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'Male Reproductive Organs' (248917)


Feb
2018

A taxonomical rearrangement of "Aemilia" pagana species-group is proposed: Leucanopsis pagana (Schaus in Proc Zool Soc London 1894:225-243, 1894) comb. nov. and L.

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Feb
2018

Leaf-cutting ant queens mate with multiple males during a single nuptial flight and store sperm for up to two decades. During mating, males transfer sperm from their accessory testes to the queen bursa copulatrix from where it enters the spermatheca, an insect sperm storage organ that has become highly specialised in long-lived ant queens who never re-mate later in life. Long-term storage without the possibility to obtain new sperm creates an immune defence dilemma, because recognition of non-self cells eliminates infections but may also target irreplaceable sperm and reduce lifetime reproductive success.

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Feb
2018

Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life.

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Feb
2018

Human bites involving the genitalia rarely present to the emergency department (ED). They have the potential to cause life-threatening secondary infections as well as serious physical and functional damage.
We report a case of an adult male who sustained a human bite to the scrotum, resulting in a ragged laceration on the anterior scrotum, with a devascularized flap and necrotic edges overlying the wound.

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Feb
2018

To cope with stressful events such as flight, organisms have evolved various regulatory mechanisms, often involving control by endocrine-derived factors. In insects, two stress-related factors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-related peptides adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ). AKH is a pleiotropic hormone best known as a substrate liberator of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

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Feb
2018

Sea buckthorn is a dioecious medicinal plant found at high altitude. The plant has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals. In this article, whole transcriptome de novo assemblies of male and female flower bud samples were carried out using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform to determine the role of the genes involved in sex determination.

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Feb
2018

Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus (FEP) is traditionally classified as an unusual variant of basal cell carcinoma. It has non-specific clinical findings yet distinct histologic features. The diagnosis can be challenging for clinicians because it often mimics benign entities such as intradermal nevi.

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Jan
2018

Triorganotins belong to toxic components present predominantly in antifouling paints for marine vessels. Tributyltin/triphenyltin at pico- or nanomolar concentrations in sea water are known to induce an irreversible sexual abnormality in females of over 190 marine species, an "imposex" phenomenon - the superimposition of male genitalia on a female. Moreover, trialkyltins and triaryltins function as potent nuclear retinoid X receptors (RXR) agonists.

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Feb
2018

Plastic surgery relies on photography for both clinical practice and research. The Photographic Standards in Plastic Surgery laid the foundation for standardized photography in plastic surgery. Despite these advancements, the current literature lacks guidelines for genital photography, thus resulting in a discordance of documentation.

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Feb
2018

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) encoding a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs) regulates androgen receptor in the development of male genitalia. However, the expression pattern and possible role of WT1 in ovaries of PCOS patients are still unknown.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on some reproductive characteristics, testicular and pancreatic oxidative status and pancreatic endocrine receptor densities of male offspring at post-pubertal stage. A total of 36 1-day-old Wistar Albino male offspring including 12 pups of nontreated mothers (control group), 14 pups of 40 mg/kg STZ-injected mothers (STZ-40 group) and 10 pups of 60 mg/kg STZ-injected mothers (STZ-60 group) were used. The offspring were euthanised on post-natal day 60, their blood, reproductive organs and pancreatic tissues were obtained and examined.

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Dec
1969

Cold-shock precipitating proteins - cryoglobulins damage various vessels and, depending on the localization of damages, may lead to functional disorders of various organs and body systems. Evidently, cryoglobulinemia may have a negative influence on the reproductive system's condition, thus, this process requires detailed study.
Clinical examples, indicating connection between cryoglobulinemia and spermatogenesis impairment are presented in the article.

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Jan
2018

Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a triazole fungicide which has been detected in the aquatic environment, including estuaries and embayments. However, few studies addressing the reproductive toxicity and transgenerational effects of DFZ on marine fishes are available. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on male marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

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Mar
2018

Urologic Emergencies.

Med Clin North Am 2018 Mar 20;102(2):373-385. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
Adarsh S Manjunath, Matthias D Hofer
Urologic emergencies can involve the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, penis, scrotum, or testicles. History and physical examination are essential to diagnosis, whereas imaging is increasingly used to confirm diagnoses. Acute urinary retention should be relieved with Foley placement.

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Mar
2018

Penile and Urethral Reconstructive Surgery.

Med Clin North Am 2018 Mar 6;102(2):325-335. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
Jonathan E Kiechle, Nathan Chertack, Christopher M Gonzalez
Penile and urethral reconstructive surgical procedures are used to treat a variety of urologic diagnoses. Urethral stricture disease can lead to progressive lower urinary tract symptoms and may require multiple surgical procedures to improve patient's symptoms. Male stress urinary incontinence is associated with intrinsic sphincter deficiency oftentimes associated with radical prostatectomy.

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Mar
2018

Cutaneous Lesions of the External Genitalia.

Med Clin North Am 2018 Mar 21;102(2):279-300. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
Emily Yura, Sarah Flury
Individuals with cutaneous diseases of the external genitalia often initially present to their primary care provider. When present, these conditions may be associated with considerable physical symptoms and psychological distress. Dermatoses affecting the genitals may be of infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic cause, and can be processes confined to the genitalia or a manifestation of a more widespread dermatologic condition.

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Feb
2018

Prior studies of outcomes following genitoplasty have reported high rates of surgical complications among children with atypical genitalia. Few studies have prospectively assessed outcomes after contemporary surgical approaches.
The current study reported the occurrence of early postoperative complications and of cosmetic outcomes (as rated by surgeons and parents) at 12 months following contemporary genitoplasty procedures in children born with atypical genitalia.

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Feb
2018

Land plants differentiate germ cells in the haploid gametophyte. In flowering plants, a generative cell is specified as a precursor that subsequently divides into two sperm cells in the developing male gametophyte, pollen. Generative cell specification requires cell-cycle control and microtubule-dependent nuclear relocation (reviewed in [1-3]).

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Dec
2017

Nicotine is a major toxic and hazardous component of cigarette smoke, and it has been widely used in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-dose nicotine on sperm characteristics and reproductive organ integrity in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups.

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Dec
1969

Autoamputation of Genitalia in Bipolar Patient.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2017 11;2017:7275816. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
Vinod Sharma, Aditi Sharma
According to literature, genital self-mutilation (GSM) is more commonly associated with psychosis as compared with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been many case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders. We describe herein a case of a Caucasian, employed, and married male suffering from bipolar disorder type II with history of self-mutilating behavior, who amputated his penis during symptom-free phase of his illness.

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Dec
1969

The correlation between theand, Osteocalcin-/and Oxytocin-genes, was challenged investigating their mRNA levels in 3 months-old mice after cold-stress (CS). Uncoupling protein-1 (was used as positive control. Control mice were maintained at room temperature T = 25°C, CS mice were maintained at T = 4°C for 6 h and 5-days (= 15 mice).

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Jan
2018

SOX2 variants have been identified in multiple patients with severe ocular anomalies and pituitary dysfunction, in addition to various systemic features. We investigated a 26-year-old female patient suffering from spastic paraparesis, hypoplasia of corpus callosum, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and intellectual disability, who was monitored for over 20 years, allowing a detailed genotype-phenotype correlation along time. Whole exome sequencing on the patient and her relatives identified a de novo SOX2 c.

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Jan
2018

Anopheles funestus has been recognized as a major malaria vector in Africa for over 100 years, but knowledge on many aspects of the biology of this species is still lacking. Anopheles funestus, as with most other anophelines, mate through swarming. A key event that is crucial for the An.

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Dec
2017

We analyzed the external morphology and the external male genitalia of specimens ofof a laboratory colony founded with specimens from Guanahacabiles in Pinar del Río Province in the west of Cuba in 1980. This species was at first identified as different fromand then later considered synonymous.
We proposed to revise the morphological characters with which these species were considered as different and then later synonymous, such as theor spongy grooves, length of the first antenna segment, relationship length of eye to interocular distance, the form of the phallosome, phallosome support, and the endosome processes.

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Mar
2018

The aquatic plant Azolla became increasingly popular as bioenergy feedstock because of its high growth rate, production of biomass with high levels of biofuel-producing molecules and ability to grow on marginal lands. In this study, we analysed the contribution of all organs of Azolla to the total yield of lipids at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to stress. Triacylglycerol-containing lipid droplets were detected in all (vegetative and reproductive) organs with the highest level in the male microsporocarps and microspores.

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Dec
2017

Bisphenol-A(BPA) is a member of alkylphenol family, and shows adverse effects including reduced fertility, reproductive tract abnormalities, metabolic disorder, cancer induction, neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. In the present study, we conducted Hershberger assay to evaluate whether the two candidates to replace BPA have androgenic or antiandrogenic activity. The assay was carried out using immature castrated Sprague-Dawley male rats.

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Jan
2018

Here we describe a new species of sarcophagid fly reared from larvae found feeding on three species of leptodactylid frogs collected in subtropical Corrientes Province in northeastern Argentina. Our species description is based on adult male and female external morphology and genitalia. Adult males and females of the new species were associated with certainty because all specimens studied were reared from single clutches of larvae on each of three infested frogs.

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Jan
2018

Recent rapid advances in assisted reproductive health technologies enables couples with subfertility to conceive through various intervention. Majority of treatment modalities target the female partner. However it is important to identify and treat male factor subfertility right at the outset.

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Apr
2018

Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats.
In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals.

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Jan
2018

Persistent müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is characterized by the presence of müllerian duct derivatives in otherwise phenotypically normal males. It is caused in approximately 85% of the cases by mutations in the AMH gene or its type II receptor (AMHR2). We report on 2 brothers with normal external genitalia but high serum AMH levels.

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Mar
2018

Acephalic spermatozoa is an extremely rare disease associated with primary infertility. A recent study showed that genetic alterations in the SUN5 gene lead to this disease, and SUN5 mutations could explain the disease in about half of the patients. Therefore, in the present study, to re-visit the genetic contribution of SUN5 mutations to acephalic spermatozoa, we recruited 15 unrelated affected individuals and screened the SUN5 gene for mutations by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing.

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Mar
2018

Piwi proteins play an important regulatory role in germ cell division during gametogenesis and gonad development. In order to understand the function of Piwi genes in the reproductive process of the dark sleeper, we identified and characterized Piwil1 and Piwil2 from gonad tissue. The tissue distribution demonstrated that Piwils were highly expressed in the gonad of the dark sleeper.

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Jan
2018

Discordance between sexual phenotype and the 46,XY sex chromosome complement may be found in certain disorders of sexual development (DSD). Many of these DSD patients with female external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics have undescended testes and male internal genitalia. Causative mutations involving genes of the sex determining pathway, including the androgen receptor, SRY and the 5-alpha-reductase genes, are well-known, but the origin of other cases remain unresolved.

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Dec
1969

During wounding, tissues are disrupted so that bacteria can easily enter the host and trigger a host response. Both the host response and bacterial communication can occur through quorum sensing (QS) and quorum sensing inhibition (QSI). Here, we characterize the effect of wounding on the host-associated bacterial community of the bed bug.

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Dec
1969

ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.

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Dec
1969

The transcription factor MAFB is an important regulator of the development and differentiation of various organs and tissues. Previous studies have shown that MAFB is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse testes and is expected to act as the downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) to initiate spermatogenesis. However, its exact localization and function remain unclear.

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Jan
2018

Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a very rare disorder resulting from mutations in the CYP19A1 gene encoding aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a pivotal role in androgen conversion to estrogens. AD is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait, and to date only 35 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we depict a new patient reared as a male, who presented at the age of 21 years with no palpable testis, hypoplastic scrotum, penis-like phallus (3 cm), and penoscrotal hypospadias.

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Dec
2017

Drosophila pallidosa belongs to the D. ananassae complex, which includes a total of 10 species. Earlier D.

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Dec
2017

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the rectal balloon for prostate immobilization into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the rectal balloon for prostate immobilization's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

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Feb
2018

Sperm competition is a postcopulatory sexual selection mechanism in species in which females mate with multiple males. Despite its evolutionary relevance in shaping male traits, the genetic mechanisms underlying sperm competition are poorly understood. A recently originated multigene family specific to Drosophila melanogaster, Sdic, is important for the outcome of sperm competition in doubly mated females, although the mechanistic nature of this phenotype remained unresolved.

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Dec
2017

A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare clinical tumor, often manifesting as solitary nodules. It is a rare condition that occurs in the scrotum. Currently, no study has reported this condition.

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Feb
2018

The development of an effective and safe vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important aim due to the great clinical and economic impact of this parasitosis. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the serine protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) confers partial protection to C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. In order to improve the level of protection, in this work, we combined this novel antigen with ROP2 and/or GRA4 recombinant proteins (rTgPI-1+rROP2, rTgPI-1+rGRA4, rTgPI-1+rROP2+rGRA4) to explore the best combination against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H/HeN mice.

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Dec
1969

The species of the generaNomura, 1973 andReitter, 1896 from China are revised. The following eight new species are described from China:Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,,Ahrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,, andAhrens, Fabrizi, & Liu,A key to the species of the genera examined here and maps of the species distribution are provided. Habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.

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Mar
2018

Gonad development is a highly regulated, coordinated biological process and increasing evidences have indicated that microRNA (miRNA) may be involved in this dynamic program. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a good model for reproductive research as it has distinct sex determining genes, however, research in gonadal miRNAs is lacked. In this study, two small RNA libraries from the ovaries and testes were constructed and sequenced.

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Dec
1969

In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown.

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Oct
2017

 Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is fatal in severe cases of pulmonary hypoplasia. We experienced a fatal case of pulmonary hypoplasia due to CDH, thoracic myelomeningocele (MMC), and thoracic dysplasia. This constellation of anomalies has not been previously reported.

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Dec
1969

A 15-year-old boy was referred due to gynecomastia and short stature. He was overweight and showed the knuckle-dimple sign on the left hand, a short fourth toe on the left foot, and male external genitalia with a small phallus. His levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were increased, and his testosterone concentration was normal.

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Dec
1969

The outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (TSPO) binds cholesterol with high affinity and is involved in mediating its delivery into mitochondria, the rate-limiting step in hormone-induced steroidogenesis. Specific ligand binding to TSPO has been shown to initiate steroid formation. However, recent studies of the genetic deletion of Tspo have provided conflicting results.

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Jan
2018

Fibrates are drugs widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemic disorders. Previous studies on a novel analogue of clofibrate, called silafibrate, have shown good lipid lowering effects. This study was designed to assess the role of silafibrate as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) agonist on sperm health and spermatogenesis in adult male rats.

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