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'Labor and Delivery in the Emergency Department' (1800)


Dec
1969

Pulmonary embolism (PE) resulting from venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of maternal mortality in pregnancy. In patients with massive PE and hemodynamic instability, the treatment options often considered are thrombolytics, inferior vena caval filters, or embolectomy. We report here the case of a patient with massive PE at 28 weeks' gestation, who underwent emergency pulmonary embolectomy via cardiopulmonary bypass.

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Feb
2018

Although the number of pregnancies in women with cardiac disease is increasing worldwide, there are few data concerning their clinical characteristics and peripartum outcomes. Using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database between 2008 and 2014 in Japan, we retrospectively identified pregnant women who underwent high-risk delivery due to obstetric or non-obstetric comorbidities. We classified eligible women into those with pre-existing cardiac disease (cardiac disease group) and those with non-cardiac comorbidities (non-cardiac disease group) and compared their characteristics and peripartum outcomes.

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Feb
2018

Even Key Opinion leaders now concede that electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) cannot reliably identify fetal acidemia which many vouch as the only labor mediated pathophysiologic precursor for cerebral palsy (CP). We have developed the "Fetal Reserve Index" - an algorithm combining five dynamic components of EFM (1. Rate, 2.

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Feb
2018

Despite recommendations and the need to accelerate redesign of delivery models to be team-based and patient-centred, professional silos and cultural and structural barriers that inhibit working together and communicating effectively still predominate in the hospital setting. Aiming to improve team-based rounding, we developed, implemented and evaluated the Interprofessional Teamwork Innovation Model (ITIM).
This quality improvement (QI) study was conducted at an academic medical centre.

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Dec
1969

While reports from individual hospitals have helped to provide insights into the causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries, they are often limited for policymaking at national and subnational levels. This multisite study was designed to determine maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) and identify the risk factors for maternal deaths in referral health facilities in Nigeria.
A pretested study protocol was used over a 6-month period (January 1-June 30, 2014) to obtain clinical data on pregnancies, births, and maternal deaths in eight referral hospitals across eight states and four geopolitical zones of Nigeria.

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Nov
2017

Understanding the level of public satisfaction with a family physician plan as well as the relevant factors in this respect, can be employed as valuable tools in identifying quality of services.
To determine the factors affecting public dissatisfaction with an urban family physician plan in Iran.
This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015 on Fars Province residents in Iran, selected based on cluster sampling method.

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Jan
2018

Although current beta cell replacement therapy is effective in stabilizing glycemic control in highly selected patients with refractory type 1 diabetes, many hurdles are inherent to this and other donor-based transplantation methods. One solution could be moving to stem cell-derived transplant tissue. This study investigates a novel stem cell-derived graft and implant technology and explores the circumstances of its cost-effectiveness compared to intensive insulin therapy.

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Jan
2018

Pregnancy-related spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) is a rare but life-threatening condition of the peripartum and postpartum mother. The gold standard of diagnosing P-SCAD is a left cardiac catheterization; however, this diagnostic tool may not be used early because myocardial infarction is not typically a top differential diagnosis for women and especially young pregnant women presenting with acute chest pain. Providers and registered nurses, particularly those in the prehospital setting, the emergency department, and labor and delivery units, should be aware of signs, symptoms, potential risk factors, and diagnostic results that could indicate P-SCAD and initiate early and appropriate treatment to improve maternal outcomes.

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Dec
1969

The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response.

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Feb
2018

The objective of this study was to assess the risk of emergency cesarean deliveries (CDs) and adverse neonatal/maternal outcomes according to the planned gestational age at delivery (GAD) for elective CD.
The study population consisted of term singleton pregnant women who were booked for elective CD and were subsequently delivered at term by CD, after excluding cases with a trial of labor. The relationship between the planned GAD, risk of emergency CD prior to planned date, and adverse neonatal/maternal outcomes were determined.

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Dec
1969

Conjoined twins are very rarely seen. We present a case of thoracopagus that was undiagnosed prior to delivery and combined with eclampsia and obstructed labor in a low-resource setting in sub-Saharan Africa. A 27-year-old pregnant woman was presented to the maternity emergency unit of Princess Christian Maternity Hospital (PCMH) in Freetown at term in labor.

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Jan
2018

Studies have reported increased risks of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children born by cesarean delivery (CD). However, no previous study has examined the impact of CD on risk of infant leukemia specifically.
443 infants diagnosed with acute leukemia, including both ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), were identified at Children's Oncology Group institutions between January 1996 and December 2006.

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Dec
1969

Women and couples continue to experience unintended pregnancies at high rates. In the US, 45% of all pregnancies are either mistimed or unwanted. Mishaps with contraceptives, such as condom breakage, missed pills, incorrect timing of patch or vaginal ring application, contraceptive nonuse, forced intercourse, and other circumstances, place women at risk of unintended pregnancy.

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Dec
1969

Patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high 30-day hospital readmission rate, which has a large impact on the health care system and patients' quality of life. The use of a prediction model to quantify a patient's risk of readmission may assist in directing interventions to patients who will benefit most. The objective of this study was to calculate the rate of 30-day readmissions and evaluate the accuracy of the LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, co-morbidities, and emergency department visits within the last 6 months) for 30-day readmissions in a general hospital population of COPD patients.

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Dec
2017

In recent years, significant workload, high acuity, and complexity of emergency general surgery conditions have led hospitals to replace the traditional on-call model with dedicated acute care surgery (ACS) service models. A systematic search of Ovid, EMBASE, and MEDLINE was undertaken to examine the impact of ACS services on health-care delivery processes and cost, education, and provider satisfaction. From 1827 papers, reviewers identified 22 studies that met inclusion criteria and subsequently used The Evidence-Based Practice for Improving Quality method and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to score quality and level of evidence.

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Dec
1969

Evaluation of success rate and the safety of external cephalic version after 36 weeks of gestation.
Retrospective analysis.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University, University Hospital Brno.

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Dec
1969

Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital.
Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the "Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health" of the "JHPIEGO.

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Jan
2018

Patients' perceptions of how they are treated in their interactions with the healthcare system represent important and valid measures of healthcare quality that may influence health utilization, outcomes, and costs. Perceived discrimination or the sense of being treated unfairly is an important patient perception known to adversely affect health, but the relation of such perceptions to health-seeking behaviors related to low-acuity emergency department (ED) use is unclear. The objectives of this exploratory study were to describe the prevalence and nature of perceived discrimination or perceived unfair treatment (PD/PUT), and to examine the association of PD/PUT with healthcare utilization among adult safety-net patients in the southwestern United States who sought ED treatment for low-acuity conditions.

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Dec
2017

Fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing between the 24th and 34th weeks of pregnancy in patients with symptomatic preterm labor (PTL) helps assess the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), yet the extent of its use is unknown. We assessed use of fFN testing among Texas Medicaid enrollees with symptomatic PTL and evaluated time to infant delivery and healthcare utilization/costs.
Retrospective cohort study using medical and pharmacy claims for Texas Medicaid enrollees.

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Feb
2018

Shared decision-making is playing an increasingly large role in emergency cardiovascular care. Although there are many challenges to successfully performing shared decision-making in the emergency department, there are numerous clinical scenarios in which it should be used. In this article, we explore new research and emerging decision aids in the following emergency care scenarios: (1) low-risk chest pain; (2) new-onset atrial fibrillation; and (3) moderate-risk syncope.

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Dec
2017

This study sought to determine baseline Caesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI) rates in various patient subgroups and to identify potentially modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for SSI.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre CD registry. Women who underwent CD were divided into SSI versus no SSI.

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Dec
2017

Patient decision aids (PDAs) are evidence-based tools designed to help patients make specific and deliberated choices among healthcare options. The International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration review papers and Cochrane systematic review of PDAs have found significant gaps in the reporting of evaluations of PDAs, including poor or limited reporting of PDA content, development methods and delivery. This study sought to develop and reach consensus on reporting guidelines to improve the quality of publications evaluating PDAs.

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Dec
1969

One important task of the emergency anaesthesia service is to provide rapid, safe and effective anaesthesia for emergency caesarean sections (ECS). A Decision to Delivery Interval (DDI) <30 minutes for ECS is a quality indicator for this service. The aim of this study was to assess the DDI and the impact of chosen anaesthetic technique (general anaesthesia (GA), spinal anaesthesia (SPA) with opioid supplementation, or "top-up" of labour epidural analgesia (tEDA) with local anaesthesia and fentanyl mixture) and work shift for ECS at Danderyds Hospital, Sweden.

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Dec
2017

Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of "just-in-time" injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app.

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Dec
2017

The improvement in overall survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) over the last 5 decades has been considerable, with around 90% now surviving long term. The risk of relapse has been reduced to such an extent that the risk of treatment-related mortality is now approaching that of mortality caused by relapse. Toxicities may also lead to the suboptimal delivery of chemotherapy (treatment delays, dose reductions, dose omissions), potentially increasing relapse risk, and short- and long-term morbidity, adding to the "burden of therapy" in an increasing number of survivors.

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Dec
2017

To begin closing the gap with respect to quality measures available for use among residents, the authors sought to identify and develop resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs) for use in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting.
In May 2016, the authors reviewed National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC) measures to identify resident-sensitive measures. To create additional measures focused on common, acute illnesses (acute asthma exacerbation, bronchiolitis, closed head injury [CHI]) in the PED, the authors used a nominal group technique (NGT) and Delphi process from September to December 2016.

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Nov
2017

The aim of this study was to describe emergency department (ED) activities and staffing after the introduction of activity-based funding (ABF) to highlight the challenges of new funding arrangements and their implementation.
A retrospective study of public hospital EDs in Queensland, Australia, was undertaken for 2013-2014. The ED and hospital characteristics are described to evaluate the alignment between activity and resourcing levels and their impact on performance.

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Nov
2017

To investigate the risk of emergency cesarean section during labor with the pre-pregnancy body mass index or gestational weight gain.A total of 6 908 healthy nullipara with singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation who was in term labor in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from August 1(st), 2014 to September 30(th), 2015 were recruited. They were divided into two groups, the vaginal delivery group (92.

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Nov
2017

This prospective study used data from the BRISA Cohort, São Luís, Brazil (n = 1140) and analyzed associations between environmental factors up to the first 1000 days of life and "Childhood Asthma Symptoms". "Childhood Asthma Symptoms" was a latent variable based on the number of wheezing episodes, emergency care visit due to wheezing, diagnosis of asthma and diagnosis of rhinitis. A theoretical model that included prenatal factors (socioeconomic status, pregestational body mass index-BMI, soft drink and junk food consumption), birth factors (gestational age, smoking and diseases during pregnancy, birth weight and type of delivery), first year of life factors (breastfeeding, environmental aeroallergens and respiratory diseases) and BMI z-score in the second year of life, was analyzed by structural equation modeling.

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Dec
1969

Delivery of effective mental health and psychosocial support programs requires knowledge of existing health systems and socio-cultural context. To respond rapidly to humanitarian emergencies, international organizations often seek to design programs according to international guidelines and mobilize external human resources to manage and deliver programs. Familiarizing international humanitarian practitioners with local culture and contextualizing programs is essential to minimize risk of harm, maximize benefit, and optimize efficient use of resources.

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Sep
2017

This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and anesthesiology. Consultation from a nurse educator maintained quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents and nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting.

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Dec
1969

There is currently no gold standard for delivery of systems-based practice in medical education, and it is challenging to incorporate into medical education. Health systems competence requires physicians to understand patient care within the broader health care system and is vital to improving the quality of care clinicians provide. We describe a health systems curriculum that utilizes problem-based learning across 4 years of systems-based practice medical education at a single institution.

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Jan
2017

The near-ubiquitous use of electronic fetal monitoring has failed to lower the rates of both cerebral palsy and emergency operative deliveries (EODs). Its performance metrics have low sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for both. There are many EODs, but the vast majority have normal outcomes.

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Nov
2017

A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestational age has no short-term adverse effect on the mother or infant among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years. However, the trial was underpowered to address the effect of routine induction of labour on the risk of perinatal death. We aimed to determine the association between induction of labour at ≥39 weeks and the risk of perinatal mortality among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years.

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Nov
2017

Disrespectful and abusive maternity care is a common and pervasive problem that disproportionately impacts marginalized women. By making mothers less likely to agree to facility-based delivery, it contributes to the unacceptably high rates of maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Few programmatic approaches have been proposed to address disrespectful and abusive maternity care.

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Oct
2017

An ambulance equipped with a computed tomography (CT) scanner, a point-of-care laboratory, and telemedicine capabilities (mobile stroke unit [MSU]) has been shown to enable the delivery of thrombolysis to stroke patients directly at the emergency site, thereby significantly decreasing time to treatment. However, work-up in an MSU that includes CT angiography (CTA) may also potentially facilitate triage of patients directly to the appropriate target hospital and specialized treatment, according to their individual vascular pathology.
Our institution manages a program investigating the prehospital management of patients with suspicion of acute stroke.

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Nov
2017

Preterm birth has been described as a 'nutritional emergency', with these infants often born with minimal nutrition reserves. Failure to provide adequate early nutrition jeopardises growth and neurodevelopment. Consensual nutrition guidelines exist for infants who weigh <1500 g; however, audits have identified shortfalls in their adherence, consequently highlighting an evidence-practice gap.

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Nov
2017

Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to the growing global burden of hypertension, but epidemiological studies are limited and barriers to optimal management are poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook a community-based mixed-methods study in Tanzania to investigate the epidemiology of hypertension and barriers to care.
In Northern Tanzania, between December 2013 and June 2015, we conducted a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional household epidemiological survey and qualitative sessions of focus groups and in-depth interviews.

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Oct
2017

Perimortem cesarean delivery (PMCD) is the only way to resuscitate pregnant women in cardiac arrest, and has been found to increase maternal resuscitation rate by increasing circulating plasma volume. However, many obstetricians have not experienced a case of PMCD, as situations requiring it are rare. We report our strategy for cases of maternal cardiac arrest, on the basis of a review of published work, and present two case reports from our medical center.

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Dec
1969

Small-for-gestational-age fetuses are at an increased risk of intrapartum fetal compromise requiring operative delivery. Factors associated with the risk of intrapartum fetal compromise are yet to be established, and a comprehensive model accounting for both the antenatal and intrapartum variables is lacking.
We aimed to develop and validate a predictive model for the risk of operative delivery for presumed intrapartum fetal compromise in fetuses suspected to be small for gestational age at term.

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Feb
2018

The diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in pregnancy is an uncommon, life-threatening emergency. Choice of treatment and management of complications are challenging.
We report the case of a patient with diagnosis of APL at gestational age (GA) 24 + 4.

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Jan
2017

Our study sought to determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of emergency obstetric referrals to a Nigerian teaching hospital as well as assess reasons for these referrals. We enrolled women referred or who presented themselves to the emergency obstetric unit for management of complications of pregnancy, labour, delivery or the puerperium. The majority presented late, their mean duration of stay at the referring facility being 22.

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Oct
2017

The purpose of this work was to identify and evaluate the epidemiological features, like the point prevalence of the perinatal risk factors and related to them pathological conditions revealing at the neonatal period. The descriptive population based prospective pilot study of children population of age 0-2 years was con-ducted in the City Tbilisi (in clinical centers "Medcapital", "family center N3" and "Valeo"), also in medical centers of districts of Mtsketa and Dusheti in period January 2015- January 2017. Summary was surveyed 1018 newborns during two years.

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Dec
2017

Unwell patients in the ED requiring inpatient admission must negotiate the interface between the ED and inpatient wards. Despite its importance and scale, this ED-inpatient interface (EDii) is poorly characterised. The aim of this paper is to clearly define the EDii and to describe its importance to (i) the patient: delays to admission and errors in communication across the EDii can increase adverse outcomes; (ii) the hospital: poor EDii function reduces hospital efficiency and effectiveness; and (iii) the healthcare system: half of all hospital inpatient admissions occur via the EDii and so EDii affects system-wide performance.

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Oct
2017

Disinvestment (removal, reduction, or reallocation) of routinely provided health services can be difficult when there is little published evidence examining whether the services are effective or not. Evidence is required to understand if removing these services produces outcomes that are inferior to keeping such services in place. However, organisational imperatives, such as budget cuts, may force healthcare providers to disinvest from these services before the required evidence becomes available.

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Oct
2017

Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers' compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1) larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2) brief stretching and breathing exercises during rest periods would sustain compressor performance and mitigate fatigue.
In Phase I, a volunteer cohort of pre-clinical medical students performed four minutes of continuous compressions on a Resusci-Anne manikin to gauge the spectrum of compressor performance in the subject population.

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