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'Hand Anatomy' (107596)


Feb
2018

The goal of this study was to determine the relative contributions of finger weakness and reduced finger individuation to reduced hand function after stroke, and their association with corticospinal tract (CST) injury.
We measured individuated and synergistic maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the index and middle fingers, in both flexion and extension, of 26 individuals with a chronic stroke using a robotic exoskeleton. We quantified finger strength and individuation, and defined a novel metric that combines them - "multifinger capacity".

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Feb
2018

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-alpha (TFPI-α) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, which suppresses coagulation by inhibiting the tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa complex as well as factor Xa. In static plasma-phospholipid systems, TFPI-α thus suppresses both factor Xa and thrombin generation. In this article, we used a microfluidics approach to investigate how TFPI-α regulates fibrin clot formation in platelet thrombi at low wall shear rate.

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Feb
2018

Agenesis, functional deficiency and the common type of the flexor digitorum superficialis of the little finger are reported in the literature to be highly variable with significant discrepancy between clinical and cadaveric frequencies. The aim of this systematic review was to generate overall clinical and cadaveric weighted frequencies, along with ancestry-based, side-based, sex-based and laterality-based frequencies. A systematic literature search identified 34 studies including 12,213 forearms/hands that met the inclusion criteria.

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Feb
2018

Aged individuals experience decreased fine motor function of the hand and digits, which could result, in part, from the chronic, systemic state of inflammation that occurs with aging. Recent research for treating age-related inflammation has focused on the effects of nutraceuticals that have anti-inflammatory properties. One particular dietary polyphenol, curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effects and there is mounting evidence that curcumin may serve to reduce systemic inflammation.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a single-portal endoscopic desmotomy of the PAL with the use of Arthrex - Centerline™. Ten horse distal front limbs from horses free of PAL disease were prepared for tenoscopy of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS). A dual-port endoscopic desmotomy with a hook knife was performed in 5 specimens (Group A) and single port Arthrex-Centerline™ Desmotomy was performed in another 5 specimens (Group B).

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Feb
2018

Obesity represents a risk factor for development of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. In addition, it has been associated with increased adipocyte formation in the bone marrow (BM) along with increased risk for bone fragility fractures. However, little is known on the cellular mechanisms that link obesity, BM adiposity and bone fragility.

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Feb
2018

The hand anatomy, including the complicated hand muscles, can be grasped by using computer-assisted learning tools with high quality two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models. The purpose of this study was to present up-to-date software tools that promote learning of stereoscopic morphology of the hand.
On the basis of horizontal sectioned images and outlined images of a male cadaver, vertical planes, volume models, and surface models were elaborated.

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Apr
2018

A method for x-ray image-guided robotic instrument positioning is reported and evaluated in preclinical studies of spinal pedicle screw placement with the aim of improving delivery of transpedicle K-wires and screws. The known-component (KC) registration algorithm was used to register the three-dimensional patient CT and drill guide surface model to intraoperative two-dimensional radiographs. Resulting transformations, combined with offline hand-eye calibration, drive the robotically held drill guide to target trajectories defined in the preoperative CT.

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Feb
2018

OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury.

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Feb
2018

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions.

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Feb
2018

The aim of the study was to investigate the anatomy and histology of Linburg-Comstock variation, or the anomalous connection between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger, in Thai population.
One hundred and thirty cadaveric upper limbs were dissected. Skin and superficial fascia on the anterior distal forearm and hand were removed.

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Mar
2018

Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages.

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Feb
2018

In many clinical procedures such as cryoablation that involves needle insertion, accurate placement of the needle's tip at the desired target is the major issue for optimizing the treatment and minimizing damage to the neighboring anatomy. However, due to the interaction force between the needle and tissue, considerable error in intraoperative tracking of the needle tip can be observed as needle deflects.
In this paper, measurements data from an optical sensor at the needle base and a magnetic resonance (MR) gradient field-driven electromagnetic (EM) sensor placed 10 cm from the needle tip are used within a model-integrated Kalman filter-based sensor fusion scheme.

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Dec
1969

Unlike animals, plants are sessile organisms, lacking circulating antibodies and specialized immune cells and are exposed to various harsh environmental conditions that make them at risk of being attacked by different pathogens and herbivores. Plants produce chemo-signals to respond to the surroundings and be able to distinguish between harmless and harmful signals. In this study, the production of phytochemicals as plant signaling mechanisms and their defensive roles in disease resistance and repelling herbivores are examined in Calligonum comosum.

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Feb
2018

Herpetic Whitlow.

N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(6):563
Kensuke Shoji, Akihiko Saitoh

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Feb
2018

The human elbow maintains its stability mainly through its bony structure. Stability is enhanced by ligamentous structures. To allow the ligamento-muscular reflex, which protects against strain and stress, mechanoreceptors are embedded in the ligament.

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Mar
2018

Tendon transfer with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) has been performed widely for reconstructing ruptures of the extensor pollicis longus because of its simplicity and clinical outcome. We experienced a rerupture of the extensor pollicis longus restored by incorrect tendon transfer because of a major unrecognized variation in the anatomy of the EIP. Surgeons should perform such transfer with a detailed knowledge of the possible anatomical variations to avoid such serious complications.

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Mar
2018

The purpose of this study was to assess impact of the surgeon consultation and informed consent process on patient education in an international hand surgery mission compared with a US academic hand surgery practice. These two groups were selected to evaluate communication difficulties in a surgical mission setting compared with standard of care in a high-income country.
A multi-part survey was administered to patients presenting to a hand surgery mission during March 2012 and new patients of a university hand center in a 3-month period during 2011.

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Mar
2018

Superficial ulnar artery (SUA) is defined as arterial variation of an ulnar artery of high origin that lies superficially in the forearm. Because an SUA may be mistaken for a superficial vein, there is a risk of arterial damage. During routine dissection of the cadaver, we incidentally detected a case of unilateral SUA in the left arm.

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Jan
2018

Cadmium (Cd), a worldwide occupational pollutant, is an extremely toxic heavy metal, capable of damaging several organs, including the brain. Its toxicity has been related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The neurotoxic potential of Cd has been attributed to the changes induced in the brain enzyme network involved in counteracting oxidative stress.

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Jan
2018

In order to facilitate the learning of distal radius shortening osteotomy by junior surgeons, the main assumption was that using a three-dimensional procedural simulator was better than a bone procedural simulator. After viewing a video, ten junior surgeons performed a distal radius shortening osteotomy: five with a bone procedural simulator (Group 1) and five with a three-dimensional procedural simulator (Group 2). All subsequently performed the same surgery on fresh cadaveric bones.

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Feb
2018

Defects on the palmar surface of the fingers are an important part of hand emergencies, especially fingertip wounds. Luckily, many coverage methods are available. We will review the anatomy of this area and the thought process for treating these defects.

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Jan
2018

The medial triceps brachii is vascularized by the middle collateral artery and the arterial circle of the elbow. This vascularization allows a distal pedicled use to cover soft tissue defects of the elbow. We report our experience using this flap to cover traumatic and postsurgical wounds.

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Jan
2018

To identify the layered relationship anatomically between the musculotendinous structures of the adductor pollicis, the ulnar collateral ligament, and the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal joint in terms of understanding the pathomechanism of a Stener lesion.
We macroscopically analyzed 37 cadaveric thumbs to identify the intramuscular tendon of the adductor pollicis and bony attachments of the joint capsule including the ulnar collateral ligament. In addition, we histologically analyzed 3 thumbs and made a 3-dimensional image of 3 other thumbs, using micro-computed tomography.

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Dec
2017

Cold intolerance is a common complication of digital replantation. The exact etiology is unclear, but it is considered to be multifactorial, including nonsurgical characteristics, vascular, and neurologic conditions. Blood flow may play a significant role in cold intolerance.

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Dec
2017

Xanthomatosis often accompanies familial hypercholesterolemia. This disease usually occurs in tendons, most commonly located in the Achilles tendon; occasionally it can also be seen in other systems. Although there are previous reports for bilateral hand extensor tendon involvement, to our knowledge there is no report in English literature regarding bilateral hands with small joint synovium presenting as rheumatoid arthritis.

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Dec
2017

Isolated metastasis to the hand bones is very rare. Only seven cases of metastasis to the trapezium have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a single metastasis to the trapezium from a gastric adenocarcinoma.

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Jan
2018

A recent study reported that lower limb explosive power had no correlation with the 2D:4D ratio. However, many studies hypothesized that a lower 2D:4D ratio (reflecting a relative higher testosterone exposure) predicts higher physical fitness. The aim of this study is to replicate the study of explosive power and the 2D:4D ratio in a sample of Taiwanese children.

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Feb
2018

Chondroid syringoma (CS) occurs mostly on the face and neck, and rarely occurs in the toe. Malignant CS is invasive, grows quickly, and has a high recurrence rate. The presence of a bilobed CS in 1 toe has never been reported in the literature.

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Jan
2018

The extensor indicis proprius (EIP) is a muscle of the forearm that originates from the posterior surface of the ulna and the adjacent interosseous membrane and attaches to the index finger. Many anatomical variations of this muscle have been reported in the literature. The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) is a variant muscle found on the back of the wrist and hand.

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Jan
2018

Crocodylians have highly derived elongated carpus, which is related to their use of forelimbs in many types of gaits as well as in burrowing. The objective of present study was to describe the ossification of the forelimb in five stages of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). The ossification begins approximately at stage 20 in arm and forearm bones moving sequentially to the metacarpal elements.

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Dec
1969

We experienced a 45-year-old Japanese man who was transferred to our hospital complaining of acute onset of pain and pallor in the right lower limb. Two years earlier, he had complained of repetitive pain at rest and pallor in the left third and fourth fingers. The physical exam and angiography demonstrated occlusion of finger arteries, however we could not reach final diagnosis.

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Dec
1969

In vivo subcutaneous tumor models are generally prepared by the injection of a cancer cell suspension to evaluate the pharmaceutical effects on tumor tissues. However, dispersed cells show low biological activities because of enzyme-induced cell harvest treatment, thus limiting the formation of tumor tissues. In this study, a biologically active cancer cell monolayer (cell sheet) was used to improve the efficiency of subcutaneous tumor formation.

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Jan
2018

The study aimed to explore the effect of microdissected thin anterolateral thigh (MTALT) perforator flap with multiple perforators on patients with complex defects on the hand, elbow, heel, or knee.
From March 2012 to February 2013, 5 patients with complex defects on the hand, elbow, heel, or knee were included. During the flap preparation, 2 to 3 perforators penetrating the fascia of the anterolateral femoral area were initially detected, and the deep fascia was incised.

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Dec
1969

Gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontitis, is generally considered a consequence of prolonged exposure of the gingiva to periodontal pathogens. On the other hand, several epidemiologic reports have suggested that other etiologic factors such as oral acidification may also increase the susceptibility of the periodontium to destruction. However, the pathologic mechanism underlying the effects of oral acidification on the gingiva is still largely unknown.

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Jan
2018

Understanding the relationship between the dynamics of neural processes and the anatomical substrate of the brain is a central question in neuroscience. On the one hand, modern neuroimaging technologies, such as diffusion tensor imaging, can be used to construct structural graphs representing the architecture of white matter streamlines linking cortical and subcortical structures. On the other hand, temporal patterns of neural activity can be used to construct functional graphs representing temporal correlations between brain regions.

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Jan
2018

A46 -year-old man developed ulcerative colitis at the age of 19 years. Although the colitis was medically treated, it relapsed and repeated over time. Periodic lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed lower rectal cancer, and he was referred to our department of surgery.

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Jan
2018

To evaluate the thumb dorsal aponeurosis anatomy. Consideration of structural differences between the fingers and thumb will provide an improved clinical understanding of the thumb dorsal aponeurosis anatomy.
Ten fresh cadaver hands from 5 patients with an average age of 31.

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Dec
1969

The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), is native to many European freshwaters. Despite its wide distribution, the crucian carp is declining in both the number and sizes of populations across much of its range. Here we studied 30 individuals of a putative pure population from Helsinki, Finland.

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Dec
1969

The symptomatology of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) includes periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), dysesthesias, and hyperarousal. Alterations in the dopaminergic system, a presynaptic hyperdopaminergic state, seem to be involved in PLMS, while alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission, a presynaptic hyperglutamatergic state, seem to be involved in hyperarousal and also PLMS. Brain iron deficiency (BID) is well-recognized as a main initial pathophysiological mechanism of RLS.

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Jan
2018

The aim of this study was to compare the complete visible surface area of the radial head, neck, and coronoid in the Kaplan and Kocher approaches to the lateral elbow. The hypothesis was that the Kaplan approach would afford greater visibility due to the differential anatomy of the intermuscular planes.
Ten cadavers were dissected with the Kaplan and Kocher approaches, and the visible surface area was measured in situ using a 3-dimensional digitizer.

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Dec
2017

The development of coordinated reach to grasp has been well-studied in infants and children (Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Stolze, Jöhnk, Boczek-Funcke, & Illert, 1998; von Hofsten, 1984a). However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach-to-grasp.

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Feb
2018

The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is an anatomical structure that increasingly interests researchers. This structure appears to receive multisensory input and is involved in several perceptual and cognitive core functions, such as speech perception, audiovisual integration, (biological) motion processing and theory of mind capacities. In addition, the superior temporal sulcus is not only one of the longest sulci of the brain, but it also shows marked functional and structural asymmetries, some of which have only been found in humans.

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Jan
2018

Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways.

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Feb
2018

Variations on the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach present unique surgical techniques that have unique effects on surgical outcomes, extent of resection (EOR), and anatomical complications.
To analyze the learning curve and perioperative outcomes of the 3-hand endoscopic endonasal mononostril transsphenoidal technique.
Prospective case series and retrospective data analysis of patients who were treated with the 3-hand transsphenoidal technique between January 2007 and May 2015 by a single neurosurgeon.

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Jan
2018

Gorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as 'knuckle-walkers.' Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism.

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Jan
2018

Scaphoid fractures are not very common and frequently remain undiagnosed, presenting in non-union and persistent wrist pain. Options for scaphoid fracture treatment have been described over several decades, however, none with an optimal solution to achieve union along with good hand function. We describe here, the use of vascularised corticoperiosteal bone grafts from the medial femoral condyle (MFC) as a solution for the difficult problem of scaphoid fracture non-union.

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Jan
2018


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Jan
2018

The association of hand preference (left, mixed, and right) with cognitive, academic, motor, and behavioral function was evaluated in 864 extremely preterm children at 10 years of age. Left-handed and right-handed children performed similarly but mixed-handed children had greater odds of functional deficits across domains than right-handed children.

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