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'Facial Nerve Anatomy' (12836)


Feb
2018

Facial nerve anomalies are a potential problem in patients with cochleovestibular malformations. A case of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the presence of intra-temporalbone facial nerve bifurcation is presented. During the first surgery, the facial nerve bifurcation obscured the promontory and round window.

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Aug
2017

The limited success in translating basic science findings into effective pain management therapies reflects, in part, the difficulty in reliably assessing pain in experimental animals. This shortcoming is particularly acute in the field of chronic, ongoing pain. Quantitative analysis of facial expressions-the grimace score-was introduced as a promising tool, however, it is thought to reliably assess only pain of short or medium duration (minutes to hours).

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Feb
2018

The suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block is associated with improved post-operative pain management after select craniofacial surgical procedures. This study's objective is to better define the impact of pediatric facial skeletal growth on techniques for accessing the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF).
Pediatric patients with prior thin-slice maxillofacial computed tomography imaging were identified in an institutional radiology database.

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Jan
2018

Ear and the lateral skull base surgery is challenging and yet fascinating for a Neuro-otologist. A thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy is indispensable for the surgeon in order to provide the best possible care.
The aim of the study was to highlight the present day indications for translabyrinthine approach to IAM from a Neuro-otologist perspective.

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Jan
2018

Resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors is challenging because the proximity of the facial nerve puts it at risk of inadvertent injury and subsequent dysfunction. It is critical to consider variations in anatomy and be aware of the potential deviations in the course of the nerve in order to avoid damage.
We present a case of a facial nerve bifurcation identified during resection of a vestibular schwannoma.

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Nov
2017

Facial nerve paresis is an uncommon but concerning condition in the pediatric population. The function and anatomy of the facial nerve is complex, and injuries to this structure may be associated with devastating physiological and psychological implications for the affected child and family. The purpose of this paper was to report a case involving a six-year-old Caucasian female who suffered a blunt traumatic injury to the orofacial region resulting in partial paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve.

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Jan
2018

The zygomaticus major (ZM) is important for the human smile. There are conflicting data about whether the zygomatic or buccal branches of the facial nerve are responsible for its motor innervation. The literature provides no precise distinction of the transition zone between these two branch systems.

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Dec
1969

Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction.

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Dec
2017

Alterations of facial muscles may critically humper patients' quality of life. One of the worst conditions is the reduction or abolition of eye blinking. To prevent these adverse effects, surgical rehabilitation of eyelid function is the current treatment choice.

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Jan
2018

Branchial anomalies in children: A report of 105 surgical cases.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan 29;104:14-18. Epub 2017 Oct 29.
Wanpeng Li, Hongming Xu, Liming Zhao, Xiaoyan Li
Branchial anomalies (BAs) account for 20% of all congenital masses in children. We sought to review the incidence of involvement of individual anomalies, diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, and complications of BAs in children. In addition, we also classified our study and analyzed a congenital lower neck cutaneous fistula near the sternoclavicular joint that was thought to be the skin-side remnant of the fourth BAs.

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Dec
2017

Details regarding the molecular biological features of Bell's palsy have not been widely reported in textbooks. We genetically analyzed facial muscles and clarified these points.
We performed genetic analysis of facial muscle specimens from Japanese patients with severe (House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system V) and moderate (House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system III) dysfunction due to Bell's palsy.

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Dec
2017

To evaluate the usefulness of retroauricular hairline incision (RAHI) in partial superficial parotidectomy (PSP) by comparison with modified Blair incision (MBI).A retrospective analysis of 64 medical records for patients with benign parotid tumors who underwent partial superficial parotidectomy was undertaken (28 were in MBI group, 36 in RAHI group). Size and location of tumors, operative time, occurrence of facial nerve paralysis and Frey's syndrome, and cosmetic outcomes were compared between RAHI and MBI groups.

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Dec
1969

Moebius syndrome, also called congenital facial paralysis is a rare neurological disease, whose etiology is not fully elucidated. It affects especially facial and oculomotor cranial nerves and its clinical feature is peripheral facial paralysis. The objective of the study is to highlight the anatomical and functional changes in the Moebius syndrome and establish certain criteria that should be the basis for reparative surgery in this disease.

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Dec
2017

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but highly disabling neurological emergency. The initial presentations are variable. Most patients of SSEH present with paraplegia or tetraplegia clinically, but recurrent hemiparesis with complete spontaneous recovery, mimicking transient ischemic attack (TIA), is a very rare initial presentation of SSEH.

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Dec
2017

We present a rare case of a neonate with an isolated congenital condition of his right ear involving the outer ear, middle ear, eustachian tube, and the facial nerve, with an external opening into the skull that connects to the oropharynx. Taking this bizarre aspect of the exterior lesion and the oropharyngeal communication into account, we consider the condition presented here, which to our knowledge is the first of its kind to have resulted from a vascular disruption. Laryngoscope, 2017.

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Dec
2017

The facial nerve, the seventh cranial nerve, is of great clinical significance to oral health professionals. Most published literature either addresses the central connections of the nerve or its peripheral distribution but few integrate both of these components and also highlight the main disorders affecting the nerve that have clinical implications in dentistry. The aim of the current study is to provide a comprehensive description of the facial nerve.

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Dec
2017

To report operative findings, postoperative course, and postimplantation performance in patients with cochlear malformations who underwent cochlear implantation. Seventeen patients with malformations which included enlarged vestibular aqueduct (n = 6), Mondini's dysplasia (n = 5) common cavity deformity (n = 3) and incomplete partition type 2 (n = 3) underwent cochlear implantation with Nucleus 22 straight array device at our center. Operative findings described facial nerve anatomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak.

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Feb
2018

The buccal space is an integral deep facial space which is involved in a variety of intra- and extra-oral pathologies and provides a good location for the harvest of the facial artery. The age-related anatomy of this space was investigated and compared to previous reports.
We conducted anatomic dissections in 102 fresh frozen human cephalic specimens (45 males, 57 females; age range 50-100 years) and performed additional computed tomographic, magnetic resonance and 3-D surface volumetric imaging studies to visualize the boundaries and the contents of the buccal space after injection of contrast enhancing material.

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Dec
2017

To investigate the topographical relationship between the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (FSTA) and the temporal branch of the facial nerve (TFN) with the aim of preventing nerve injury during FSTA biopsy. Fifty-seven hemifaces of 33 cadavers were dissected. Vertical lines drawn to the lateral orbital margin (LOM) and the superior root of the helix were used as the anterior and posterior reference positions, respectively.

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Jan
2018

Facial palsy is a severe condition that may be ameliorated by facial reanimation, but there is no consensus about how to judge its success. In this study we aimed to test a new method for assessing facial movements based on 3-dimensional analysis of the facial surfaces. Eleven patients aged between 42 and 77 years who had recently been affected by facial palsy (onset between 6 and 18 months) were treated by an operation based on triple innervation: the masseteric to temporofacial nerve branch, 30% of the hypoglossal fibres to the cervicofacial nerve branch, and the contralateral facial nerve through two cross-face sural nerve grafts.

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Feb
2018

Capillary malformations (CMs), also known as port-wine stains, are the most common type of congenital vascular malformations. Facial CM often occurs with a quasidermatomal distribution according to the sensory trigeminal nerve distribution. With time, these lesions darken progressively, and soft tissue hypertrophy, bony hypertrophy, and/or nodule formation can develop.

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Dec
1969

[Lipoma of the deep lobe of the parotid gland].

Pan Afr Med J 2017 20;28:47. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
Hicham Attifi, Mehdi Lagtoubi
Lipomas of the parotid gland are benign tumors developing from the fatty tissue in the gland. They are rare, accounting for 0.6-4.

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Dec
2017

Spontaneous fluctuations in hemodynamic signals in the absence of a task or overt stimulation are used to infer neural activity. We tested this coupling by simultaneously measuring neural activity and changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the somatosensory cortex of awake, head-fixed mice during periods of true rest and during whisker stimulation and volitional whisking. We found that neurovascular coupling was similar across states and that large, spontaneous CBV changes in the absence of sensory input were driven by volitional whisker and body movements.

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Nov
2017

The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging-especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging.

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Jan
2018

The technical advances in sonography of the past decade have supported the rapid improvement of high-resolution imaging, which enables the quick visualization of peripheral nerves at relatively limited costs. Recently, the possibility of visualizing the extratemporal facial nerve (FN) has been considered. This manuscript describes the first systematic evaluation in cadavers, of a novel ultrasonographic approach with this specific aim.

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Dec
2017

Dissection on to the facial aspect of the zygoma is common in procedures of the midface for trauma, craniofacial deformity, and cosmesis. These procedures carry the risk of injury to the neurovascular structures that exit from the zygomaticofacial foramen (ZFF). The purpose of this study was to map the ZFF, and to establish reliable reference points from which to identify it before and during operation.

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Dec
1969

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are neuromuscular transmission disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding neuromuscular junction proteins. A 61-year-old female and her older sister showed bilateral ptosis, facial and proximal limb weakness, and scoliosis since childhood. Another female sibling had milder signs, while other family members were asymptomatic.

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Nov
2017

After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery.

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Feb
2018

The middle temporal artery (MTA) is the proximal medial branch of the superficial temporal artery (STA), supplying the temporalis muscle along with deep temporal arteries. Its use in vascularized flaps for reconstructive and otologic procedures has been described, yet its potential use in neurosurgery has not been studied. We report a novel technique for exposing the MTA and evaluated its characteristics for extracranial-intracranial cerebrovascular bypass.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this study was to describe the anatomic trajectory of the extracranial needle for percutaneous rhizotomy and correlate this with structures at risk during such a procedure.
Six sides from 3 frozen fresh Caucasian heads were used in this study. Hartel anatomic landmarks for percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy procedures were used.

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Feb
2018

It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements.

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Nov
2017

We aimed to investigate the exact localization of neural pathway and the frequency of nerve fibers, which are located in the pelvic facial layers in the prostate and periprostatic regions.
We used four fresh frozen cadavers in this trial. Anatomical layers of anterior rectus fascia and abdominal rectus muscle were dissected to reach the retropubic area.

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Oct
2017

The zygomatico-orbital artery is the largest artery in the temporal area. With the increasing number of reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries in the area, in-depth understanding of this artery is needed. Thus, the aim of this anatomical study was to determine more information on the zygomatico-orbital artery using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional computer tomography (CT) and color-flow Doppler sonography.

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Nov
2017

Traumatic injuries to the skull base can involve critical neurovascular structures and present with symptoms and signs that must be recognized by physicians tasked with management of trauma patients. This article provides a review of skull base anatomy and outlines demographic features in skull base trauma. The manifestations of various skull base injuries, including CSF leaks, facial paralysis, anosmia, and cranial nerve injury, are discussed, as are appropriate diagnostic and radiographic testing in patients with such injuries.

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Dec
1969

Identification and preservation of the facial nerve (FN) is a major challenge when performing parotidectomy. Anatomic variations of the relation between the FN and the retromandibular vein (RMV) pose a high risk of nerve injury and bleeding during the operation.
An unusual anatomic variation of the relation between the FN and the RMV was unexpectedly detected during superficial parotidectomy.

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Aug
2017

Vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and their relationship to cranial nerves have been used to explain neurological symptoms. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) has variable branches producing vascular loops that can compress the facial cranial nerve (CN) VII and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves. AICA compression of the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex can lead to various clinical presentations, including hemifacial spasm (HFS), tinnitus, and hemiataxia.

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Feb
2018

When facial nerve axotomy (FNA) is performed on immunodeficient recombinase activating gene-2 knockout (RAG-2) mice, there is greater facial motoneuron (FMN) death relative to wild type (WT) mice. Reconstituting RAG-2mice with whole splenocytes rescues FMN survival after FNA, and CD4+ T cells specifically drive immune-mediated neuroprotection. Evidence suggests that immunodysregulation may contribute to motoneuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

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Oct
2017

Leprosy reactions are a significant cause of morbidity in leprosy population. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immunological complication affecting approximately 50% of patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 10% of borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. ENL is associated with clinical features such as skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis.

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Jan
2018

To research the early acute response events of facial nerve injury.
Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Facial nerve anastomosis was performed for rats in study group.

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Nov
2017

The clinical implications of extracapsular dissection over superficial parotidectomy are controversial and limited in data on cost-effectiveness.
To compare extracapsular dissection with superficial parotidectomy for benign parotid tumors with respect to surgical outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
This was a retrospective medical record review and cost-effectiveness analysis performed from August 2012 to November 2015 at a tertiary care institution.

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Nov
2017

Nerves that supply the floor of the oral cavity in rorqual whales are extensible to accommodate the dramatic changes in tissue dimensions that occur during "lunge feeding" in this group. We report here that the large nerves innervating the muscle component of the ventral grooved blubber (VGB) in fin whales are branches of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Therefore, the muscles of the VGB are homologous to second branchial arch derived muscles, which in humans include the muscles of "facial expression.

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Dec
1969

Taste buds are innervated by neurons whose cell bodies reside in cranial sensory ganglia. Studies on the functional properties and connectivity of these neurons are hindered by the lack of markers to define their molecular identities and classes. The mouse geniculate ganglion contains chemosensory neurons innervating lingual and palatal taste buds and somatosensory neurons innervating the pinna.

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Oct
2017

The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway is a key signaling pathway orchestrating embryonic development, mainly of the CNS and limbs. In vertebrates, SHH signaling is mediated by the primary cilium, and genetic defects affecting either SHH pathway members or ciliary proteins cause a spectrum of developmental disorders. SUFU is the main negative regulator of the SHH pathway and is essential during development.

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Oct
2017

Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome is a rare subacute variant of sarcoidosis, characterized by enlargement of the parotid or salivary glands, facial nerve paralysis and anterior uveitis. Granulomas with a peripheral lymphocyte deficit are found in the anatomic pathology of affected organs. It is normally self-limiting, with cure achieved between 12 and 36 months, but some prolonged cases have been reported.

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Oct
2017

[Anatomical basis for rejuvenation surgery].

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 21;62(5):355-364. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
R Sinna, C Herlin, S Garson, S Dast, E Delay
The understanding of the face anatomy is mandatory before to be able to appreciate the different surgical techniques of face lifting. Despite numerous controversies and anatomical variations, we can find in the literature several keystone works that allows us to understand that the soft tissues of the face are not only a superposition of layers but also a tridimensionnal structure with a fibrous system that links the different layers. This structures creates a mix loose spaces, fat and retaining ligament that can be describe in a quite systematic manner.

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Nov
2017

The aim of this study was to obtain information by assessing the relationship between temporal region fascial structures, fat pads, and temporal branches of facial nerve in human fetuses to use the knowledge on treatment of early childhood period surgeries. This anatomic dissection study was conducted on 40 hemifaces with no visible external abnormalities on their faces. Fascial layers and related fat pads of temporal region were dissected layer by layer beginning from superficial to deep.

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Sep
2017

Neuromyelitis optica is a rare, severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, previously described as affecting only the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a highly specific autoantibody, anti-aquaporin-4, lesions are now recognized outside these regions. We report a man with severe, debilitating symptoms resulting from a symptomatic lesion within the diencephalon, manifesting with abnormal circadian rhythms, autonomic dysfunction, behavioral disturbance, and complex visual hallucinations.

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Dec
1969

The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed.

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Oct
2017

The pterional approach (PA), together with its variants, is still one of the most common methods used by surgeons to reach the anterior and middle cranial base. A highly important technical detail during a PA is the preservation of the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve, which can be achieved through an interfascial dissection.
To describe the anatomy of the interfascial vein (IFV), highlighting its recognition as a significant anatomic reference to perform an interfascial dissection (IFD).

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