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'Ionizing Radiation Exposure Medical Imaging' (3277)


Feb
2018

The risk of breast cancer may be higher with direct exposure to ionizing radiation from thoracic computed tomography (CT) during pregnancy or postpartum. We evaluated the short-term risk of maternal breast cancer after exposure to thoracic CT during these periods.
We completed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all deliveries between 1995-2014 using universal health care databases in the province of Ontario, Canada.

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Feb
2018

Minimally invasive procedures play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of many pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Although computed tomography and fluoroscopy are commonly used for image guidance, the associated exposure to ionizing radiation is especially concerning in pediatric patients. Ultrasonography may be used successfully in a subset of interventions, but it is often not useful for complex, deep, and osseous targets.

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Jan
2018

Standard fluoroscopic guidance (C-arm fluoroscopy) has been routinely used for intraoperative localization of spinal level for surgical removal of intraspinal tumour, while it is not suitable for selected patients, e.g. pregnant women, who need to avoid radiation exposure.

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Dec
1969

Cone beam computed tomography: basics and applications in dentistry.

J Istanb Univ Fac Dent 2017 2;51(3 Suppl 1):S102-S121. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
Elluru Venkatesh, Snehal Venkatesh Elluru
The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices, changed the way oral and maxillofacial radiology is practiced. CBCT was embraced into the dental settings very rapidly due to its compact size, low cost, low ionizing radiation exposure when compared to medical computed tomography. Alike medical CT, 3 dimensional evaluation of the maxillofacial region with minimal distortion is offered by the CBCT.

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Dec
2017

Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks.

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Jun
2017

Non-gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (nMRA) is a noninvasive, contrast-free imaging modality used for visualizing pedal arterial anatomy. We report application of the nMRA technique for detailed arterial imaging in a patient with dorsalis pedis aneurysm. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, we demonstrate that nMRA provides sufficient arterial detail needed to develop a complex operative plan before vascular intervention without risk of contrast agent or ionizing radiation exposure.

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Dec
1969

In recent years, the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine has increased substantially. Following the diagnostic procedures performed in nuclear medicine departments, such as myocardial perfusion imaging, patients generally receive considerable doses of radiation. Normally, radiation-induced DNA damages are expected following exposure to a low-dose ionizing radiation.

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Jan
2018

[Treatment of rotational malalignment of the lower leg].

Unfallchirurg 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
P Keppler
Rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures is not uncommon. In-toeing and out-toeing conditions in children are often the reason for orthopedic and traumatological medical consultation.
Evaluation of diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options for rotational malalignment in relationship to the patient's age.

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Dec
1969

Dai-kenchu-to (TJ-100) is an herbal medicine used to shorten the duration of intestinal transit by accelerating intestinal movement. However, intestinal movement in itself has not been evaluated in healthy volunteers using radiography, fluoroscopy, and radioisotopes because of exposure to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of TJ-100 on intestinal motility using cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) with a steady-state free precession sequence.

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Jan
2018

Every year, millions of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy for treating and destroying abnormal cell growths within normal cell environmental conditions. Thus, ionizing radiation can have positive therapeutic effects on cancer cells as well as post-detrimental effects on surrounding normal tissues. Previous studies in the past years have proposed that the reduction and oxidation metabolism in cells changes in response to ionizing radiation and has a key role in radiation toxicity to normal tissue.

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Jan
2018

The characterization of focal splenic lesions by ultrasound can be quite challenging. The recent introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has come to play a valuable role in the field of imaging splenic pathologies, offering the possibility of an ionizing radiation-free investigation. Because CEUS has been incorporated into everyday clinical practice, malignant diseases such as focal lymphomatous infiltration, metastatic deposits, benign cysts, traumatic fractures, and hemangiomas can now be accurately depicted and characterized without the need for further imaging.

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Dec
1969

Children with congenital or acquired heart disease can be exposed to relatively high lifetime cumulative doses of ionizing radiation from necessary medical imaging procedures including radiography, fluoroscopic procedures including diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations, electrophysiology examinations, cardiac computed tomography (CT) studies, and nuclear cardiology examinations. Despite the clinical necessity of these imaging studies, the related ionizing radiation exposure could pose an increased lifetime attributable cancer risk. The Image Gently "Have-A-Heart" campaign is promoting the appropriate use of medical imaging studies in children with congenital or acquired heart disease while minimizing radiation exposure.

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Dec
1969

Small airways are the site of pathological changes often in an early stage in many diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis. However this part of the airways is overlooked in conventional respiratory function tests and it is therefore often referred to as "silent lung zone". This paper presents the theoretical background of MBNW multi-breath nitrogen washout in the diagnosis of minor respiratory diseases.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this review is to survey CT and MRI overuse in the paediatric emergency department (ED) population. CT is one of the most important modalities employed in the ED. Not surprisingly, its high accuracy, rapid acquisition and availability have resulted in overuse.

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Dec
2017

-Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are exposed to increasing amounts of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) from cardiac procedures. Cancer prevalence in this population is higher compared to the general population. This study estimates the association between LDIR exposure from cardiac procedures and incident cancer in ACHD patients.

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Oct
2017

Head injury is common in children, with mostly being minor and not resulting in intracranial injury. Computerized tomography head scan is the preferred exam, but implies exposure to radiation; the indications for computerized tomography head scan in minor injuries are not consensual. An expectant approach is a good option in most cases.

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Dec
2017

Radiation exposure is a well-documented risk factor for thyroid cancer; diagnostic imaging represents an increasing source of exposure. Germline variations in DNA repair genes could increase risk of developing thyroid cancer following diagnostic radiation exposure. No studies have directly tested for interaction between germline mutations and radiation exposure.

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Feb
2018

To explore the patient perception on radiation-related cancer risk from interventional radiology (IR) procedures and whether informed radiation consent is warranted.
A multiple-choice survey was prospectively administered to 68 adults undergoing a body or neuro-IR procedure with ionizing radiation exposure. Subgroup analysis with chi-square or Fisher exact test was performed based on patient past IR history (P < .

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Nov
2017

The European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM requires patient radiation dose information to be included in the medical report of radiological procedures. To provide effective communication to the patient, it is necessary to first assess the patient's level of knowledge regarding medical exposure. The goal of this work is to survey patients' current knowledge level of both medical exposure to ionizing radiation and professional disciplines and communication means used by patients to garner information.

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Dec
1969

In the context of health care, risk assessment is the identification, evaluation and estimation of risk related to a particular clinical situation or intervention compared to accepted medical practice standards. The goal of risk assessment is to determine an acceptable level of risk for a given clinical treatment or intervention in association with the provided clinical circumstances for a patient or group of patients. In spite of the inherent challenges related to risk assessment in pediatric cross-sectional imaging, the potential risks of ionizing radiation and sedation/anesthesia in the pediatric population are thought to be quite small.

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Dec
2017

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding causes more than 300 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States. Imaging plays a crucial role in accurately locating the source of the bleed for timely intervention. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging clinically translatable imaging modality that images superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) tracers with extraordinary contrast and sensitivity.

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Feb
2018

Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. However, the specific effects of diagnostic radiation exposure on thyroid cancer risk are controversial. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of diagnostic radiation exposure on thyroid cancer risk.

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Feb
2018

To demonstrate the initial feasibility of non-contrast quantitative pulmonary perfusion imaging at 3T using flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), and to evaluate the intra-session and inter-session reliability of FAIR measurements at 3T.
Nine healthy volunteers were imaged using our own implementation of FAIR pulse sequence at 3T. Quantitative FAIR perfusion, both with and without larger pulmonary vessels, was correlated with global phase contrast (PC) measured blood flow in the right pulmonary artery (RPA).

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Jan
2018

Neonatal lung ultrasound exam guidelines.

J Perinatol 2018 Jan 16;38(1):11-22. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
D Kurepa, N Zaghloul, L Watkins, J Liu
Point-of-care ultrasound (POC-US) is increasingly used especially in emergency and critical-care medicine. It is focused, quick and does not expose patients to ionizing radiation. It encompasses all organ systems and has well-defined indications.

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Jan
2018

Ultrasonography (US) is frequently the first imaging modality used to examine women with symptoms involving the pelvis. It is widely available and involves no exposure to ionizing radiation. Images can be acquired with a transabdominal, endovaginal, or translabial approach, and the use of video clips and three-dimensional reconstructions can be helpful.

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Nov
2017

Medical imaging has become a central component of patient care to ensure early and accurate diagnosis. Unfortunately, many imaging modalities use ionizing radiation to generate images. Ionizing radiation even in low doses can cause direct DNA damage and generate reactive oxygen species and free radicals, leading to DNA, protein, and lipid membrane damage.

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Nov
2017

PET/CT plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging and management of many pediatric malignancies. The techniques for performing PET/CT examinations in children have evolved, with increasing attention focused on reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation dose whenever possible and minimizing scan duration and sedation times, with a goal toward optimizing the overall patient experience. This review outlines our approach to performing PET/CT, including a discussion of the indications for a PET/CT exam, approaches for optimizing the exam protocol, and a review of different approaches for acquiring the CT portion of the PET/CT exam.

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Nov
2017

The importance of nontargeted (systemic) effects of ionizing radiation is attracting increasing attention. Exploiting synchrotron radiation generated by the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, we studied radiation-induced nontargeted effects in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were locally irradiated with a synchrotron X-ray broad beam and a multiplanar microbeam radiotherapy beam.

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Sep
2017

This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the cumulative effective dose and associated cancer risk of pediatric patients of US and Hong Kong population undergoing repetitive whole-body scans with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during their diagnosis and follow-up periods. Organ-absorbed doses of pediatric patients undergoing DXA whole-body scan have been computer simulated using patient imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC. Gender- and age-specific effective doses have been calculated with the simulated organ-absorbed doses using the ICRP-103 approach.

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Oct
2017

Generated by Quaking (QKI), circular RNAs (circRNAs) are newly recognised non-coding RNA (ncRNA) members characterised by tissue specificity, increased stability and enrichment within exosomes. Studies have shown that ionizing radiation (IR) can influence ncRNA transcription. However, it is unknown whether circRNAs or indeed QKI are regulated by IR.

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Jan
2018

Medical imaging is an increasingly important source of radiation exposure for the general population, and there are risks associated with such exposure; however, recent studies have demonstrated poor understanding of medical radiation among various groups of health care providers. This study had two aims: (1) analyze physicians' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk in diagnostic imaging across multiple specialties and levels of training, and (2) assess the effectiveness of a brief educational presentation on improving physicians' knowledge.
From 2014 to 2016, 232 health care providers from multiple departments participated in an educational presentation and pre- and postpresentation tests evaluating knowledge of radiation exposure and risk at a large academic institution.

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Dec
2017

As a promising next-generation photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer, TiOnanoparticles (NPs) has gained great attention due to its higher efficiency. Yet, its application in PDT is strongly limited by its UV light response range. In this work, TiONPs conjugated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-TiO) composites were successfully prepared by hydrothermal reduction method.

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Dec
1969

Some muscular and osteoarticular diseases pose serious diagnostic problems, e.g. subsequent recurrent or persistent conditions of isolated pain in the extremities, most frequently - in the lower extremities, especially knee joints, and isolated pain in the back, usually in the lumbosacral spine.

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Oct
2017

Radiation exposure remains a big concern in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Ultrasound imaging of the spine could significantly reduce or possibly even eliminate this radiation hazard. The spinous processes (SPs) and transverse processes (TPs) were used to measure the coronal deformity.

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Dec
1969

Radiation exposure during fluoroscopically guided interventions such as endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is a growing concern for operators. This study aimed to measure DNA damage/repair markers in operators perfoming EVAR.
Expression of the DNA damage/repair marker, γ-H2AX and DNA damage response marker, phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pATM), were quantified in circulating lymphocytes in operators during the peri-operative period of endovascular (infrarenal, branched, and fenestrated) and open aortic repair using flow cytometry.

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Dec
2017

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of UVA-activated 1% riboflavin solution on structural integrity; mechanical properties and stability; and collagenase-mediated collagen solubilisation resistance of demineralized root dentin collagen matrix. Root dentin specimens demineralized with 17% EDTA for 7days were treated with 1% RF for 1min followed by UVA photo-activation at intensity 7mW/cmfor 1min. Control specimens were completely devoid of riboflavin and/or UVA treatments.

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Sep
2017

Between 20 to 50% of medical imaging examinations are considered inappropriate, and unnecessary ionizing radiation exposures may lead to cancer. We hypothesized that Bahraini patients who self-present for ionizing radiation procedures are not aware of, and lack the requisite knowledge of, the inherent risks associated with their use than patients prescribed for diagnostic purposes. We attempted to examine and compare the awareness and knowledge of the associated risks of ionizing radiation in common diagnostic radiological procedures between prescribed and self-presenting patients in Bahrain.

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Oct
2017

Non-catheter-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less common in children than in adults. Although the presence of a central venous catheter is the most common cause of venous thrombosis in children, infection and inflammation, malignancy, hypercoagulability, dehydration, and certain sites of normal variant and pathologic anatomic narrowing all predispose to VTE in children. The mortality and morbidity of VTE vary according to the underlying cause, including whether malignancy is present.

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Mar
2018

ᅟ: The indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (i-NHLs) are characterised by 'indolent' clinical behaviour with slow growth and prolonged natural history. The watchful waiting (WW) strategy is a frequently employed treatment option in these patients. This implies a strict monitoring by imaging examinations, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and CT.

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Dec
1969

In recent years experimental data have indicated that low-energy proton beam radiation might induce a difference in cellular migration in comparison to photons. We therefore set out to compare the effect of proton beam irradiation and X-rays on the survival and long-term migratory properties of two cell lines: uveal melanoma Mel270 and skin melanoma BLM.
Cells treated with either proton beam or X-rays were analyzed for their survival using clonogenic assay and MTT test.

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Jan
2018

Diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) frequently requires radiological follow up associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to estimate the effective dose of ionizing radiation in patients diagnosed and followed up due to SPNs, which were found beyond lung cancer screening programs. We estimated the exposure to ionizing radiation as effective doses (ED) of all imaging techniques using ionizing radiation: chest computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT) in each patient.

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Nov
2017

The use of x-ray generators for diagnostic radiology in the medical sector in Cameroon, Central Africa, is wide spread and on the increase in recent times. Regulatory control of x-ray machines used in medical sector has been achieved in the Littoral Region of Cameroon by means of notification and authorization systems, routine inspections, and enforcement programs. Quality control of x-ray equipment is performed to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily before issuance of the authorization with a validity of two years.

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Sep
2017

The accurate diagnosis of spondylolysis is widely made with CT scan considered as the gold standard. However, CT represents significant radiation exposure particularly substantial in a young and sometimes still growing population. Although the role of MRI in identifying edema/inflammation within the pars as an active lesion is proved, its ability to demonstrate and classify pars fracture line as same as CT is still controversial.

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Nov
2017

There has been concern expressed by the UK regulator, the Health & Safety Executive, regarding the management of occupation dose for healthcare radiation workers who work across multiple organizations. In response to this concern, the British Institute of Radiology led a working group of relevant professional bodies to develop guidance in this area. The guidance addresses issues of general system management that would apply to all personal dosimetry systems, regardless of whether or not the workers within that system work across organizational boundaries, along with exploring efficient strategies to comply with legislation where those workers do indeed work across organizational boundaries.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study is to assess the dose of ionizing radiation caused by repeated CT scans performed to investigate non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions in young adults.
Over 26 months, we collected a cohort of patients aged 18 to 45 years who were subject to at least one urgent contrast-enhanced abdomen/pelvis CT. Patients affected with urolithiasis, HIV infection, tumors, and vascular and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded.

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Dec
1969

In modern medical practice, there is an increasing dependence on imaging techniques in most medical specialties. Radiation exposure during pregnancy may have serious teratogenic effects to the fetus. Therefore, checking the pregnancy status before imaging women of child bearing age can protect against these effects.

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Nov
2017

To determine and compare the changes in corneal density after 2 different protocols of accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (A-CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus.
Two groups of eyes received A-CXL treatment; 20 eyes received A-CXL using continuous UVA light exposure at 9 mW/cm for 10 minutes with a total energy dose of 5.4 J/cm, and 24 eyes received A-CXL using continuous UVA light exposure at 30 mW/cm for 4 minutes with a total energy dose of 7.

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Sep
2017

We aimed to measure the reduction in the estimated dose of radiation received by patients that can be achieved using dose-reduction technology (ClarityIQ, Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands), among all patients undergoing invasive cardiology procedures.
Medical procedures remain the primary source of exposure to ionizing radiation in the general population.
The study population comprised all patients (without exclusion criteria) undergoing invasive coronary procedures over a 1-year study period in a large referral centre equipped with two catheterization laboratories (cathlabs).

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Oct
2016

Recent articles discussing cases of brain cancer in interventionalists have raised concerns regarding the hazards of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. We review the basics of radiation dose and the potential radiation effects, particularly as they pertain to the operator. Then we present the data regarding the risk of each type of radiation effect to the fluoroscopy operator and staff, with special attention on cancer induction, radiation-induced cataracts, and the pregnant operator.

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Feb
2018

The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers principally to two major categories of chronic relapsing inflammatory intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the United States, it is currently estimated that about 1.5 million people suffer from IBD, causing considerable suffering, mortality and economic loss every year.

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