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'Local and Regional Anesthesia' (114)


Dec
1969

This review summarizes the added value of local anesthetics in patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor resection, which is a procedure that is carried out frequently in neurosurgical practice. The procedure can be carried out under general anesthesia, sedation with local anesthesia or under local anesthesia only. Literature shows a large variation in the postoperative pain intensity ranging from no postoperative analgesia requirement in two-thirds of the patients up to a rate of 96% of the patients suffering from severe postoperative pain.

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Dec
1969

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication of pregnancy, affecting approximately 13% of mothers internationally. Previous research has examined whether epidural analgesia used for pain control during labor and birth is associated with a lower risk of PPD, but reports conflicting results and may have suffered from methodological shortcomings. Our study aimed to prospectively assess whether epidural analgesia is associated with a lower risk of PPD (at either 6 weeks or 6 months postpartum) after attempting to adequately adjust for selection bias and confounding variables.

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Dec
1969

Previous studies have shown varying results in selected outcomes when directly comparing spinal anesthesia to general in lumbar surgery. Some studies have shown reduced surgical time, postoperative pain, time in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), incidence of urinary retention, postoperative nausea, and more favorable cost-effectiveness with spinal anesthesia. Despite these results, the current literature has also shown contradictory results in between-group comparisons.

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Dec
1969

Intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) or postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affecting women undergoing regional anesthesia for cesarean section is an important clinical problem since these techniques are used widely. There are burdens of literature about IONV/PONV and several in parturient and cesarean. However, it needs more attention.

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Dec
1969

Unilateral analgesia often occurs with epidural analgesia. Traditional methods of troubleshooting this problem can be insufficient in obtaining adequate pain relief in a timely manner for terminal cancer patients. This case report demonstrates a safe and effective solution which can be utilized in these circumstances.

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Dec
1969

Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery.

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Dec
1969

Cholecystectomy can be associated with considerable postoperative pain. While the benefits of paravertebral block (PVB) on pain after thoracotomy and mastectomy have been demonstrated, not enough investigations on the effects of PVB on pain after open cholecystectomy have been conducted. We tested the hypothesis that a single-injection thoracic PVB reduces pain scores, decreases opioid consumption, and prolongs analgesic request time after cholecystectomy.

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Dec
1969

The anterior cutaneous branches of the thoracolumbar spinal nerves enter the rectus sheath at its lateral border and perforate the muscle after travelling a short distance in the ventral direction. In this anatomical case series, we show that dye injection at the medial margin did not lead to reliable impregnation of the target nerves. The local anesthetic should therefore be injected at the lateral edge of the rectus sheath.

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Dec
1969

Spinal anesthesia: the Holy Grail?

Local Reg Anesth 2017 23;10:59-60. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
Marieke Voet, Cornelis Slagt

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Dec
1969

We report a case of May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) in a woman who had a successful labor and delivery under epidural anesthesia. MHA is an inherited thrombocytopenia easily misdiagnosed as idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Early and appropriate diagnosis of MHA during pregnancy is essential for optimal maternal and neonatal delivery outcome.

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Dec
1969

The smaller the better?

Local Reg Anesth 2017 24;10:51-52. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
Cornelis Slagt

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Dec
1969

Myringotomy and tube placement is one of the most frequently performed ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeries in the pediatric population. Effective anesthetic management is vital to ensuring successful ambulatory care and ensuring child and parental satisfaction.
This review summarizes recently published studies about the long-term effects of general anesthesia in young children, novel approaches to preoperative fasting and simplified approaches to the assessment and management of emergence delirium (ED) and emergence agitation (EA).

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Dec
1969

Thyroidectomy has been performed on an inpatient basis because of concerns regarding postoperative complications. These include cervical hematoma, bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and symptomatic hypocalcemia. We have reviewed the current available evidence and aimed to collate published data to generate incidence of the important complications.

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Dec
1969

Although generally safe and effective, severe perioperative complications, including cardiac arrest, may occur during general anesthesia in infants. With the emergence of evidence that specific anesthetic agents may affect future neurocognitive outcomes, there has been an increased focus on alternatives to general anesthesia, including spinal anesthesia. We present a case of cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in an infant who required urologic surgery.

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Dec
1969

Prilocaine is a local anesthetic characterized by intermediate potency and duration and fast onset of action. As hyperbaric formulation of 5% solution, it was introduced and has been successfully used for spinal anesthesia since 1960. A new formulation of 2% plain and hyperbaric solution is currently available in Europe.

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Dec
1969

Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most recognized complications after spinal anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PDPH and its associated risk factors in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan.
This study included all women who underwent cesarean delivery at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan during 2015.

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Dec
1969

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become one of the most common orthopedic surgical procedures performed nationally. As the population and surgical techniques for TKAs have evolved over time, so have the anesthesia and analgesia used for these procedures. General anesthesia has been the dominant form of anesthesia utilized for TKA in the past, but regional anesthetic techniques are on the rise.

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Dec
1969

This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited.

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Dec
1969

We describe the use of single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) with sedation for a 56-year-old female patient who had modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance. Two years ago, she suffered vocal cord palsy post thyroidectomy, which was managed with tracheostomy. The tracheostomy tube was removed 8 months later, leaving the patient with persistent hoarseness of voice and left vocal cord palsy.

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Dec
1969

A systematic review of the literature on the use of regional anesthesia (RA) and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was conducted in patients who require orthopedic extremity procedures to determine whether either analgesic technique contributes to a delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome (CS). A total of 34 relevant articles (28 case reports and six research articles) were identified. Of all case report articles published after 2009, the majority (75%) concluded that RA does not put the patient at an increased risk of a delayed diagnosis of CS.

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Dec
1969

Obtaining patient informed consent for a regional analgesia block on the day of surgery can result in surgical case delays. We hypothesized that implementing a preoperative electronic surgical order, undertaking patient education, and obtaining informed consent for a regional block in our preoperative assessment clinic prior to the day of surgery would reduce surgical case delays attributed to our regional anesthesia pain service and increase the percentage of patients for whom our regional anesthesia pain service was requested to provide a block.
A prospective two-group time-series design, with a nonrandomized, pre- and post-intervention data collection strategy, was applied.

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Dec
1969

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It is associated with increased comorbidities and increased maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. The risk of cesarean delivery is also increased in obese parturients.

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Dec
1969

Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle.

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Dec
1969

Raynaud's syndrome has been treated medically and invasively, sometimes with regional anesthesia leading up to sympathectomy. We demonstrate that regional anesthesia was in this case a useful technique that can allow some patients to find temporary but significant relief from symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome exacerbation. We present a 43-year-old woman with Raynaud's syndrome secondary to lupus who was treated with bilateral popliteal nerve block catheters for ischemic pain and necrosis of her feet; this led to almost immediate resolution of her pain and return of color and function of her feet.

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Dec
1969

Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children's hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure.

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Dec
1969

Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow.

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Dec
1969

A popliteal block is effective in managing postoperative pain for foot surgery, but since the duration of analgesia is limited following a single-shot popliteal fossa block technique, methods to prolong effective postoperative analgesia are mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adjuvants to ropivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor block.
In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of clonidine or dexamethasone (DXM) when added to ropivacaine for hallux valgus surgery.

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Dec
1969

Not everything that can be done should be done.

Local Reg Anesth 2016 24;9:13-5. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
Cor Slagt

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Dec
1969

Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our study was to gauge the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.

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Dec
1969

Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures.

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Dec
1969

Paravertebral blocks (PVBs) are a method of limiting postoperative pain for patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We began providing ultrasound-guided PVBs for patients undergoing VATS in the spring of 2011, using an out-of-plane approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate this practice change.

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Dec
1969

Subarachnoid blockade for cesarean section still poses a threat of profound hypotension and can result in unstable maternal and fetal hemodynamics. The correlation of fetal breech and vertex presentation with the occurrence of hypotension under spinal anesthesia is reviewed in this retrospective, double-blind study.
The study was conducted on pregnant females scheduled for a lower segment cesarean section between January 2014 and December 2014.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types.
A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.

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Dec
1969

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration.

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Dec
1969

Liposome bupivacaine is a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine indicated for single-dose infiltration into the surgical site to produce postsurgical analgesia of longer duration than traditional local anesthetics. This review summarizes the available data on how volume expansion may impact the analgesic efficacy of liposome bupivacaine. The Phase II and III clinical studies that involved surgical site administration of liposome bupivacaine at various concentrations in different surgical settings revealed no apparent concentration-efficacy relationship.

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Dec
1969

Older people undergoing any surgery have a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality, resulting from a decline in physiological reserves, associated comorbidities, polypharmacy, cognitive dysfunction, and frailty. Most of the clinical trials comparing regional versus general anesthesia in elderly have failed to establish superiority of any single technique. However, the ideal approach in elderly is to be least invasive, thus minimizing alterations in homeostasis.

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Dec
1969

In recent years, the popularity of aesthetic and cosmetic procedures, often performed in outpatient settings, has strongly renewed interest in topical anesthetics. A number of different options are widely used, alone or in combination, in order to minimize the pain related to surgery. Moreover, interest in local anesthetics in the treatment of some painful degenerative conditions such as myofascial trigger point pain, shoulder impingement syndrome, or patellar tendinopathy is increasing.

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Dec
1969

Block them when it hurts.

Local Reg Anesth 2015 9;8:93-4. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
C Slagt, G J van Geffen

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Dec
1969

The indications for surgery on the knee in children and adolescents share some similarity to adult practice in that there are an increasing number of sports-related injuries requiring surgical repair. In addition, there are some unique age-related conditions or congenital abnormalities that may present as indications for orthopedic intervention at the level of the knee. The efficacy and safety of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) for postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery has been well established in adults.

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Dec
1969

Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%-15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems.

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Dec
1969

Lidocaine could provide many advantages in continuous regional anesthesia techniques, including faster onset, greater titratability, and lower cost than long-acting local anesthetics. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, pilot study is therefore intended to compare lidocaine to ropivacaine in bilateral continuous paravertebral blocks using a multimodal approach for postoperative pain management following laparoscopic bowel surgery.
Thirty-five ASA I-III consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bowel surgery and bilateral thoracic paravertebral continuous blocks were analyzed: bilateral thoracic paravertebral infusions of ropivacaine 0.

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Dec
1969

Incidence of hemorrhagic complications from neuraxial blockade is unknown, but classically cited as 1 in 150,000 epidurals and 1 in 220,000 spinals. However, recent literature and epidemiologic data suggest that for certain patient populations the frequency is higher (1 in 3,000). Due to safety concerns of bleeding risk, guidelines and recommendations have been designed to reduce patient morbidity/mortality during regional anesthesia.

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Dec
1969

In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers.

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Dec
1969

Trauma is a significant health problem and a leading cause of death in all age groups. Pain related to trauma is frequently severe, but is often undertreated in the trauma population. Opioids are widely used to treat pain in injured patients but have a broad range of undesirable effects in a multitrauma patient such as neurologic and respiratory impairment and delirium.

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Dec
1969

The emerging subspecialty of regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine represents an opportunity to evaluate critically the current methods of teaching regional anesthesia techniques and the practice of acute pain medicine. To date, there have been a wide variety of simulation applications in this field, and efficacy has largely been assumed. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that effective teaching strategies, including simulation, in regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine are not established completely yet.

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Dec
1969

Stimulating catheters are widely used for continuous peripheral nerve block techniques in regional anesthesia. The incidence of reported complications is somewhat similar to that for non-stimulating catheters. However, as many stimulating catheters contain a coiled steel wire for optimal stimulation, they may cause specific complications.

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Dec
1969

Regional anesthesia is gaining popularity with anesthesiologists as it offers superb postoperative analgesia. However, as the sole anesthetic technique in high-risk patients in whom general anesthesia is not preferred, some regional anesthetic possibilities may be easily overlooked. By presenting two cases of very old patients with considerable comorbidities, we would like to bring the mental nerve field block under renewed attention as a safe alternative to general anesthesia and to achieve broader application of this simple nerve block.

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Dec
1969

Anesthetic management of patients with preexisting diseases is challenging and individualized approaches need to be determined based on patients' complications. We report here a case of ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia in combination with low-dose ketamine during cesarean delivery on a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system and airway problems. The ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia was performed in the L1-L2 space, followed by an intravenous administration of ketamine (0.

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Dec
1969

We carried out a prospective service evaluation of the quality of pain control after preoperative transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block in 100 children undergoing abdominal surgery. Data were collected on type of procedure, age, weight, level of the block, local anesthetic used, additional analgesia, and hourly pain scores. Of the 100 patients, 87 were included in the evaluation, 77% of who were less than 1 year old.

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Dec
1969

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration has been increasingly used for postsurgical analgesia in abdominal/pelvic procedures; however, duration/extent of analgesia with standard local anesthetics is limited. This pilot study assessed the preliminary efficacy and safety of two volumes of liposome bupivacaine administered via TAP infiltration in patients undergoing robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy.
In this single-center, open-label, prospective study, patients older than 18 years received TAP infiltration with liposome bupivacaine immediately after surgery.

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