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'Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal' (606)


Dec
1969

This report summarizes a case of a 4-year-old girl with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an atypical presentation in this age group and type of vasculitic disease. We propose that her rapid improvement in clinical status was due to her treatment, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This mechanism would have impacted recovery by removing factors such as endothelial microparticles, superantigens, and immune complexes that have been postulated as the pulmonary-renal link.

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Dec
1969

Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking.
We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7.

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Feb
2018

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurotoxic condition that occurs as a result of the failure of posterior circulatory autoregulation in response to acute changes in blood pressure. Overperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood-brain barrier results in vasogenic edema, but not infarction. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can be the presenting feature of postinfectious glomerulonephritis, which has been reported in approximately 5% of hospitalized children, and it has been reported in very few cases of adult patients with sickle cell anemia.

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Jan
2018

Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) is an immune-mediated glomerulo-nephritis, most commonly caused by bacterial infections. Although there is an increased incidence of infectious episodes in renal transplant recipients, IRGN as a cause of de novo glomerulonephritis is rarely seen probably due to impaired immunity. We hereby report a 28-year-old male renal transplant recipient, who developed IRGN following impetigenous skin lesions after six years of transplant.

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Aug
2017

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children.
We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed.

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Feb
2018

Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism.

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Jul
2017

Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis (PIGN) usually follows 1-2 weeks after respiratory tract infection and 4-6 weeks after skin infection. Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) is uncommon with simultaneous severe throat infections. We describe a 10-year-old boy who was presented with high grade fever, dysphagia and tender swelling over left side of neck.

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Jul
2017

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is the most common type of glomerulonephritis seen in children. It can affect multiple organs with heart being frequently involved. Yet, there are very few studies on cardiac status in children with PSGN and hence this study was conducted.

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May
2017

Retropharyngeal abscess is an infection involving the retropharyngeal space which is posterior to the pharynx and oesophagus, and it results as a complication of a primary infection elsewhere in the head and neck including the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, or middle ear, which drain lymph to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Their lymph nodes are prominent in children and atrophy with age. Therefore, retropharyngeal abscess is most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 years, and often in the first year of life.

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Dec
1969

To present a case with 4 different potential causes of hyponatremia.
The patient presented with the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dark urine after drinking large amounts of fluids that included alcohol and caffeine. Laboratory, microbiological, and morphological examinations revealed the existence of severe hyponatremia and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

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Dec
2016

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is characterized by hypertension, seizure, headache, clouding of consciousness, and visual disturbance, and is diagnosed in the presence of typical lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. We retrospectively evaluated five patients who were diagnosed as having posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and followed up in Meram Medical Faculty, Pediatric Intensive Care and Hematology wards, between January 2010 and January 2014. We reviewed the demographic and clinical data, and neuroimaging findings.

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Dec
1969

Thyroid storm has a high mortality rate and is often associated with a precipitating factor such as intercurrent illness or infection. It is rare in pediatric patients. Cardiac disease in hyperthyroidism mostly manifests itself as tachycardia but more serious cardiac findings have also been described.

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Sep
2016

Pericarditis in conjunction with nephritis is an uncommon clinical scenario with a broad differential diagnosis. We present the case of a 58-year-old male who developed nephritis and pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. In the following, we discuss the differential diagnosis for concomitant nephritis and pericarditis and discuss the work-up performed on our patient.

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Jan
2017

Staphylococcus infection-associated GN (SAGN) is a well recognized disease entity, particularly because of the frequent IgA-dominant glomerular immunoglobulin staining on kidney biopsy. Biopsy features can resemble two other disease entities - primary IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis - posing a diagnostic pitfall. This is clinically relevant because of the crucial difference in the therapeutic approach.

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Oct
2016

Myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) forms stable heterodimers and is the major calcium-binding protein secreted by activated granulocytes and monocytes. We evaluated whether serum MRP8/14 level is a useful indicator for a differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN)- and minimal change disease (MC)- related nephrotic syndrome (NS).
Serum MRP8/14 complex was evaluated in 37 NS patients with MC or GN.

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Dec
1969

The most common acute glomerulonephritis in children is poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) usually occurring between 3 and 12 years old. Hypertension and gross hematuria are common presenting symptoms. Most PSGN patients do not experience complications, but rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and hypertensive encephalopathy have been reported.

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Feb
2016

A 7-year-old male with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and achieved remission. He was treated with eculizumab for 1 year. The eculizumab was discontinued and the patient remained in remission.

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Dec
2015

There are only a few reports of the co-occurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APGN) and acute rheumatic fever. We report an unusual case of a 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure with the transitional need for peritoneal dialysis, biopsy-proven atypical IgA-dominant APGN, and concomitant acute rheumatic fever, successfully treated by steroids. Aggressive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone proved to be successful and we recommend its use in this type of cases.

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Dec
1969

The presence of lupus anticoagulants (LAs) is an important cause of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) prolongation found in children after an infection or during screening tests before surgical intervention. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 68 patients who have been consulted from surgery departments with prolonged aPTT. These patients were reevaluated with aPTT analysis after 1 week.

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Dec
1969

The objective of this study was to assess clinical course and outcome of children with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) who had an attack of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN).
Renal status including blood pressure, proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate was retrospectively analyzed in five children with CAKUT and PSGN at the presentation and during the follow up.
In the period 2004-2013, 678 patients were diagnosed and recruited in our CAKUT cohort.

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Dec
1969

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a well-established disease. Although various immune responses are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of APSGN, the disease has a self-limiting nature in clinical practice, despite the presence of severe acute symptoms. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old woman with APSGN who developed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) after achieving remission of renal manifestations, including anasarca and elevation of serum creatinine, indicating that persistent alterations in the immune system can cause extrarenal disorders.

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Dec
1969

An eight-year-old girl, presenting with palpebral edema, gross hematuria, and foam in urine, was admitted to our hospital. Investigations indicated increased serum antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-mycoplasma antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed crescentic poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (CPAGN) with isolated C3 deposition in the glomeruli.

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Jun
2015

A spate of recent publications describes a newly recognized form of glomerulonephritis associated with active staphylococcal infection. The key kidney biopsy findings, glomerular immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits dominant or codominant with IgG deposits, resemble those of IgA nephritis. Many authors describe this condition as "postinfectious" and have termed it "poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis.

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Feb
2015

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for 5-15% and 20-30% of acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis in adults and children, respectively. It not only causes acute illness but also can give rise to local suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess as well as trigger the postinfectious syndromes of glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. Here, we report a case of a young healthy adult in whom both peritonsillar abscess and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis developed as a complication of acute streptococcal tonsillitis.

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Dec
1969

We herein report a case of pulmonary renal syndrome with nephritis in a 17-year-old boy with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). The patient exhibited hemoptysis two weeks after developing impetigo, and DAH was diagnosed on bronchoscopy. Respiratory failure progressed, and high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was administered; the respiratory failure regressed immediately after the onset of therapy.

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Dec
1969

In addition to being the main cause of glomerulonephritis in children, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) has recently been shown in older patients, especially those with malignancy or diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of PSGN has been ascribed to activation of complement 3 (C3) of the alternative complement cascade which, along with immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM deposits, is observed in renal tissue. Our aim here is to discuss the probable causes of PSGN developing with isolated IgM deposition in a 52-year-old patient with essential thrombocytosis followed-up over the previous 3.

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Mar
2015

[In Process Citation].

Ther Umsch 2015 Mar;72(3):141-7
Andreas Fischer
Postinfectious glomerulonephritis is an immune-mediated disease occurring as a result of the host response to an extrarenal infection. The classical form of poststreptococcal disease is decreasing worldwide but remains a significant health care problem in developing countries, especially in children. In industrialised countries postinfectious glomerulonephritis is now primarily due to non-streptococcal disease.

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Jan
2015

On the basis of strong research evidence, the prevalence of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is decreasing worldwide, although it still remains the leading cause of glomerulonephritis in children. The overall decrease in prevalence of PSGN has been mainly driven by a significant decrease in pyoderma seen in the last half-century, such that postpharyngitic PSGN is most commonly seen in developed nations. On the basis of primarily consensus because of a lack of relevant clinical studies, the latency period between streptococcal infection and the development of nephritis is a hallmark of PSGN, with this period lasting 1 to 2 weeks with pharyngeal infections or 2 to 6 weeks with skin infections.

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Aug
2014

Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities.

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Dec
1969

Australian Aborigines in remote areas have very high rates of kidney disease, which is marked by albuminuria. We describe a 'multihit' model of albuminuria in young adults in one remote Aboriginal community.
Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) were measured in 655 subjects aged 15-39 years and evaluated in the context of birthweights, a history of 'remote' poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN; ≥5 years earlier) and current body mass index (BMI).

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Jan
2014

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinicoradiologic condition manifesting with headache, seizures, altered sensorium, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on neuroimaging predominantly affecting the posterior regions of the brain. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, presenting as PRES. A magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in bilateral frontal and parietooccipital parenchyma on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted images, suggestive of "PRES.

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Apr
2014

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally.

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Dec
2014

How to use antistreptolysin O titre.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2014 Dec 30;99(6):231-8. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
E S Sen, A V Ramanan
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the cause of a wide range of acute suppurative and, following a latent period, non-suppurative diseases such as rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of the latter group requires evidence of preceding GAS infection. The bacteria produce a range of extracellular antigens, including streptolysin O, which induce an antibody response in the host.

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Mar
2014

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition characterized by varying degrees of headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficit, and seizures due to severe systemic hypertension. The knowledge of secondary hypertension in children is most commonly due to renal abnormalities, suggesting that the leading cause of PRES in childhood is renal diseases.
Three pediatric patients who developed PRES due to various underlying renal diseases were reviewed.

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Dec
1969

In 2010, a 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of mild proteinuria and hematuria. At that time, he had been asymptomatic. Three months later he noticed macroscopic hematuria, followed by general malaise, and then anorexia.

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Sep
2013

In a rabbit model, we have previously reported evidence for a pathogenic role of streptococcal IgG Fc-binding proteins (IgGFcBP) in poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). These proteins, of the M protein family, were shown to trigger anti-IgG production and enhance renal deposition of IgG and/or immune complexes (ICs), with resulting activation of complement and cytokine cascades. In the present study, type M12/emm12, group A streptococci (GAS) were found often to bind artificial ICs, viz.

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Oct
2013

A nationwide 24-month study was conducted (2007-2009), via the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit to define epidemiology and clinical features of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) in children hospitalised with the illness.
Paediatricians (n = 215) were requested to report new hospitalised cases fulfilling a case definition of definite (haematuria with low C3 and high streptococcal titres or biopsy proven APSGN) or probable (haematuria with low C3 or high streptococcal titres).
A total of 176 cases were identified (definite: n = 138, probable: n = 38) with 63% residing in the Auckland metropolitan region.

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Jul
2014

We report a case in which renal biopsies were performed 4 years apart in a woman with a prolonged human parvovirus B19 (HPB19) infection. When she was 29 years old the first biopsy, performed because of microscopic hematuria and mild proteinuria, showed endocapillary and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in light microscopy as well as deposits of immunoglobulins (Igs) and complement C3 on capillary walls. Mesangial, intramembranous, and subepithelial hump-like electron dense deposits were seen in electron microscopy.

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