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'Heart Anatomy' (275630)


Feb
2018

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has shown great promise in medicine with increasing reports in congenital heart disease (CHD). This systematic review aims to analyse the main clinical applications and accuracy of 3D printing in CHD, as well as to provide an overview of the software tools, time and costs associated with the generation of 3D printed heart models. A search of different databases was conducted to identify studies investigating the application of 3D printing in CHD.

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Feb
2018

Positive surgical margin (PSM) extension reported as focal or non-focal/extensive is an important pathologic prognostic parameter after radical prostatectomy. Likewise, there is limited or no agreement on how to measure and what the best cut-off points to be used in practice are. We hypothesized that digital microscopy (DM) would potentially provide a more objective way to measure PSM and better define its clinical significance.

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Jan
2018

Patients with heterotaxy syndrome (HS) often have asymptomatic malrotation. There is a lack of consensus regarding the management of these patients, particularly in patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to describe the prevalence of malrotation and incidence of volvulus in a population of patients with complex CHD and to identify the impact of malrotation on morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery.

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Feb
2018

The objective of the study was to examine the effects of androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists on the follicle formation, ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as plasma steroid concentration in neonatal pigs. Piglets were injected with testosterone propionate (TP, 20 mg/kg bw), flutamide (FLU, 50 mg/kg bw), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP, 100 mg/kg bw), ICI 182,780 (ICI, 400 μg/kg bw), methoxychlor (MXC, 100 mg/kg bw) or corn oil (CTR, controls) between postnatal Days 1 and 10 (n = 4/group). Heart blood was collected and ovaries were excised from the 11-day-old piglets.

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Feb
2018

Blood cardioplegia (BCP) can be used in different ways to protect the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury during cardiac surgery. Because there could be differences between warm and cold intermittent cardioplegia with or without warm reperfusion, we investigated the influence of 2 blood cardioplegia solutions on cardiac function, metabolism and infarct size in stable and infarcted rat hearts.
The hearts of 32 male Wistar rats were excised and inserted into a blood-perfused isolated heart apparatus.

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Feb
2018

Investigation of anginal chest pain has traditionally involved either assessment of the coronary anatomy by angiography or noninvasive testing for reversible ischemia. Invasive pressure wire assessment at the time of angiography offers information on both anatomy and physiology. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with lower resource utilization and improved clinical outcome compared with angiographic guidance alone.

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Feb
2018

All- trans-retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, is an important signaling molecule required for the proper development of the heart. The epicardium is the main source of RA in the embryonic heart, yet the cardiogenic functions of epicardial-produced RA are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the roles of RA signaling in the embryonic epicardium using in vivo and in vitro models of excess or deficiency of RA.

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Feb
2018

To compare the risk of 1-year ischemic stroke recurrence between atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS) and sinus rhythm (SR) and investigate whether underlying heart disease is as frequent in AFDAS as it is in AF known before stroke (KAF).
In this retrospective cohort study, we included all ischemic stroke patients admitted to institutions participating in the Ontario Stroke Registry from July 1, 2003, to March 31, 2013. Based on heart rhythm assessed during admission, we classified patients as AFDAS, KAF, or SR.

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Feb
2018

It is advocated that heterotaxy should be segregated into right or left isomerism according to atrial appendage morphology. However, atrial situs determination is often based on the pattern of associated findings rather than on atrial morphology itself, which can be difficult to define. The objective was to assess how often concordant patterns of isomerism classified by atrial appendage morphology, bronchopulmonary pattern, and splenic status are breached using cardiac magnetic resonance or computed tomography.

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Feb
2018

Wharton's jelly cells (WJCs) have multiple differentiation potentials and are easily harvested in large numbers. WJCs are well tolerated in allogeneic environments and there is a growing list of their therapeutic effects. Most therapies require administering large numbers of cells and this is generally accomplished by intravenous injection.

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Jan
2018

In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described.

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Feb
2018

A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products.
In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology.

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Feb
2018

Current cardiovascular clinical imaging techniques offer only limited assessment of innate immune cell driven inflammation, which is a potential therapeutic target in myocardial infarction (MI) and other diseases. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) is an emerging imaging technology that generates contrast agents with 10-20,000 fold improvements in MR signal, enabling cardiac metabolite mapping.To determine whether hyperpolarized MR using [1-C]pyruvate can assess the local cardiac inflammatory response following MI.

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Feb
2018

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves the death of an infant during the first year of life and it is among the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. One hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of SIDS is that it results from a combination of three independent factors: endogenous vulnerability, a critical time window during postnatal development, and exogenous stressors. This hypothesis is known as the "triple-risk model".

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Jan
2018

In the last few years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative procedure in patients with severe aortic stenosis and high risk for surgical aortic replacement. Due to the anatomic correlation between aortic valve structure and conduction system of the heart, one of the most common complications after TAVI is conduction system disturbances which including bundle branch block, complete heart block and need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Although these disturbances are usually not lethal, they may have a great influence on patients' state and long term-survival.

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Dec
1969

It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress.

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Feb
2018

Despite anemia in acquired heart disease being a common problem, little is known in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).
In total, 544 consecutive stable noncyanotic CHD patients were studied to determine demographic, clinical, and analytic parameters. Anemia was defined as a condition in which hemoglobin concentration was <13 g/dL in male individuals and <12 g/dL in female individuals.

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Mar
2018

Fibrosis is a medical condition characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix compounds such as collagen in tissues. Fibrotic lesions are present in many diseases and can affect all organs. The excessive extracellular matrix accumulation in these conditions can often have serious consequences and in many cases be life-threatening.

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Dec
2017

The upgoing thumb sign as a subtle clinical finding of upper motor neuron involvement has been frequently reported in patients with TIAs and minor strokes. This study was designed to show the method of examination and interpretation and the interobserver/intraobserver reliability.
The thumb sign was elicited in TIA/minor strokes or stroke mimics.

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Dec
1969

This study aims to unravel the use of GSK-3 inhibitors as viable apoptotic inducers for teratocarcinoma-derived ovarian PA-1 cells. MTT assay was carried out to assess inhibitory concentrations of LiCl and TDG. AO/EB staining and Hoechst 33258 staining were employed to assess the damage.

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Jan
2018

Editorial.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Jan;132:1-2
Denis Noble, Tom Blundell, Peter Kohl

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Mar
2018

The heterogenous anatomy of Tetralogy of Fallot with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries has engendered a similar degree of diversity in its management and, ultimately, outcome. We summarize our comprehensive treatment paradigm for this lesion evolved over 15 years of experience through 458 patients and the results obtained. An updated analysis of 307 patients treated primarily at our institution is included.

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Mar
2018

Congenital mitral valve (MV) dysplasia is a relatively rare and highly complex cardiac disease. We sought to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current surgical techniques for treating mitral valve insufficiency and the results of mitral valve repair at our institution. Between 1972 and 2017, 104 consecutive patients underwent surgical repair of congenital MV dysplasia-insufficiency at our institution.

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Mar
2018

Aortic Valvuloplasty or Rootplasty for Aortic Regurgitation.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2018 Mar;21:33-40
Chawki ElZein, David Roberson, Nour Hammad, Michel Ilbawi
At present, aortic valvuloplasty is considered an effective procedure for treatment of aortic regurgitation in pediatric patients. It has encouraging mid- and long-term results. The improved outcome is primarily related to better understanding of the functional anatomy of the normal valve and the different factors that alter it.

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Feb
2018

We present a study of the hemolymph vascular system of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, the only crayfish species known to be parthenogenetic. To identify potential evolutionary patterns, we compared data from a total of 48 specimens of P.

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Feb
2018

Handgrip exercise is an emerging strategy for resting blood pressure (BP) reduction requiring minimal time and exercise effort. However, the research literature is currently limited to handgrip protocol designs predominantly prescribing sustained grip contractions, with little assessment of alternative options. Furthermore, our understanding of the utility of handgrip exercise would be strengthened by an evaluation of the physiological mechanisms driving BP reductions and an assessment of the interindividual response variability.

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Feb
2018

Children with single ventricle heart disease require frequent interventions and follow-up. Low socioeconomic status (SES) may limit access to high-quality care and place these children at risk for poor long-term outcomes.
Data from the SVR (Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Use) data set were used to examine the relationship of US neighborhood SES with 30-day and 1-year mortality or cardiac transplantation and length of stay among neonates undergoing the Norwood procedure (n=525).

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Feb
2018

Right ventricular pacing often results in prolonged QRS duration (QRSd) as the result of right ventricular stimulation, and atrial fibrillation (AF) may result. The association of pacing-induced prolonged QRSd and AF in patients with permanent pacemakers is unknown.We selected 180 consecutive patients who underwent pacemaker implantation for complete/advanced atrioventricular block.

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Feb
2018

The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies.

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Feb
2018

Endothelial cell proliferation is a key process during vascular growth but its kinetics could only be assessed in vitro or ex vivo so far. To enable the monitoring and quantification of cell cycle kinetics in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an eGFP-anillin construct under control of the endothelial-specific Flt-1 promoter. This construct labels the nuclei of endothelial cells in late G1, S and G2 phase and changes its localization during the different stages of M phase, thereby enabling the monitoring of EC proliferation and cytokinesis.

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Jan
2018

The regenerative effects of cardiac ckitstem cells (ckitCSCs) in acute myocardial infarction (MI) have been studied extensively, but how these cells exert a protective effect on cardiomyocytes is not well known. Growing evidences suggest that in adult stem cells injury triggers inflammatory signaling pathways which control tissue repair and regeneration. Aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of ckitCSCs following transplantation in a murine model of MI.

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Feb
2018

The role of proinflammation, and specifically TNF-α, on downstream fibrosis and healing after cardiac injury remains unknown. Using iRhom2-deficient mice, which lack myeloid-specific shedding of TNF-α, we reveal increased macrophages (MΦs) that were skewed towards a more proinflammatory (M1) state at day 4, followed by more reparative, antiinflammatory (M2) state at day 7 after myocardial infarction (MI). However, associated functional cytokine expression was significantly reduced in iRhom2-mutant M1 and M2 MΦs, respectively.

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Feb
2018

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a rare complex cyanotic congenital heart disease with heterogeneous morphological variation. Prenatal diagnosis allows for developing a safe plan for delivery and postnatal management. While transthoracic echocardiography allows for detailed delineation of the cardiac anatomy, additional imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheterization may be necessary to further outline features of the cardiac anatomy, specifically coronary artery anatomy.

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Feb
2018

Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is strongly expressed in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. A recent study showed that BAG3 may play a protective role in muscles. Little is known, however, regarding the detailed role of BAG3 in cardiac muscle.

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Feb
2018

The objective of this study was to compare the preoperative management and outcome of neonates with duct-dependent critical CHD with fetal versus postnatal diagnosis.
Patients referred with CHD to our centre from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled prospectively. Live births with a critical form of CHD, a gestational age ⩾36 weeks and a weight ⩾2 kg at birth, and the intention-to-treat were included in this sub-study.

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Mar
2018

Cardiovascular Disease in Women.

Prim Care 2018 Mar 13;45(1):131-141. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
Elizabeth Anne Leonard, Robert James Marshall
Cardiovascular disease in women as a distinct disease entity is underappreciated relative to other female-specific diseases. A perception that cardiovascular disease affects men more commonly and a lack of understanding about the underlying pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in women contribute to this phenomenon. Hormonal changes, pregnancy-related conditions, and cancer therapies have an impact on endothelial function, vascular anatomy, and myocardial contractility.

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Dec
1969

The molecular mechanisms involved in ER stress-induced post myocardial injury remain elusive. In this study, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of ER stress-mediated myocyte death in Isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction and its inhibition by a potent anti oxidant and anti-apoptotic bioflavonoid, Vitexin. ISO mediated apoptosis was found to be associated with ER permeabilization and characterized by enhanced production of ROS, activation of caspase-3, modulation of Bcl2 family proteins and activation of bnip3.

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Feb
2018

The radial artery (RA) is a frequently used conduit for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). We review the results of the use of the RA in CABG patients and discuss the unique technical considerations when using this conduit.
A literature search was performed in PubMed through December 2017 on the comparative efficacy of the RA to other conduits and technical considerations for the use of the RA in CABG surgery.

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Feb
2018

Epidemiologic data demonstrate that pediatric patients face a higher relative risk of radiation induced cancers than their adult counterparts at equivalent exposures. Infants and children with congenital heart defects are a critical patient population exposed to ionizing radiation during life-saving procedures. These patients will likely incur numerous procedures throughout their lifespan, each time increasing their cumulative radiation absorbed dose.

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Dec
1969

Characterizing the contractile function of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) is key for advancing their utility for cellular disease models, promoting cell based heart repair, or developing novel pharmacological interventions targeting cardiac diseases. The aim of the present study was to understand whether steady-state and kinetic force parameters of β-myosin heavy chain (βMyHC) isoform-expressing myofibrils within human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) differentiatedresemble those of human ventricular myofibrils (hvMFs) isolated from adult donor hearts. Contractile parameters were determined using the same micromechanical method and experimental conditions for both types of myofibrils.

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Dec
1969

An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1) double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2) making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3) applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4) re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable. Applying the scripts requires only general knowledge about the Python language.

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Feb
2018

The endothelial glycocalyx plays a decisive role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Previous animal models have mainly focused on in-vitro experiments or the isolated beating guinea pig heart. To further evaluate underlying mechanisms of up- and down regulation, knock-out animals seem to be a promising option.

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Feb
2018

Disrupting role of lead toxicity in heart functions and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases is not well known. This study investigated the interference of lead in heart functions and pacing postconditioning-mediated protection to the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lead exposure decreased the body weight and increased the heart weight in male rats (p < 0.

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Feb
2018

New platforms for patient imaging present opportunities for improved surgical planning in complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual reality (VR) allows for interactive manipulation of high-resolution representations of patient-specific imaging data, as a supplement to traditional 2D visualizations and 3D printed heart models.
We present the novel use of VR for the presurgical planning of cardiac surgery in two infants with complex CHD to demonstrate interactive real-time views of complex intra and extracardiac anatomy.

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Feb
2018

In sacrococcygeal teratoma, the presence of high-output cardiac failure resulting from arteriovenous shunting through the large tumor has been associated with an adverse outcome. The objective of this study was to determine whether the tumor size and cardiac biomarkers in cord blood can predict neonatal survival in sacrococcygeal teratoma.
The study population consisted of 25 neonates with sacrococcygeal teratoma.

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Dec
2017

To characterize morphologic variations in the papillary muscles and tendinous cords of the left ventricle and ventricular zones of the mitral valve leaflets.
A total of 100 autopsied human hearts from healthy donors with classical mitral valve type were investigated.
In 1 heart, only 1 group of papillary muscles was found, and in the remaining 99%, we could distinguish 2 groups of muscles: Superolateral (SLPM) and inferoseptal papillary muscle (ISPM) groups.

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Feb
2018

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) pre-existing at stroke onset is believed to worsen functional outcome, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since brain inflammation is an important modulator of neurological recovery after stroke, we explored the impact of PEM on neuroinflammation in the acute period in relation to stroke-initiated sensori-motor abnormalities. Adult rats were fed a low-protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet for 28 days before inducing photothrombotic stroke (St) in the forelimb region of the motor cortex or sham surgery; the diets continued for 3 days after the stroke.

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Dec
2017

Determination of the appropriate tracheal tube size using formulas based on age or height often is inaccurate in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly in those with high pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Here, the authors compared tracheal diameters between pediatric patients with CHD with high PAP and low PAP.
Retrospective clinical study.

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