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'Forehead Anatomy' (3489)


Feb
2018

Elsahy-Waters syndrome (EWS), also known as branchial-skeletal-genital syndrome, is a distinct dysmorphology syndrome characterized by facial asymmetry, broad forehead, marked hypertelorism with proptosis, short and broad nose, midface hypoplasia, intellectual disability, and hypospadias. We have recently published a homozygous potential loss of function variant in CDH11 in a boy with a striking resemblance to EWS. More recently, another homozygous truncating variant in CDH11 was reported in two siblings with suspected EWS.

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Feb
2018

The Surgical Management of Infantile Hemangiomas.

Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018 Feb;51(1):125-131
Milton Waner
The surgical management of facial infantile hemangiomas presents a unique challenge. The aim of the surgeon should be to remove the hemangioma and to restore normal facial features. Each of the facial zones has its own special features and challenges.

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Dec
2017

This study aimed to present the anatomic characteristics of osteoperiosteal ligamentous attachments of the forehead and provide a better understanding of lateral eyebrow descent for safe and effective foreheadplasty. Anatomic dissections of the face were performed in 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers (20 hemifaces) using 2.5× magnification surgical loupes.

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Dec
1969

Facial lines and wrinkles are strongly influenced by individual differences in anatomy and muscle activity and no single injection protocol will suit all patients. However, there is only limited information in the published literature on how to develop a tailored approach to botulinum toxin treatment.
An expert panel of physicians was convened to establish a consensus on developing an individualized approach to treatment of the forehead with incobotulinumtoxinA.

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Nov
2017

Humans visually process the world with varying spatial resolution and can program their eye movements optimally to maximize information acquisition for a variety of everyday tasks. Diseases such as macular degeneration can change visual sensory processing, introducing central vision loss (a scotoma). However, humans can learn to direct a new preferred retinal location to regions of interest for simple visual tasks.

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Jan
2018

Stock management of the Swiss water buffalo livestock results in the slaughtering of about 350 animals per year. As the stunning of water buffaloes still is an unresolved issue, we investigated the terminal ballistics of currently used perforating stunning devices. Cartridge fired captive bolt devices, handguns and a bullet casing gun were tested in a shooting steep by firing on bisected heads, forehead plates and soap blocks.

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May
2017

Traditional paramedian forehead flap reconstruction exploits the aesthetic subunit principle. Refinements and outcomes of forehead flap nasal reconstruction largely reflect Western experience. Differences in ethnic Asian anatomy and wound healing may foster suboptimal outcomes.

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Oct
2017

Symptoms and signs of functional (psychogenic) motor and sensory disorder are often said to be dependent on the patients' idea of what symptoms should be, rather than anatomy and physiology. This hypothesis has however rarely been tested.
Inspired by a brief experiment carried out in 1919 by neurologist Arthur Hurst we aimed to assess the views of healthy non-medical adults towards paralysis and numbness and their response to tests for functional disorders when asked to pretend to have motor and sensory symptoms.

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Dec
1969

Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis. It is due to congenital absence of melanocytes in the affected areas. We report a case.

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Oct
2017

[Clinical analysis before surgery in facial and neck rejuvenation].

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 27;62(5):375-386. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
M Rouif, P Bogaert
The first step to determine a medical or surgical intervention is the clinical exam. The clinical exam is the paramount step to provide a treatment plan that can be modified and individualized accounting the patient preferences. During the consultation for facial rejuvenation, attention should be paid to understand the patient's motivation and expectations.

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Oct
2017

Pencil core granulomas are still infrequently reported in the literature. A 67-year-old woman presented with a 4mm hard blue subcutaneous nodule on the forehead. She remembered being injured with a pencil tip about 60 years before.

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Oct
2017

The aims of the present study were to determine the normal values of TPD in the six trigeminal sites (the forehead, cheek, mentum, upper lip, lower lip, and the tongue tip) and to investigate the effect of the site, sex, and test modality on the TPD perception.
Forty healthy volunteers consisting of age-matched men (20) and women (20) with a mean age of 27.1 years were recruited.

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Nov
2017

Face cooling increases blood pressure during central hypovolemia.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2017 Nov 30;313(5):R594-R600. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
Blair D Johnson, James R Sackett, Suman Sarker, Zachary J Schlader
A reduction in central blood volume can lead to cardiovascular decompensation (i.e., failure to maintain blood pressure).

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Aug
2017

To investigate the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of visual loss caused by cosmetic fillers injection.It was a retrospetive case series study. Collect the clinical data of 18 cases (18 eyes) which were diagnosed as visual loss caused by facial cosmetic fillers injection in the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University during December, 2014 to June, 2016.

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Aug
2017

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease and has the clinical features of severe delayed development, unusual facies, and multiple congenital malformations. In this case report, a 14-month-old boy had the clinical manifestations of delayed development, unusual facies (prominent forehead, midface retraction, hypertelorism, low-set ears, upturned nose, and micrognathia), and multiple congenital malformations (including cerebral dysplasia, dislocation of the hip joint, and cryptorchidism). The karyotype analysis and copy number variations showed no abnormalities, and whole exon sequencing showed a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, c.

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Jul
2017

A 3-week-old boy, former 39-week term infant, presented to the emergency department with a rash. One week before presentation, he developed dark, purple papules on his forehead, which then spread to the abdomen and inguinal regions. Throughout this time, he was eating well, gaining weight, developing appropriately, and was afebrile without cough, congestion, or rhinorrhea.

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Aug
2017

Techniques for the administration of injectable fillers and neuromodulators for facial aesthetic rejuvenation and enhancement continue to evolve. As the number of physicians with limited experience in providing aesthetic treatments expands, the need for guidance and training from more experienced injectors has become apparent. The use of a slow, careful, and methodical injection technique is imperative in all treatment settings and for all facial areas.

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Dec
1969

Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region.

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Oct
2017

Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a lichen planopilaris-variant scarring alopecia that has rarely been described in men.
To characterize the clinicopathologic findings of FFA in men by studying a series of 7 male patients.
We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of male patients with FFA at the Mayo Clinic from 1992 to 2016.

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Oct
2017

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a group of disorders characterized by prolonged reversible cerebral vasoconstriction, associated with acute-onset, severe, episodic "thunderclap" headaches with or without other neurologic clinical features. We describe the first reported case, to our knowledge, of a patient with RCVS who was managed under general anesthesia in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. A 67-year-old woman with a diagnosis of RCVS made 2 months earlier was scheduled to undergo surgical extraction of the mandibular right third molar.

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Aug
2017

Scalp and Forehead Defects in the Post-Mohs Surgery Patient.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2017 Aug 23;25(3):365-375. Epub 2017 May 23.
Michael D Olson, Grant S Hamilton
Scalp and forehead reconstruction after Mohs micrographic surgery can encompass subcentimeter defects to entire scalp reconstruction. Knowledge of anatomy, flap design, and execution will prepare surgeons who operate in the head and neck area to confidently approach a variety of reconstructive challenges in this area.

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Aug
2017

Flap Basics III: Interpolated Flaps.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2017 Aug;25(3):337-346
Lauren K Reckley, Jessica J Peck, Scottie B Roofe
Paramedian forehead and melolabial flaps are the most common examples of interpolated flaps used by facial plastic surgeons and are excellent options for reconstruction of the midface after Mohs surgery. They provide superior tissue match in terms of thickness, texture, and color, while leaving minimal defects at the tissue donor sites. The main advantage of interpolated flaps is the robust blood supply, which can be either axial of randomly based, and the maintenance of the integrity of facial landmarks.

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Jun
2017

The supratrochlear nerve (STN) is relatively superficial and therefore vulnerable to iatrogenic injury.
To elucidate the course of STN with reference to the lacrimal caruncle, with the aim of preventing nerve injury during surgery in the forehead region.
Thirty-four hemifaces from 18 Korean cadavers were dissected.

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Aug
2017

Children who receive a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder may have a characteristic facial appearance in addition to neurodevelopmental impairment. It is not well understood whether there is a gradient of facial characteristics of children who did not receive a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder but who were exposed to a range of common drinking patterns during pregnancy.
To examine the association between dose, frequency, and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure and craniofacial phenotype in 12-month-old children.

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Sep
2017

The paramedian forehead flap is considered the gold standard procedure to optimally reconstruct major defects of the nose, but this procedure generally requires 2 stages, where the flap pedicle is divided 3 weeks following the initial surgery to ensure adequate revascularization of the flap from the surrounding recipient tissue bed, which can cost a patient time out of work or away from normal social habits. It has previously been shown that the pedicle may be safely divided after 2 weeks in select patients where revascularization from the recipient bed was confirmed using intraoperative laser fluorescence angiography to potentially save the patient time and money.
To demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of takedown of the paramedian forehead flap pedicle after 2 weeks using angiography with indocyanine green (ICG).

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Jun
2017

In our practice, the authors found that molding helmet used for plagiocephaly preoperatively, in patients with sagittal synostosis, decreased bathrocephaly, forehead bossing, and improved posterior vertex, as well as Cephalic Index (CI). This prompted us to investigate the impact of preoperative molding helmet in patients with sagittal synostosis.
A prospective study was performed on patients undergoing surgical correction of sagittal synostosis, over a 5-year period.

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Jul
2017

Traumatic scalp and forehead injuries are frequently encountered in the acute setting in Level I trauma centers. This is a Level IV Therapeutic/Care Management article describing a retrospective review that analyzed a single Plastic and Reconstructive surgeon's experience treating these injuries in patients, over an 8-year period from 2006 to 2014. Fewer complications were seen in patients treated within 7 days of injury.

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Jun
2017

The ionizing radiation received by patients and health workers due to radiological imaging may increase the risks of radiation effects, such as cancer and cataracts. We have investigated the dose received by specific areas around the head and related this to DNA damage in the blood lymphocytes of subjects exposed to interventional imaging. The entrance surface doses (ESD) to the forehead, neck, and shoulder were measured with a thermoluminescence dosimeter (CaSOdisc or polycrystalline powder of lithium tetraborate doped with Mn) and compared with that of dose area product (DAP).

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May
2017

The risk of cancer is significantly increased in patients undergoing renal transplant surgery than in the general population. In particular, skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in these patients.A 34-year-old man underwent living renal transplantation for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

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May
2017

The co-existence of Darier disease (DD) and acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf (AKV) has been noted for decades and the relationship between the 2 entities remains controversial. Although, it has been shown that both diseases are associated with mutations in ATPA2 gene, it is yet to be determined if they are the same disease, or separate but allelic, or interlinked in some other fashion. Herein, the authors report the case of a 13-year-old girl presenting with shiny flat-topped verruca plana-like papules, on the dorsal hands and feet and red-brown crusted papules on her forehead and along the sides of her neck.

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Apr
2017

Autologous and synthetic nasal and auricular frameworks require skin coverage. The surgeon's decides on the appropriate skin coverage for reconstruction based on colour matching, subcutaneous tissue thickness, expertise and experience. One of the major complications of placing subcutaneous implants is the risk of extrusion (migration through the skin) and infection.

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Jan
2018

Sinonasal inverting papilloma (IP) is a benign but locally aggressive mucosal neoplasm with a high recurrence rate. Extension into the frontal sinus presents surgical challenges for endonasal resection. This study presents an orbitofrontal approach for managing extensive IP.

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Apr
2017

We successfully treated a patient with achondroplasia with conventional orthodontic techniques. It was followed by long-term retention. The patient, a 12-year-old boy, had chief complaints of occlusal disturbance and mandibular protrusion.

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Apr
2017

The forehead is one of the most frequent locations for neuromodulator and soft tissue filler applications; however, the underlying anatomy is still poorly understood. Thus far, the presence of deep forehead compartments has not been confirmed.
Twenty Caucasian cephalic specimens, 15 fresh frozen (six female and nine male) and five with formalin-phenol embalmment (three female and two male) were investigated using contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scans, dye injections, and anatomical dissections.

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Apr
2017

Age-related changes in fat compartments have yet to be fully characterized. Uncertainty remains in terms of volume gains/losses or shape fluctuations over time. The authors' aim was to determine the evolution of subcutaneous fat in the aging upper face, focusing on shifts in volume and dimension.

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Dec
1969

Filamin-mediated linkages between transmembrane receptors (TR) and the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for regulating many cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes such as cell shape change and migration. A major TR binding site in the immunoglobulin repeat 21 (Ig21) of filamin is masked by the adjacent repeat Ig20, resulting in autoinhibition. The TR binding to this site triggers the relief of Ig20 and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-2152, thereby dynamically regulating the TR-actin linkages.

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Mar
2017

Surgical defects located within 5 mm of the nasal alar margin are at risk for alar elevation or collapse of the external nasal valve during wound healing. To reduce the chance of such complications, free cartilage grafts may be used as part of the reconstruction. However, if the defect is large enough so that the free cartilage graft does not fill most of the defect, wound contraction can still lead to alar displacement.


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Mar
2017

Morbihan syndrome is a rare entity that more commonly affects women in the third or fourth decade of life. It is considered a special form of rosacea and its pathogenesis is not fully known. It is clinically characterized by the slow appearance of erythema and solid edemas on the upper portion of the face, with accentuation in the periorbital region, forehead, glabella, nose, and cheeks.

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Mar
2017

A man aged 78 years presented with a 3-week history of tender mouth ulceration associated with arthralgia and weight loss. He had ulcerative colitis that was diagnosed 10 years previously which was well controlled on adalimumab 40 mg fortnightly. Biochemical and haematological investigations showed raised inflammatory markers (CRP 105) and a marked neutrophilia (10).

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Mar
2017

Adnexal tumors of the skin are a large and diverse group of benign and malignant neoplasms, which exhibit morphological differentiation toward one of the different types of adnexal epithelium present in normal skin and they pose a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study is to share our experience with these rare but aggressive tumors at a tertiary care cancer hospital in a developing country. A retrospective review of 11 patients diagnosed with rare adnexal tumors and their variants from January 2005 to December 2014, treated either surgically or non-surgically, was performed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of the disease.

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May
2017

Full-thickness defects of the entire nasal ala, including the rim, can be challenging to reconstruct. A forehead flap may provide a more imperceptible and natural-appearing reconstructed nasal ala. Previously, many authors have insisted adding cartilaginous infrastructural support for an entire, full-thickness defect to keep the postoperative alar structure symmetrical.

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Mar
2017

Motor imagery (MI) has attracted increased interest for motor rehabilitation as many studies have shown that MI shares the same neural networks as motor execution (ME). Nevertheless, MI in terms of facial movement has not been studied extensively; thus, in the present study, we investigated shared neural networks between facial motor imagery (FMI) and facial motor execution (FME). In addition, FMI somatotopy within-face was investigated between the forehead and the mouth.

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Mar
2017

The supratrochlear and supraorbital artery branches from the ophthalmic artery are the primary suppliers of blood to the forehead. Filler injection into the forehead without precise knowledge of its vascular topography poses a risk of severe complications.
Twenty hemifaces from 11 cadavers were dissected.

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Feb
2017

Nasal Reconstruction Involving Multiple Subunit Defects.

Facial Plast Surg 2017 Feb 22;33(1):58-66. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
Artemus Cox, Matthew Fort
The challenges of nasal reconstruction are readily apparent to any surgeon who has undertaken this task. Defects involving multiple subunits of the nose usually require adjacent tissue transferred to the wound typically in the form of a forehead flap or other local flaps. Herein, we describe current thought on the subunit principle and the application of local flaps and grafts in reconstructing larger superficial defects of the nose.

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