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'Facial Nerve Embryology' (1486)


Jan
2018

Branchial anomalies in children: A report of 105 surgical cases.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan 29;104:14-18. Epub 2017 Oct 29.
Wanpeng Li, Hongming Xu, Liming Zhao, Xiaoyan Li
Branchial anomalies (BAs) account for 20% of all congenital masses in children. We sought to review the incidence of involvement of individual anomalies, diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, and complications of BAs in children. In addition, we also classified our study and analyzed a congenital lower neck cutaneous fistula near the sternoclavicular joint that was thought to be the skin-side remnant of the fourth BAs.

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Dec
1969

Moebius syndrome, also called congenital facial paralysis is a rare neurological disease, whose etiology is not fully elucidated. It affects especially facial and oculomotor cranial nerves and its clinical feature is peripheral facial paralysis. The objective of the study is to highlight the anatomical and functional changes in the Moebius syndrome and establish certain criteria that should be the basis for reparative surgery in this disease.

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Dec
2017

We present a rare case of a neonate with an isolated congenital condition of his right ear involving the outer ear, middle ear, eustachian tube, and the facial nerve, with an external opening into the skull that connects to the oropharynx. Taking this bizarre aspect of the exterior lesion and the oropharyngeal communication into account, we consider the condition presented here, which to our knowledge is the first of its kind to have resulted from a vascular disruption. Laryngoscope, 2017.

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Jan
2018

The technical advances in sonography of the past decade have supported the rapid improvement of high-resolution imaging, which enables the quick visualization of peripheral nerves at relatively limited costs. Recently, the possibility of visualizing the extratemporal facial nerve (FN) has been considered. This manuscript describes the first systematic evaluation in cadavers, of a novel ultrasonographic approach with this specific aim.

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Oct
2017

The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway is a key signaling pathway orchestrating embryonic development, mainly of the CNS and limbs. In vertebrates, SHH signaling is mediated by the primary cilium, and genetic defects affecting either SHH pathway members or ciliary proteins cause a spectrum of developmental disorders. SUFU is the main negative regulator of the SHH pathway and is essential during development.

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Dec
1969

The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed.

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Sep
2017

Recent findings on the pathogenesis of frontal migraine headache support, besides a central vasogenic cause, an alternative peripheral mechanism involving compressed craniofacial nerves. This is further supported by the efficiency of botulinum toxin injections as a new treatment option in frontal migraine headache patients.
The supraorbital regions of 22 alcohol-glycerine-embalmed facial halves of both sexes were dissected.

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Jul
2017

To illustrate a novel approach for the surgical management of a venous malformation of the facial nerve, including interposition nerve grafting, via an exclusively transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) approach.
Thirty nine-year-old woman with a preoperative House-Brackmann (HB) grade IV facial paresis secondary to a facial nerve tumor.
Surgical excision and interposition nerve graft via a transcanal endoscopic approach.

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Jul
2017

To determine parameters in computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone that would be useful for prediction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery and postoperative facial nerve stimulation (FNS) in patients with inner ear malformations.
Retrospective study.
Tertiary referral center.

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Dec
1969

Objective (1) To analyze reported speech perception outcomes in patients with inner ear malformations who undergo cochlear implantation, (2) to review the surgical complications and findings, and (3) to compare the 2 classification systems of Jackler and Sennaroglu. Data Sources PubMed, Scopus (including Embase), Medline, and CINAHL Plus. Review Methods Fifty-nine articles were included that contained speech perception and/or intraoperative data.

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Mar
2017

We present a case of a 59-year-old man with left upper alveolar numbness of 2 years' duration in the absence of sinonasal symptoms. On physical examination, he demonstrated mild left facial asymmetry and diminished sensation of his left upper alveolus from the left second upper incisor to first canine. CT imaging revealed chronic sinusitis changes of the left maxillary sinus, with reduced volume and depressed anterior wall.

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Jun
2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate complications in patients with head and neck venous malformations (VMs) treated with foam sclerotherapy using sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS).
The authors retrospectively evaluated the complications, pain. and degree of satisfaction in 69 consecutive patients affected by cervicofacial VM managed with STS using the Tessari method in a single institution.

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May
2017

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a rare, multisystemic congenital disease with estimated frequency of 1/26370 births in Europe. Most cases are sporadic and caused by unilateral abnormal morphogenesis of the first and second pharyngeal arches. The aim of this study is to define the types and frequency of maxillofacial and systemic malformations in HFM patients.

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Sep
2016

Aims Labyrinthectomized rats are suitable models to test consequences of vestibular lesion and are widely used to study neural plasticity. We describe a combined microsurgical-chemical technique that can be routinely performed with minimum damage. Methods Caudal leaflet of the parotis is elevated.

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Aug
2017

The aim of this study was to re-examine the structures that determine course of the facial nerve (FN) in the fetal ear region.
We used sagittal or horizontal sections of 28 human fetuses at 7-8, 12-16, and 25-37 weeks.
The FN and the chorda tympani nerve ran almost parallel until 7 weeks.

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Dec
1969

Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia is a rare hindbrain malformation syndrome with a hypoplastic pons, a tissue protrusion into the fourth ventricle, and cranial nerve dysfunction. We here report clinical, imaging, and genetic findings of the first extremely low-birth-weight preterm infant with pontine tegmental cap dysplasia born at 25 weeks of gestation and provide an overview of 29 sporadic cases. A prenatally diagnosed hypoplastic and rostrally shifted cerebellum was indicative of a hindbrain defect and later identified as an early sign of pontine tegmental cap dysplasia in our patient.

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Apr
2017

Polypterus senegalus Cuvier, 1829 is one of the most basal living actinopterygian fish and a member of the Actinopterygii. We analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of cranial muscle development of P. senegalus using whole-mount immunostaining and serial sectioning.

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Jun
2017

The relationship of facial nerve (FN) and its branches with the retromandibular vein (RMV) has been described in adults, whereas there is no data in the literature regarding this relationship in fetuses. The study was conducted to evaluate the anatomic relationships of these structures on 61 hemi-faces of fetuses with a mean age of 26.5 ± 4.

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Apr
2017

To present a child with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) who received simultaneous bilateral simultaneous auditory brainstem implants (BS-ABI) and subsequently presented with bilateral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks unresponsive to standard treatments. To propose a novel rigid retrosigmoid cranioplasty for treating and preventing CSF leaks in children at high risk for this complication.
A 3.

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Feb
2017

To describe a new and more simple surgical procedure for implanting the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) on the short process of the incus in children with ear atresia and atretic plate and present the audiometric results.
Since 2014, pre- and post-operative audiometric tests with tonal and vocal audiometryat the maximal follow up, respectively 33, 22 and 12 months were performed after VSB implantation at the ENT department, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France. 3 children aged 11, 9 and 15 years with conductive hearing loss due to high grade ear atresia and absent ear canal were implanted.

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Mar
2017

To investigate the intracranial abnormalities present in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND), including abnormalities of other cranial nerves, and to describe their auditory abilities.
The prevalence of CND has increased with the development of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are varying degrees of CND from true aplasia to hypoplasia.

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Jan
2017

To review the difficulties that can occur during cochlear implant surgery in patients with inner ear abnormalities and the management thereof.
A retrospective chart review of 316 patients who received cochlear implants was conducted. The data collected included the types of inner ear anomalies, intraoperative findings, and the clinical management strategies.

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Dec
1969

Biallelic mutations in the SBF1 gene have been identified in one family with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4B3) and two families with axonal neuropathy and additional neurological and skeletal features. Here we describe novel sequence variants in SBF1 (c.1168C>G and c.

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Dec
2016

Multiple Pathological Ocular Findings in a Patient With PHACE Syndrome.

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2016 Dec 8;53:e72-e74. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
Elif Demirkilinc Biler, Onder Uretmen
The authors describe a 2-year-old girl diagnosed as having posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome that presented with a large facial hemangioma of the forehead and eyelid, ptosis, microphthalmia, persistent pupillary membrane and pupillary ectopia, congenital oculomotor nerve palsy of the affected eye, and bilateral optic disc dysplasia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e72-e74.

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Jan
2017

Pre-operative radiological identification of facial nerve anomalies can help prevent intra-operative facial nerve injury during cochlear implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and configuration of facial nerve anomalies and their concurrence with inner-ear anomalies in cochlear implant candidates.
Inner-ear and concomitant facial nerve anomalies were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and temporal high-resolution computed tomography in 48 children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss who were cochlear implant candidates.

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Apr
2017

Human-rat geniculate ganglion (GG) have multiple origins: (1) An initial proximity (20 μm) to the endocranial foramen of the IAM, suggests neural crest induction; and (2) The influence of epibranchial placodes: the tensor tympani muscle (TTM) and the otic apical coil.
This study was undertaken to determine the comparative development of human-rat GG.
A light microscopic study of the GG in human material obtained from spontaneous abortions at 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, and 30 weeks, and one neonate was done.

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Nov
2016

Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition with wide phenotypic variability, including hypoplasia of the mandible and external ear. We assembled a cohort of children with facial features within the CFM spectrum and children without known craniofacial anomalies. We sought to develop a standardized approach to assess and describe the facial characteristics of the study cohort, using multiple sources of information gathered over the course of this longitudinal study and to create case subgroups with shared phenotypic features.

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Nov
2016

To test whether there are significant differences in the morphologic features of the enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and its anatomic relationships with adjacent structures between EVA patients with and without other inner ear malformations.
The morphology of vestibular aqueduct, volume of vestibule, and anatomic location of facial nerve (FN) were compared among 3 groups. Group A, 18 control subjects; group B, 32 EVA patients without other inner ear malformations; group C, 14 EVA patients with other inner ear malformations.

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Dec
2016

We report a case of a nine-year-old male who presented with facial nerve stimulation four years after cochlear implantation. Computed tomography was performed revealing a dilated internal auditory meatus and the cochlear implant electrode was found to be protruding into the fallopian canal at the level of the geniculate ganglion. Subsequent genetic analysis demonstrated X-linked deafness type 2 (DFNX2) caused by a novel c.

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Nov
2016

Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysms can be difficult to diagnose and, when large (≥ 7mm), represent a substantial risk to the patient. While most unruptured PCOM aneurysms are asymptomatic, when symptoms do occur, clinical manifestations typically include severe headache (HA), visual acuity loss, and cranial nerve deficit. This case report describes an atypical initial presentation of a large unruptured PCOM aneurysm with symptoms mimicking trigeminal neuralgia, without other associated cranial nerve palsies or neurologic deficits.

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Nov
2016

Ciliopathies represent a broad class of disorders that affect multiple organ systems. The craniofacial complex is among those most severely affected when primary cilia are not functional. We previously reported that loss of primary cilia on cranial neural crest cells, via a conditional knockout of the intraflagellar transport protein KIF3a, resulted in midfacial widening due to a gain of Hedgehog (HH) activity.

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Dec
1969

To prospectively evaluate surgical findings and hearing results in children undergoing surgery for congenital oval or round window malformations (class IV malformations).
A nonrandomized, nonblinded, case series of prospectively collected data.
Fourteen consecutive pediatric patients who underwent 17 surgical procedures for congenital oval or round window malformations in a tertiary referral center were included.

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Jan
2017

Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal.

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Nov
2016

To determine whether a canal wall down mastoidectomy can provide long-term benefit for children with aural stenosis.
Retrospective case series of children with congenital aural stenosis having undergone a canal wall down mastoidectomy over a twelve-year period at a tertiary children's hospital.
Data from thirteen children who underwent a total of twenty canal wall down mastoidectomies for aural stenosis were reviewed.

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Dec
1969

Collective migration depends on cell-cell interactions between neighbors that contribute to their overall directionality, yet the mechanisms that control the coordinated migration of neurons remains to be elucidated. During hindbrain development, facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) undergo a stereotypic tangential caudal migration from their place of birth in rhombomere (r)4 to their final location in r6/7. FBMNs engage in collective cell migration that depends on neuron-to-neuron interactions to facilitate caudal directionality.

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Nov
2016

To determine the optimal surgical approach for cochlear implantation (CI) preoperatively based on the spatial relation of a displaced facial nerve (FN) and middle ear structures and to analyze clinical outcomes of CHARGE syndrome.
Facial nerve displacement and associated deviation of inner ear structures were analyzed in 13 patients (17 ears) with CHARGE syndrome who underwent CI. Surgical accessibility through the facial recess was assessed based on anatomical landmarks.

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Dec
1969

Even when guided by SPECT/CT planning of nodal resection in the head-and-neck area is challenging due to the many critical anatomical structures present within the surgical field. In this study the potential of a (SPECT/)MRI-based surgical planning method was explored. Hereby MRI increases the identification of SNs within clustered lymph nodes (LNs) and vital structures located adjacent to the SN (such as cranial nerve branches).

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Aug
2016

Diagnostic imaging methods are very important for patients with bilateral sensourinoural hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to demonstrate the vestibulocochlear nerve and facial nerve in the internal acoustic canal. Also computed tomography can be helpful to determination of the deficiency of the cochlear nerve.

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Aug
2016

Cross-face nerve grafting combined with functional muscle transplantation has become the standard in reconstructing an emotionally controlled smile in complete irreversible facial palsy. However, the efficacy of this procedure depends on the ability of regenerating axons to breach two nerve coaptations and reinnervate endplates in denervated muscle. The current study tested the hypothesis that adipose-derived stem cells would enhance axonal regeneration through a cross-facial nerve graft and thereby enhance recovery of the facial nerve function.

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Jul
2016

Accessory parotid gland tumors are clinically rare, and their management remains unclear. In this article, we describe our experience with 4 patients-2 males and 2 females, aged 13 to 66 years-who were diagnosed with an accessory parotid gland tumor. All patients presented with an asymptomatic midcheek swelling, and all underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

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Apr
2016

To explore the effectiveness of the zygomatic spindle-shaped osteotomy and internal push of titanium screw anchor for prominent malar.
Between July 2011 and January 2015, 58 patients with prominent malar underwent zygomatic spindle-shaped osteotomy and internal push of titanium screw anchor. There were 3 males and 55 females, aged 18-33 years (mean, 23 years).

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Dec
1969

The caudal migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons from rhombomere (r) 4 to r6 in the hindbrain is an excellent model to study neuronal migration mechanisms. Although several Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) components are required for FBM neuron migration, only Celsr1, an atypical cadherin, regulates the direction of migration in mice. In Celsr1 mutants, a subset of FBM neurons migrates rostrally instead of caudally.

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Aug
2016

To investigate the long-term effectiveness of transmastoid lateral semicircular canal approach (TMLSCCA) to repair cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in children associated with recurrent meningitis and severe congenital inner malformation.
A retrospective study was conducted in a university hospital, academic medical center. Fifteen children with recurrent meningitis, secondary to severe congenital inner ear malformation, were included in the study.

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Apr
2016

We present the case of a 34-year-old Japanese woman with cholesteatoma of the middle ear. During the operation, this patient showed an unusual position of the geniculate ganglion. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images targeting the ear of the present case after the operation.

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Dec
2016

To provide an overview of anomalies of the temporal bone in CHARGE syndrome relevant to cochlear implantation (CI), anatomical structures of the temporal bone and the respective genotypes were analysed. In this retrospective study, 42 CTs of the temporal bone of 42 patients with CHARGE syndrome were reviewed in consensus by two head-and-neck radiologists and two otological surgeons. Anatomical structures of the temporal bone were evaluated and correlated with genetic data.

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Dec
2016

We aimed to determine the effects of methylprednisolone and thymoquinone on nerve healing in a traumatic facial nerve paralysis animal model.
Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: group I: control group received no medication and no trauma; group II: sham group received no medication after facial nerve trauma group III: 5mg/kg/day thymoquinone administered; group IV: 1mg/kg/day methylprednisolone administered. An initial electrophysiological assessment was performed in all the animals.

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Dec
1969

Hmx1 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing lateral craniofacial mesenchyme, retina and sensory ganglia. Mutation or mis-regulation of Hmx1 underlies malformations of the eye and external ear in multiple species. Deletion or insertional duplication of an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) downstream of Hmx1 has recently been described in rat and cow, respectively.

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Dec
1969

Ozone may promote moderate oxidative stress, which increases antioxidant endogenous systems. There are a number of antioxidants that have been investigated therapeutically for improving peripheral nerve regeneration. However, no previous studies have reported the effect of ozone therapy on facial nerve regeneration.

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May
2016

This case report aims to emphasize the importance of preoperative computed tomography to evaluate the anatomy of the facial recess (FR) in order to prevent complications during cochlear implantation (CI) and to discuss alternative surgical approaches for the management of a narrow FR. Failure to notice this anomaly may result in facial nerve (FN) injury or inability to complete CI.
A 50-year-old female with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss presented for CI.

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