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'Lungs' (839202)



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Feb
2018

Exposure to ozone (O3) induces lung injury, pulmonary inflammation, and alters lipid metabolism. During tissue inflammation, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) facilitate the resolution of inflammation. SPMs regulate the pulmonary immune response during infection and allergic asthma; however, the role of SPMs in O3-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation is unknown.

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Feb
2018

Cypermethrin (CYM), a type II pyrethroid, is widely used as an insecticide for agriculture and household. Cumulative evidence indicates that acute and chronic exposure to CYM might cause a number of health problems, such as cancer and neuronal system diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this pathology is not known.

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Feb
2018

The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the ground-glass opacity (GGO) ratio in lung adenocarcinoma in predicting surgical outcomes.
Patients who underwent surgical resection for pulmonary adenocarcinoma between January 2004 and December 2013 were reviewed. The clinical data, imaging characteristics of nodules, surgical approaches and outcomes were analysed with a mean follow-up of 87 months.

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Feb
2018

Controlled human exposure to the oxidant air pollutant ozone causes decrements in lung function and increased inflammation as evidenced by neutrophil influx into the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways. Here we describe a targeted metabolomics evaluation of human bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) following controlled in vivo exposure to ozone to gain greater insight into its pulmonary effects. In a two-arm cross-over study, each healthy adult human volunteer was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA) and to 0.

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Feb
2018

To evaluate the effects of Allium cepa (A. cepa) on levels of oxidants, antioxidants and immunological markers in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluids in sensitized rats.
Oxidant-antioxidant markers and cytokines in BALF of control rats treated with saline (group C), ovalbumin-sensitized rats (group S), rats treated with 1.

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Feb
2018

A novel series of enediynes possessing pentafluorophenylsulfoxide have been developed. The innovative compounds possess antiproliferative activity against a broad panel of human cancer cells originating from breast, blood, lung, kidney, colon, prostate, pancreas or skin with ICranging from 0.6 to 3.

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Feb
2018

The role of oxidative stress has been well documented in the development of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Protein interaction with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) participates in oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. However, its function in lung infections and inflammatory diseases is not known.

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Feb
2018

Hottuynia cordata is an important traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases including bacterial and viral infections. Polysaccharides isolated from Houttuynia cordata (HCP), as its main ingredients, have been demonstrated to ameliorate the LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The study aimed to determine the protective effects of HCP on multiple organ injury in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infected mice and its primary mechanisms in anti-inflammation and immune regulation.

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Feb
2018

Asthma morbidity is high among low-income children living in rural U.S. regions, yet few interventions have been designed to reduce asthma burden among rural populations.

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Feb
2018

Drug resistance is an important factor leading to the recurrence and metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play important roles in drug resistance of tumor cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of LncRNA-HOTAIR in regulating drug resistance of NSCLC cells.

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Feb
2018

The shortening of sarcomeres that co-ordinates the pump function of the heart is stimulated by electrically-mediated increases in [Ca]. This process of excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is subject to modulation by neurohormonal mediators that tune the output of the heart to meet the needs of the organism. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent modulator of cardiac function with effects on contraction amplitude, chronotropy and automaticity.

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Feb
2018

Purpose To measure regional specific ventilation with free-breathing hydrogen 1 (H) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging without exogenous contrast material and to investigate correlations with hyperpolarized helium 3 (He) MR imaging and pulmonary function test measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with asthma. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent free-breathingH and static breath-hold hyperpolarizedHe MR imaging as well as spirometry and plethysmography; participants were consecutively recruited between January and June 2017. Free-breathingH MR imaging was performed with an optimized balanced steady-state free-precession sequence; images were retrospectively grouped into tidal inspiration or tidal expiration volumes with exponentially weighted phase interpolation.

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Feb
2018

The chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa determine morbidity in most individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa may persist for decades in CF lungs which provides the rare opportunity to study the long-term within-host evolution of a bacterial airway pathogen.

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Feb
2018

Halloysite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4·nH2O) nanotubes (HNTs) are natural clay materials with hollow tubular structures and are widely applied in many fields. Many in vitro studies indicate that HNTs exhibit a high level of biocompatibility; however the in vivo toxicity of HNTs remains unclear. In this study, the bio-distribution and pulmonary toxicity of the purified HNTs in mice were investigated after intragastric administration for 30 days.

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Feb
2018

Harpagoside, an iridoid glycoside, is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix. High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS) was used to profile and identify the metabolites of harpagoside in rats in vivo and to study the distribution of these metabolites in rats for the first time. A total of 45 metabolites were identified, 37 of which were postulated to be new compounds.

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Feb
2018

The Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a particularly useful test of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system that has an increasingly important role in lung function laboratories. There is general agreement in the literature that the determination of reference values is of utmost importance in the clinical use of the FOT.
Our aim was to present reference values for whole-breath FOT measurements, establish which anthropometric variables were more predictive of impedance parameters, and provide all the details to adequately adopt these reference equations in individual laboratories.

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Feb
2018

Endovascular stenting has matured into a commonly used treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) due to its minimally invasive nature and associated reductions in short-term morbidity and mortality. The mechanical properties of the superelastic Nitinol alloy have played a major role in the explosion of peripheral artery stenting, with modern stents demonstrating reasonable resilience and durability. Yet in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, even the newest generation Nitinol stents continue to demonstrate clinical outcomes that leave significant room for improvement.

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Feb
2018

The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung emphysema increases with age and both lung diseases are again risk factors for lung cancer. Since a reduced capacity of fibroblasts for proliferation is a good indicator of tissue aging, we studied the cell proliferation of lung fibroblasts from normal and tumor tissue of lung cancer patients depending on lung comorbidities.
Fibroblasts were isolated from tumor and normal lung tissue of 40 lung cancer patients.

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Feb
2018

Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) has classically been associated with common variable immune deficiency (CVID), but is increasingly being reported in other immunodeficiencies. We describe the second reported case of GLILD in a patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.

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Feb
2018

The Effect of Inhalant Organic Dust on Bone Health.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Feb 22;18(3):16. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
Joseph M Carrington, Jill A Poole
Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known.
An agriculture organic dust extract inhalation animal model has recently linked lung injury-induced inflammation to systemic bone loss.

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Feb
2018

Sleep apnea is a prevalent respiratory disease characterized by periodic cessation of breathing during sleep causing intermittent hypoxia (IH). Sleep apnea patients and rodents exposed to IH exhibit elevated sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. A heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been implicated in causing autonomic abnormalities in IH-treated rodents and in sleep apnea patients.

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Feb
2018

A proportion of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) do not achieve treatment goals or experience side effects on their current therapy. In such cases, switching patients to a new drug while discontinuing the first may be a viable and appropriate treatment option. CAPTURE was designed to investigate how physicians manage the switching of patients to riociguat in real-world clinical practice.

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Feb
2018

To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC) and fat fraction (FF) using water-fat separation and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).
Forty-five patients suspected of liver iron overload (LIO) were included. A volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence for QSM and FF, a fat-saturated gradient echo sequence for R, a spin echo sequence for LIC measurements and MRS analyses for FF (FF-MRS) were performed.

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Dec
1969

RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine.

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Dec
1969

AKT is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in tumorigenesis as a central regulator of cellular growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism. Activated AKT is commonly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and accordingly AKT inhibitors are under clinical investigation for NSCLC treatment. Thus far, the AKT inhibitors being evaluated broadly target all three (1-3) AKT isoforms but recent evidence suggests opposing roles in lung tumorigenesis where loss of Akt1 inhibits while the loss of Akt2 enhances lung tumor development.

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Dec
1969

To conduct a retrospective multicenter trial to determine the significance of metastatic site as a predictor of nivolumab efficacy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
This study was conducted across three medical centers in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who commenced nivolumab treatment at these centers between December 17, 2015 and July 31, 2016.

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Dec
1969

The airway epithelium in human plays a central role as the first line of defense against environmental contaminants. Most respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and respiratory infections, disturb normal muco-ciliary functions by stimulating the hypersecretion of mucus. Several muco-active agents have been used to treat hypersecretion symptoms in patients.

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Dec
1969

Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury.

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Feb
2018

Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains.

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Feb
2018

The value of metabolomics in translational research is undeniable, and metabolomics data are increasingly generated in large cohorts. The functional interpretation of disease-associated metabolites though is difficult, and the biological mechanisms that underlie cell type or disease-specific metabolomics profiles are oftentimes unknown. To help fully exploit metabolomics data and to aid in its interpretation, analysis of metabolomics data with other complementary omics data, including transcriptomics, is helpful.

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Feb
2018

Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) G38A polymorphism has recently been involved in lung epithelial susceptibility to external injuries. Lung transplantation (LT) is currently limited by ischemia-reperfusion injury leading to Primary Graft Dysfunction (PGD). We thus hypothesized that donor CCSP G38A polymorphism might impact the risk of PGD following LT.

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Feb
2018

Ischemia-reperfusion injury related to lung transplantation is a major contributor to early postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that donation after cardiac death donor lungs experience warm ischemic conditions that activate different injurious mechanisms compared with donor lungs that undergo prolonged cold ischemic conditions.
Rat donor lungs were preserved under different cold ischemic times (CIT: 12 hours or 18 hours), or under warm ischemia time (WIT: 3 hours) after cardiac death, followed by single left lung transplantation.

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Feb
2018

This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.
Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion.

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Feb
2018

Pregnancy after Solid Organ Transplantation.

MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2018 Mar/Apr;43(2):89-96
Jane M Kurz
To explore the reproductive decision-making process with women who were organ transplant recipients (renal, lung, & heart transplants).
Grounded theory guided data collection and analyses. Mixed methods with audiotaped telephone interviews and a written survey measuring social support were used.

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Feb
2018

Dynamic computed tomography (CT) of the airways is increasingly used to evaluate patients with suspected expiratory central airway collapse, but current protocols are susceptible to inadequate exhalation caused by variable patient compliance with breathing instructions during the expiratory phase. We developed and tested a low-cost single-use expiratory airflow indicator device that was designed to improve study quality by providing a visual indicator to both patient and operator when adequate expiratory flow was attained.
A total of 56 patients undergoing dynamic airway CT were evaluated, 35 of whom were scanned before introduction of the indicator device (control group), with the rest comprising the intervention group.

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Feb
2018

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB epidemics are key obstacles towards TB control and elimination.
Diagnosis of MDR/XDR-TB is difficult and requires several weeks. New diagnostic tools are being tested and proposed allowing for shorter time to diagnosis and reduced delays in starting an adequate treatment regimen.

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Feb
2018

Altered parenchymal microstructure and complexity have been observed in older age. How to distinguish between healthy, expected changes and early signs of pathology remains poorly understood. An objective quantitative analysis of computed tomography (CT) imaging was conducted to compare mean lung density (MLD), tissue density distributions, and tissue heterogeneity in 16 subjects - 8 aged >60 years who were gender- and BMI-matched with 8 subjects aged <30 years.

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Feb
2018

It is suggested that the frequent strain the airways undergo in asthma, due to repeated airway smooth muscle (ASM)-mediated constrictions, contributes to airway wall remodeling. However, the effects of repeated constrictions on airway remodeling, as well as the ensuing impact of this presumptive remodeling on respiratory mechanics, have never been investigated in non-asthmatic subjects. In this study, we set out to determine whether repeated constrictions lead to features that are reminiscent of asthma in non-asthmatic mice.

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Feb
2018

Liptzin, Deborah R., Steven H. Abman, Ann Giesenhagen, and D.

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Feb
2018

EphA2 overexpression has been associated with metastasis of multiple cancer types, including melanoma, ovarian, prostate, lung, and breast cancer. We have recently proposed to develop peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs) using agonistic EphA2-targeting agents such as the YSA peptide or its optimized version 123B9. While our studies indicated that YSA- or 123B9-drug conjugates can selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells in vivo, the relatively low cellular agonistic activity (high micromolar) of the agents for the EphA2 receptor remained a limiting factor to warrant further development of these PDCs in the clinic.

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Feb
2018

Traditional charge-conversion nanoparticles (NPs) need the breakage of acid-labile groups on the surface which impedes the rapid response to the acidic microenvironment. Here, we developed novel rod-like charge-conversion NPs with amphiphilic Dex-b-PLGA, PDMAEMA-b-PCL, and an AIE-active probe through Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP). These NPs exhibit reversible negative-to-positive charge transition at slightly acidic pH relying on the rapid protonation/deprotonation of polymers.

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Feb
2018

Live high - train low (LHTL) using hypobaric hypoxia was previously found to improve sea-level endurance performance in well-trained individuals, however confirmatory controlled data in athletes are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that natural-altitude LHTL improves aerobic performance in cross-country skiers, in conjunction with expansion of total hemoglobin mass (Hb, carbon-monoxide rebreathing technique) promoted by accelerated erythropoiesis. Following duplicate baseline measurements at sea level over the course of two weeks, nineteen Norwegian cross-country skiers (three women, sixteen men, age 20±2 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VOmax) 69±5 ml.

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Feb
2018

There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non-skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog.

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Oct
2017

Eruptive actinic keratosis (AK) consequent to systemic chemotherapy can be confused with drug allergies. We present the first case of inflamed AKs in one patient after receiving combination therapy with pemetrexed and carboplatin.A 68-year-old woman with non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC) presented with numerous pruritic ill-defined, gritty, erythematous papules consistent with AKs on her upper chest, upper back, and arms two weeks after completing the first cycle of combination therapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed.

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Oct
2017

Cutaneous angiosarcomas are rare but typically occur in three distinct clinical settings and are most commonly found on the scalp or face of elderly men. Positive prognostic factors include tumor size less than 5 cm, primary tumor location below the head, negative margins after excision, resectability, and younger age. Metastases drastically reduce survival and the most common metastatic site is lung.

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Aug
2017

Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), has shown promising results in patients with advanced malignancies, including melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cancer. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported, including both organ-specific toxicities and skin toxicities. Herein, we report a case of predominantly palmoplantar psoriasis with severe nail involvement, psoriatic arthritis, and autoimmune hypothyroidism after receiving nivolumab treatment for lung cancer.

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Feb
2018

Clinical trials of pharmacotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often include older persons with moderate-to-severe airflow-obstruction, as defined by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). In this context, spirometric airflow-obstruction establishes COPD. Because GOLD misidentifies COPD and its severity in older persons, we set out to apply more age-appropriate spirometric criteria from the Global Lung function Initiative (GLI) in a prior clinical trial of COPD pharmacotherapy, specifically the Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial - N = 6,112, mean age 65 years.

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