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
Mohammed Abbas Husain
Head and neck imaging studies frequently encompass the oral cavity and human dentition. Given the relatively wide prevalence of dental disease, the likelihood of detecting incidental dental pathology is high. This article provides an overview of dental terminology, anatomy, restorations, and associated computed tomography imaging artifacts necessary to more effectively interpret and communicate findings related to teeth.

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Dec
2016

For many years, it has been considered necessary to restore posterior support with a bilateral free-end saddle when a full upper denture is opposed by a shortened dental arch. It was thought that this would provide occlusal stability and prevent anterior bite collapse and temporomandibular dysfunction. As free-end saddle partial dentures are often poorly tolerated by patients, this case study tests whether a retentive full-upper denture occluding with a shortened dental arch offers enough to fulfil a patient’s needs.

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Dec
2017

How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior.

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Nov
2017

The precise knowledge of the position of canalis mandibulae and foramen mandibulae is important for surgical and endodontic interventions on the mandible.
The aim of the study is to examine the position of these anatomical landmarks in different vertical facial types.
In the panorama radiograph of 26 normodivergent, 26 hypodivergent and 28 hyperdivergent arthritis (total of 1360 measurements) we measured the distance between the canalis mandibulae and interdental septums, the apex of the lateral teeth, the mandibular base, the goniac angle, and the steepness of the canal and the distance the foramen mandibulae to the anterior and posterior margin of the ramus.

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Nov
2017

Coronectomy of lower impacted wisdom teeth is the partial removal of third molars, aiming to avoid inferior alveolar nerve injuries. The coronectomy procedure has several crucial points, such as the pulpal, periapical preoperative conditions of the tooth, the way of crown sectioning and decoronation, the wound closure and the length of patients' follow up. In addition it is important to identify and manage possible intraoperative or postoperative complications correctly.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied.
The variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base.

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Nov
2017

This article describes the complex dental treatment of a 43-year-old man with skeletal Class II, mandibular asymmetry, severe brachyfacial pattern, Class II Division 2, canting of the occlusal plane, and an increased curve of Spee. To achieve optimal results, we adopted a multidisciplinary approach to treatment, involving periodontics, oral surgery, orthodontics, maxillofacial surgery, and prosthetics specialists. After periodontal treatment, miniscrews were placed to correct the occlusal plane canting and the excessive curve of Spee with orthodontic treatment.

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Dec
2017

Adaptive radiations are characterized by adaptive diversification intertwined with rapid speciation within a lineage resulting in many ecologically specialized, phenotypically diverse species. It has been proposed that adaptive radiations can originate from ancestral lineages with pronounced phenotypic plasticity in adaptive traits, facilitating ecologically driven phenotypic diversification that is ultimately fixed through genetic assimilation of gene regulatory regions. This study aimed to investigate how phenotypic plasticity is reflected in gene expression patterns in the trophic apparatus of several lineages of East African cichlid fishes, and whether the observed patterns support genetic assimilation.

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Dec
2017

To evaluate the effect of bite positions characterizing different splint treatments (anterior repositioning and stabilization splints) on the disc-condyle relation in patients with TMJ disc displacement with reduction (DDwR), using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
37 patients, with a mean age of 18.8±4.

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Jan
2018

The interferon regulatory factor 6 gene (IRF6) is one of the most conspicuous genes among a large number of candidate risk genes for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, which is considered to be a multifactorial defect. Variants of IRF6 are also suggested to affect normal craniofacial variations, especially in the area of the nose and the upper lip. In the present study, we used lateral cephalograms to establish the relationship between IRF6 and sagittal nasolabial morphology in healthy East Asian subjects.

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Nov
2017

Facial rejuvenation continues to be an increasing trend among males. The periorbital region deserves special mention given the overall differences in aesthetics between sexes.
To examine the aesthetics of the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, lateral canthus, and brow with respect to male periorbital rejuvenation.

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Oct
2017

The presence of endolymphatic hydrops in the inner ear, which can be detected with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI), is widely recognized as the main pathological cause of Ménière's disease (MD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the development of endolymphatic hydrops remains unclear. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between the presence of a high jugular bulb (HJB) and MD, which disrupts the vestibular aqueduct leading to the development of endolymphatic hydrops.

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Dec
2017

New World monkeys (order Primates) are an example of a major mammalian evolutionary radiation in the Americas, with a contentious fossil record. There is evidence of an early platyrrhine occupation of this continent by the Eocene-Oligocene transition, evolving in isolation from the Old World primates from then on, and developing extensive morphological and size variation. Previous studies postulated that the platyrrhine clade arose as a local version of the Simpsonian ecospace model, with an early phase involving a rapid increase in morphological and ecological diversity driven by selection and ecological opportunity, followed by a diversification rate that slowed due to niche-filling.

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Dec
2017

Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa.

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