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'Immunoglobulin G Deficiency' (5049)


Dec
1969

Lymph nodes (LNs) are at the center of adaptive immune responses. Various exogenous substances are transported into LNs and a series of immune responses ensue after recognition by antigen-specific lymphocytes. Although humanized mice have been used to reconstitute the human immune system, most lack LNs due to deficiency of the interleukin (IL)-2Rγ gene (cytokine common γ chain, γc).

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Jan
2018

In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) gastrointestinal (GI) involvement, nutritional status and medications may lead to cobalamin (Vit B12) deficiency. We aimed to determine the frequency and the potential causes of Vit B12 deficiency in SSc patients.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 62 SSc patients in a single center in 1 year period.

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Dec
1969

Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). Emergency colectomies are performed for fulminant colitis (ie, toxic megacolon, profuse bleeding, perforation, or sepsis). The RPC and IPAA involve manipulation of the proximal ileum, which may influence the essential physiological function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

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Dec
1969

 Vitamin A (VA) plays critical roles in gut homeostasis. Dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN-DCs) can metabolize VA to retinoic acid (RA), thereby inducing gut-tropic lymphocytes and enhancing peripheral differentiation of regulatory T cells expressing forkhead box P3. We found that MLN-DCs from VA-deficient mice induced a distinct inflammatory T helper type 2 (Th2)-cell subset that produced abundant interleukin-13 (IL-13) and expressed receptors for homing to skin and inflammatory sites but not to the intestine.

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Nov
2017

Bronchiectasis is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi leading to a chronic inflammatory process, airway blockage and impaired clearance of secretions. The damage to the airways is usually progressive and is the result of several pathogenic processes. In the past, healing of infections (especially pulmonary tuberculosis) was the main cause of airway dilatation and progression of chronic inflammation.

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Nov
2017

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances immunity in addition to orchestrating metabolism. Here we show that mTOR coordinates immunometabolic reconfiguration of marginal zone (MZ) B cells, a pre-activated lymphocyte subset that mounts antibody responses to T-cell-independent antigens through a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-amplified pathway involving transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). This receptor interacts with mTOR via the TLR adapter MyD88.

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Nov
2017

The objective of this study was to evaluate thevitamin D concentration in patients with recurrent respiratory infections with or without immunoglobulin G, A or M (IgG, IgA, IgM) deficiency, and to find a correlation between the vitamin D concentration and the response to hepatitis B vaccination.
The study involved 730 patients with recurrent respiratory infections. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), immunoglobulins G, A and M, anti-HBs was determined.

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Dec
1969

In mice, the IgG subclass induced after Ag encounter can reflect the nature of the Ag. Th2 Ags such as alum-precipitated proteins and helminths induce IgG1, whereas Th1 Ags, such asTyphimurium, predominantly induce IgG2a. The contribution of different IgG isotypes to protection against bacteria such asTyphimurium is unclear, although as IgG2a is induced by natural infection, it is assumed this isotype is important.

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Dec
1969

The vitamin D receptor participates in the control of IgE class-switch recombination in B cells. The physiologic vitamin D receptor agonist, 1,25(OH)D(calcitriol), is synthesized by the essential enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), which can be expressed by activated immune cells. The role of endogenous calcitriol synthesis for the regulation of IgE has not been proven.

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Dec
1969

Anti-nuclear autoantibodies, which frequently target the nucleoli, are pathogenic hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although the causes of these Abs remain broad and ill-defined, a genetic deficiency in C1 complex (C1qC1rC1s) or C4 is able to induce these Abs. Considering a recent finding that, in dead cells, nucleoli were targeted by C1q and two nucleolar autoantigens were degraded by C1r/C1s proteases, we considered that C1 could help protect against antinuclear autoimmunity by broadly degrading nucleolar proteins or autoantigens.

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Dec
1969

Immunoglobulin G2 deficiency that persists beyond the age of 6 years is likely to be permanent.
We report on a young Japanese female, diagnosed as having immunoglobulin G2 deficiency and low anti-pneumococcal immunoglobulin G2 antibody levels when 3 years old, with a subsequent medical history of frequent respiratory infections and asthma. Monthly intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy was started at 4 years of age.

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Sep
2017

Most primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) resulting in antibody deficiency require intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) replacement therapy. The flow and distribution of SCIG to the vasculature is impeded by the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix, which limits the infusion rate and volume per site, necessitating frequent infusions and multiple infusion sites. Hyaluronidase depolymerizes hyaluronan and is a spreading factor for injectable biologics.

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Oct
2017

Unique heterozygous presentation in an infant with DNA ligase IV syndrome.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 Oct 31;119(4):379-380. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
Barbara A Brunet, Nina Dave

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Nov
2017

Gene duplication and loss are powerful drivers of evolutionary change. The role of loss in phenotypic diversification is notably illustrated by the variable enzymatic repertoire involved in vertebrate protein digestion. Among these we find the pepsin family of aspartic proteinases, including chymosin (Cmy).

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Nov
2017

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a multifunctional soluble factor. PTX3 can be involved in the regulation of vasculitis and is expressed in the cytoplasm of neutrophils. As anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is recognised as a cause of vasculitis, we aimed to discover the role of PTX3 in ANCA production in vivo.

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Dec
1969

Binding of IgG Abs to FcγRs on immune cells induces FcγR cross-linking that leads to cellular effector functions, such as phagocytosis, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine release. However, polymorphisms in low affinity FcγRs have been associated with altered avidity toward IgG, thereby substantially impacting clinical outcomes of multimodular therapy when targeting cancer or autoimmune diseases with mAbs as well as the frequency and severity of autoimmune diseases. In this context, we investigated the consequences of three nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the high affinity receptor for IgG, FcγRI.

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Dec
1969

Hard ticks are the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Free carnitine (FC) and acylcarnitines (AC) have the basic role in β-oxidation as well as the modulation of immune and nervous system. Homeostasis of carnitines in the TBE patients was not studied so far.

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Dec
1969

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a complex mixture drug comprising diverse immunoglobulins and non-IgG proteins purified from the plasma of thousands of healthy donors. Approved IVIg products on the market differ regarding source of plasma, isolation process, and formulation. These products are used widely, and often interchangeably, for the treatment of immunodeficiency and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but their mechanisms of action in different indications are not well understood.

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Jul
2017

Pathogenesis in aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity initiated by AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4. We recently reported that rats lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59 were highly susceptible to development of NMO pathology in brain and spinal cord following direct AQP4-IgG administration (Yao and Verkman, Acta Neuropath Commun 2017, 5:15). Here, we report evidence that CD59 is responsible for protection of peripheral, AQP4-expressing tissues in seropositive NMO.

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Dec
1969

X-Linked Agammaglobulinaemia: Outcomes in the modern era.

Clin Immunol 2017 10 17;183:54-62. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
Ben Shillitoe, Andrew Gennery
Colonel Ogden Bruton reported X-Linked Agammaglobulinaemia in 1952 and treated the child with replacement immunoglobulin therapy. Over 60years later, the treatment for XLA has largely remained unchanged. Replacement immunoglobulin lacks the isotypes IgA and IgM, leading to concerns that patients continue to experience recurrent sinopulmonary tract infections and be at increased risk of bronchiectasis.

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Dec
1969

Our group previously investigated the levels of anti-Gal and anti-nonGal IgM and IgG in a cohort of 75 healthy humans of various backgrounds, and found some significant differences related to factors such as age, gender, ABO blood group, diet, vaccination history, and geographic location during childhood. We have now expanded our cohort (n = 84) to investigate the levels of anti-Neu5Gc and anti-nonGal/nonNeu5Gc antibodies in healthy humans. Anti-nonGal and anti-nonGal/nonNeu5Gc human IgM and IgG binding to pRBCs and pAECs from GTKO/CD46 and GTKO/CD46/Neu5GcKO pigs were measured by flow cytometry.

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Nov
2017

Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres across Europe, regarding the care of 1061 adult and 178 paediatric patients with PID on immunoglobulin (Ig) G replacement. The most common diagnosis was common variable immunodeficiency in adults (75%) and hypogammaglobulinaemia in children (39%).

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Nov
2017

Elaboration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a very early event in development of ischemia/reperfusion injury pathophysiology. Therefore, TNF may be a prominent mediator of endothelial cell and vascular wall dysfunction in sickle cell anemia, a hypothesis we addressed using NY1DD, S+S, and SS-BERK sickle transgenic mice. Transfusion experiments revealed participation of abnormally activated blood monocytes exerting an endothelial activating effect, dependent upon Egr-1 in both vessel wall and blood cells, and upon NFκB(p50) in a blood cell only.

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Sep
2017

To demonstrate the bioequivalence between 2 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations, TEGELINEand ClairYg, a ready-to-use 5% IVIG, in primary immunodeficiency (PID). Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of ClairYg.
Twenty-two adult PID patients receiving stable doses of TEGELINE(5% lyophilized IVIG) were switched to ClairYgfor 6 months.

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Nov
2017

Vitronectin (VN), one of the serum proteins, is known to be involved in the regulation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and cell migration. It has been proposed that the regulation of fibrinolysis by VN promotes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) recovery from brain injuries such as traumatic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effects of VN on fibrinolysis in the injured brain remain unclear, however.

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Dec
1969

We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only.
A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7and the 14week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency.

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Dec
1969

The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard.
The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Dec
1969

Neurological disorders are among the main clinical problems affecting preterm children and often result in the development of communication and learning disabilities later in life. Several factors are of importance for brain development, however the role of immunoglobulins (passive immunity transfer) has not yet been investigated. Piglets are born agammaglobulinemic, as a result of the lack of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins in utero, thus, they serve as an ideal model to mimic the condition of immunoglobulin deficiency in preterm infants.

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Oct
2017

Loss-of-function mutations in the common gamma (γc) chain cytokine receptor subunit give rise to severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by lack of T and natural killer cells and infant death from infection. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy offer a cure, but despite successful replacement of lymphoid immune lineages, a long-term risk of severe cutaneous human papilloma virus infections persists, possibly related to persistent γc-deficiency in other cell types. Here we show that keratinocytes, the only cell type directly infected by human papilloma virus, express functional γc and its co-receptors.

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Dec
1969

Pulmonary dendritic cells drive lung responses to foreign antigens, including Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a causative agent of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. While the airway inflammatory mechanisms involved in hypersensitivity pneumonitis are well described, the mechanisms leading to the break in homeostasis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis onset are not well-described, and could involve CD103+ dendritic cells, which are found at baseline and during inflammatory responses in the lung. However, recent demonstration of the ability of CD103+ dendritic cells to induce inflammatory responses starkly contrasts with their classically described role as regulatory cells.

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Dec
1969

Dendritic cells (DCs), a bridge for innate and adaptive immune responses, play a key role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Administration of tolerogenic DCs has been used as an immunotherapy in autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is an environmental risk factor of MS.

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Dec
1969

IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.

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Dec
1969

Idiotypes (Ids) are unique epitopes of Ab V regions and can trigger anti-Id immune responses, but immunization with several nonadjuvanted isologous IgG mAbs has induced tolerance to their Ids. We immunized non-lupus-prone mice with 11 allotype "a" of IgG2a (IgG2a) and 4 IgG2c nonadjuvanted, isologous mAbs purified from serum-free medium. Of five IgG2amAbs with specificity for nucleosomes, the repeating histone-DNA subunit of chromatin, four elicited an IgG1 anti-mAb response and one mAb was nonimmunogenic.

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May
2017

BACKGROUND Immunosuppressive diseases and therapies have long been connected to risk of malignancies, especially lymphoma. With some diseases and drugs, the association is well established but the data is mostly anecdotal because of the rarity of the situation. CASE REPORT We present 2 rare cases.

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Dec
1969

Several studies showed that neutralizing anti-factor VIII (anti-fVIII) antibodies (inhibitors) in patients with acquired hemophilia A (AHA) and congenital hemophilia A (HA) are primarily directed to the A2 and C2 domains. In this study, the frequency and epitope specificity of anti-C1 antibodies were analyzed in acquired and congenital hemophilia inhibitor patients (n = 178). The domain specificity of antibodies was studied by homolog-scanning mutagenesis (HSM) with single human domain human/porcine fVIII proteins and antibody binding to human A2, C1, and C2 domains presented as human serum albumin (HSA) fusion proteins.

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Jul
2017

The germline immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain 4-34 () gene segment encodes in humans intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates expressed by erythrocytes with a specific motif in their framework region 1 (FWR1). VH4-34-expressing clones are common in the naive B cell repertoire but are rarely found in IgG memory B cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, CD27IgGB cells from patients genetically deficient for IRAK4 or MYD88, which mediate the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3, contained VH4-34-expressing clones and showed decreased somatic hypermutation frequencies.

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Jul
2017

Deficient anterior pituitary with variable immune deficiency (DAVID) syndrome is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, called common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID.

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Sep
2017

There has been a dramatic increase in requests for coeliac disease (CD) serological screening using immunoglobulin (Ig)A tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG). Recently, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has revised its guidance, recommending that total IgA should also be measured in all samples. This is justified, as false-negative results may occur with IgA deficiency.

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Dec
1969

In addition to the deleterious effect on health, there is considerable economic and psychosocial morbidity associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Also, the cost of a late diagnosis frequently results in a heavy disease burden on the patient. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze data on patients with PID in the state of Guanajuato in Mexico, to indirectly estimate the burden of the disease.

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Oct
2017

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, bleeding disorder caused by an autoantibody against factor VIII that interferes with its coagulant function.
We performed a narrative review focusing on the diagnostic aspects of AHA and on the current treatment strategies with particular regard to new data and therapeutic developments.
The management of this severe hemorrhagic disorder is based on the control of bleeding with the use of bypassing agents and on the utilization of a variety of immunosuppressant agents with the goal of eliminating the autoantibody permanently.

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Dec
1969

The lack of BTK in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) patients does not affect monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) phenotype and functions. In this study, we show that XLA patients had an increased frequency of the intermediate monocytes subset and that BTK-deficient monocytes and PMN had a normal expression of receptors involved in the activation and cellular responses. We demonstrate that BTK is not required for migration, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following engagement of FC gamma receptors (FcγR).

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Apr
2017

A high ambient temperature is a highly relevant stressor in poultry production. Heat stress (HS) has been reported to reduce animal welfare, performance indices and increase Salmonella susceptibility. Salmonella spp.

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Dec
1969

Patients with IgG-deficiency often suffer from repeated bacterial infections with S. pneumoniae. Since there is a lack of knowledge regarding whether IgG-deficient patients would benefit from conjugate pneumococcal vaccination, we set out to evaluate the effect of Prevnar13 vaccination in IgG- and/or IgG-deficient patients.

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May
2017

The growth factor receptor Kit is involved in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic development. Mice bearing Kit defects lack mast cells; however, strains bearing different Kit alleles exhibit diverse phenotypes. Herein, we investigated factors underlying differential sensitivity to IgG-mediated arthritis in 2 mast cell-deficient murine lines: KitWsh/Wsh, which develops robust arthritis, and KitW/Wv, which does not.

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Dec
1969

Patient Characteristics and Individualization of Biologic Therapy.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2017 05 1;37(2):261-281. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
Steven Draikiwicz, John Oppenheimer
Progress in the understanding of disease processes has provided additional therapeutic targets, best exemplified by the increasing role of biologics in the clinical armamentarium. This article provides a focused review of current treatment paradigms and pathophysiology for asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, as well as C1 inhibitor deficiency. It elucidates the populations in which biologics were studied for the aforementioned disease states, emphasizing characteristics to consider when selecting therapy.

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Apr
2017

In severe humoral immunodeficiency the indication for antibody replacement therapy (ART) is clear, and supported by several large studies. However, for milder forms of humoral immunodeficiency, the indication for ART is less clear. This is a retrospective cohort study of 87 adults with recurrent respiratory tract infections who received ART.

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Apr
2017

Patients with primary immune deficiency (PID) often require immunoglobulin G (IgG, commonly referred to as Ig) replacement therapy to prevent infections and associated comorbidities. Ig therapy can be given either through intravenous or subcutaneous routes, and both can be done in the home setting. There is limited information available on the real-world diagnosis, management, and outcomes of this patient population, given the variable disease presentation and treatment options.

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Jan
2017

Panzygais a new glycine-formulated immune globulin intravenous 10% liquid for the treatment of patients suffering from immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases. Panzygais a high purity, native and functional IgG product with an IgG subclass distribution equivalent to normal plasma. The levels of hemagglutinins and accompanying plasma proteins (including IgA and IgM) are low.

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Apr
2017

Studies demonstrated that deficiency in 17β-estradiol (E) in postmenopausal women influences their immune system. However, few studies have reported alterations in immunologic presentation during nonnatural menopause in young females. Here we compared the differences in immune response between young C57BL/6N mice with surgical or medical variectomy and aged C57BL/6N mice with the common feature of Edeficiency following Con A stimulation.

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