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'Male Urinary Organs' (8983)


Jan
2018

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) still has a high mortality rate and none of the known resuscitative regimens completely reverse its adverse outcomes. This study investigated the effects of different models of resuscitative therapy on the healing of organ damage in a HS model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: Sham, without HS induction; HS, without resuscitation; HS+Blood, resuscitation with the shed blood; HS+Blood+NS, resuscitation with blood and normal saline; HS+Blood+RL, resuscitation with blood and Ringer's lactate; EPO, erythropoietin was added to the blood and RL.

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Dec
2017

How to define a clinical target volume (CTV) as small as possible for prostate cancer to reduce the dose received by normal organs is an interesting study. We conduct a research to analyze the clinical efficacy of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using reduced CTV in the treatment of prostate cancer. From January 2006 to June 2010, 78 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT according to this institutional protocol.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of pulmonary metastasectomy (MT), with a focus on the primary organ.
The pathological status of the primary organ, outcome of the MT, disease-free interval, and overall survival were assessed.
The primary organ was the most significant prognostic factor analyzed, with a relative risk of 4.

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Jan
2018

In the management of urothelial carcinoma, determination of the pathological grade aims at stratifying tumours into different prognostic groups to allow evaluation of treatment results, and optimise patient management. This article reviews the principles behind different grading systems for urothelial bladder carcinoma discussing their reproducibility and prognostic value.
This paper aims to show the evolution of the World Health Organisation (WHO) grading system, discussing their reproducibility and prognostic value, and evaluating which classification system best predicts disease recurrence and progression.

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Mar
2018

Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is established in the adjuvant and advanced-stage treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and counteracts both tumor growth and tumor-related steroid production. Both the adrenal glands and the gonads are steroidogenically active organs and share a common embryogenic origin. Here, we describe the effects of mitotane in two patients with metastatic Leydig cell tumor (LCT) of the testes and associated severe androgen excess (serum testosterone 93 and 88 nmol/L, respectively; male reference range 7-27 nmol/L).

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Dec
1969

The autonomic and sensory nervous systems are required for proper function of all visceral organs, including the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction, effective treatment options remain limited. Pelvic innervation regenerative strategies are promising, but surprisingly little is known about the molecular factors driving the development of bladder innervation.

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Dec
1969

Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP) and supplemented with 0, 0.

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Dec
2017

To design and fabricate an anatomically and conductively accurate phantom for electrical impedance studies of non-invasive bladder volume monitoring. Approach: A modular pelvic phantom was designed and fabricated, consisting of a mechanically and conductively stable boundary wall, a background medium, and bladder phantoms. The wall and bladders are made of conductive polyurethane.

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Dec
2017

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), such as renal dysplasia, hydronephrosis, or vesicoureteral reflux, are the most common causes of end-stage renal disease. However, the genetic etiology of CAKUT remains unclear. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to elucidate the genetic etiology of symptomatic CAKUT and CAKUT accompanied by cryptorchidism.

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Dec
1969

Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a systemic vasculitis characterized by IgA deposits, which target the skin, joints, and kidneys, among other organs. In children, prognosis is often good but little is known about biomarkers of pediatric nephritis. We hypothesized that biological markers, including cytokines, immunoglobulins, IgA-immune complexes, IgA glycosylation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), may discriminate IgA vasculitis (IgAV) pediatric patients with renal involvement from those without renal involvement.

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Oct
2017

Urogenital tuberculosis does not have pathognomonic symptoms, so diagnostic errors are quite common. This systematic review of literature was conducted to identify the causes and estimate the incidence of erroneous diagnoses. We critically evaluated some articles in which the authors describe observations of urogenital tuberculosis as rare and unusual because they never encountered this disease, but in fact that were typical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis.

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Oct
2017

Hyper- and hypothyroidism are some of the most common endocrinopathies that cause many metabolic disorders including amino acids metabolism. However, a specific molecular mechanism of thyroid hormones influence on sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism has not been established. The aim of our research was to investigate experimentally the influence of thyroid gland functional state on the main enzymatic systems of sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism in liver and kidneys, the content of homocysteine, cysteine and H2S in blood.

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Aug
2017

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool for the evaluation of focal lesions in the liver or kidneys, as well as for the diagnosis and assessment of the liver fibrosis process. Some reports show that the spleen and kidneys may serve as reference organs in the staging of liver fibrosis or the evaluation of focal liver lesions.
The aim of the study was to determine whether the spleen and renal cortex can be used as reference organs in the DWI technique.

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Sep
2017

Vanadium is a transition metal that has a unique and beneficial effect on both humans and animals. For many years, studies have suggested that vanadium is an essential trace element. Its biological properties are of interest due to its therapeutic potential, including in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

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Sep
2017

Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)-related amyloidosis is characterized by the deposition of ApoA-1 in various organs and can be either hereditary or nonhereditary. It is rare and easily misdiagnosed. Renal involvement is common in hereditary ApoA-1 amyloidosis, but rare in the nonhereditary form.

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Jan
2018

What is the central question of this study? The metabolic pathways regulating the effects of obesity on the kidney remain unknown. We sought to determine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in the underlying mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced kidney disease using a specific iNOS inhibitor, N6-(1-iminoethyl)-l-lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). What is the main finding and its importance? We did not demonstrate an upregulation of iNOS renal expression after high caloric intake, suggesting that iNOS might not be a crucial player in the development of obesity-induced kidney disease.

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Sep
2017

The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks.

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Nov
2017

Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 Nov 24;99(4):994-1003. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
Stephanie Lim-Reinders, Brian M Keller, Shahad Al-Ward, Arjun Sahgal, Anthony Kim
The current paradigm of radiation therapy has the treatment planned on a snapshot dataset of the patient's anatomy taken at the time of simulation. Throughout the course of treatment, this snapshot may vary from initial simulation. Although there is the ability to image patients within the treatment room with technologies such as cone beam computed tomography, the current state of the art is largely limited to rigid-body matching and not accounting for any geometric deformations in the patient's anatomy.

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Aug
2017

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic degenerative diseases, and it is estimated to increase worldwide to around 415 million and to impact 642 million in 2040. Research shows that some plants are sources of bioactive compounds against diabetes. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oral toxicity and the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl.

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Nov
2017

The integration of CT and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is a challenging task in high-precision radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A simple methodology for multimodal deformable image registration (DIR) of prostate cancer patients is presented.
CT and mpMRI of 10 patients were considered.

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Aug
2017

The role of deficiency of oxoguanine glycosylase 1 ()homolog, a repair enzyme of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) residue in DNA, was investigated using the multiorgan carcinogenesis bioassay in mice. A total of 80 male and female six-week-old mice of C57BL/6J background carrying a mutantallele of thegene () and wild type (Ogg1) mice were administered N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), N-bis (2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine (DHPN) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) (DMBDD) to induce carcinogenesis in multiple organs, and observed up to 34 weeks. Significant increase of lung adenocarcinomas incidence was observed in DMBDD-treatedmale mice, but not in DMBDD-administeredanimals.

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Oct
2017

Exposure to drugs often results in toxicity in the kidney which represents the major control system maintaining homeostasis of the body and thus is especially susceptible to xenobiotics. Nephrotoxicity is a life-threatening side-effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac is one of the most frequently prescribed NSAIDs and have been reported to cause multiple organs damage.

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Sep
2017

Rhodamine dyes have been banned as food additives due to their potential tumorigenicity. Rhodamine 110 is illegal as a food additive, although its pharmacokinetics have not been characterized, and no accurate bioanalytical methods are available to quantify rhodamine 110. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast, stable, and sensitive method to quantify rhodamine 110 using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess its pharmacokinetics and organ distribution in awake rats.

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Dec
2017

Precursor Lesions of Urologic Malignancies.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2017 Dec 2;141(12):1615-1632. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
Francesca Khani, Brian D Robinson
- Precursor lesions of urologic malignancies are established histopathologic entities, which are important not only to recognize for clinical purposes, but also to further investigate at the molecular level in order to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies.
- To provide a brief overview of precursor lesions to the most common malignancies that develop within the genitourinary tract with a focus on their clinical implications, histologic features, and molecular characteristics.
- Literature review from PubMed, urologic pathology textbooks, and the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.

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Feb
2018

A motor neural prosthesis based on surface functional electrical stimulation (sFES) can restore functional movement (e.g., standing, walking) in patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI).

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Nov
2017

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal particularly hazardous for human health, as it is highly diffused and, therefore, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. In fact, in the general population, the main sources of exposure are food, cigarette smoking, inhalation of ambient air, drinking water, contaminated soil or dust. Furthermore, an occupational exposure usually involves human during mining, fume inhalation or manufacturing nickel-cadmium battery, electroplating and paint pigments that utilize Cd.

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Nov
2017

Doxorubicin (DOX) exerts toxic effects in several organs particularly kidney. The present study aimed to assess the protective effect of proanthocyanidins (PAs) against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A single dose of DOX (7.

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Jul
2017

Multiple physiological systems interact throughout the development of a complex disease. Knowledge of the dynamics and connectivity of interactions across physiological systems could facilitate the prevention or mitigation of organ damage underlying complex diseases, many of which are currently refractory to available therapeutics (e.g.

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Dec
2017

This study evaluated whether RapidPlan based plans (RP plans) created by a single optimization, are usable in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with prostate cancer.
We used 51 previously administered VMAT plans to train a RP model. Thirty RP plans were created by a single optimization without planner intervention during optimization.

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Dec
1969

Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether.

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Dec
1969

The effectiveness of dialysis on the incidence of cancer in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains to be clarified. In this study, we evaluated the incidence rate and type of cancer among patients with ESRD, compared to the general population, through a prospective 7-year follow-up. We also calculated the cumulative incidence rate of cancer associated with ESRD, with stratification to control for the competing risk of death.

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Dec
2017

Maleic acid (MA), a chemical intermediate used in many consumer and industrial products, was intentionally adulterated in a variety of starch-based foods and instigated food safety incidents in Asia. We aim to elucidate possible mechanisms of MA toxicity after repeated exposure by (1) determining the changes of metabolic profile usingH nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, and (2) investigating the occurrence of oxidative stress using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry by using Sprague-Dawley rat urine samples. Adult male rats were subjected to a 28 day subchronic study (0, 6, 20 and 60 mg kg) via oral gavage.

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Jul
2017

BACKGROUND Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like components, and can occur in different organs such as the thyroid gland, bone, skin, breast, pancreas, liver, urinary tract, and lung. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma accounts for only a small percentage of lung cancers and has histological variants that include pleomorphic carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma in a 63-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male who presented with back pain, dry cough, and weight loss.

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Dec
1969

Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described.

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Aug
2017

The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the abdomen in the clinically normal common marmoset by means of computed tomography (CT). Eight clinically healthy mature common marmosets ranging from 12 to 48 months and 235 to 365 g bodyweight were anesthetized and pre- and post-contrast CT examinations were performed using different CT settings in dorsal recumbency. Abdominal organs were identified and visibility noted.

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Dec
1969

The UK Kidney Fast-Track Scheme (KFTS) was introduced in 2012 to identify kidneys at high risk of discard and to rapidly facilitate transplantation. A retrospective analysis of kidneys transplanted through the KFTS was undertaken.
UK Transplant Registry data were collected on deceased donor kidneys implanted between November 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015, (donation after brain death [DBD] donors) and March 1, 2013, and April 30, 2015 (donation after circulatory death [DCD] donors).

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Jul
2017

Deformable image registration (DIR) is important in dose accumulation. Currently, the impact of DIR-algorithm-associated uncertainties in proton therapy is unclear. Here, we quantify the effect of DIR uncertainties on prostate passive-scattering proton therapy (PSPT) dose accumulation.

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Sep
2017

To test the hypothesis that a rectal and bladder preparation protocol is associated with an increase in prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS), clinical disease free survival (CDFS) and biochemical disease free survival (BDFS).
From 1999 to 2012, 1080 prostate cancer (PCa) patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Of these patients, 761 were treated with an empty rectum and comfortably full bladder (RBP) preparation protocol, while for 319 patients no rectal/bladder preparation (NRBP) protocol was adopted.

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Jul
2017

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital disorder characterized by loss of smooth muscle contraction in the bladder and intestine. To date, three genes are known to be involved in MMIHS pathogenesis: ACTG2, MYH11, and LMOD1. However, for approximately 10% of affected individuals, the genetic cause of the disease is unknown, suggesting that other loci are most likely involved.

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Nov
2017

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a lack of α-galactosidase A activity, which leads to the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in various organs. A complete lack of α-galactosidase A activity in a hemizygous male is the classical phenotype, and some hemizygous males show primarily cardiac and/or renal symptoms that appear in adulthood; this is called the variant type or the late-onset type. The kidney and heart are the major target organs, with damage to these organs related to mortality.

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May
2017

To investigate the glomerular number after different warm ischemia times.
Thirty two pigs were assigned into four groups. Three groups (G10, G20, and G30) were treated with 10, 20, and 30 minutes of left renal warm ischemia.

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Dec
1969

Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting copper metabolism causing copper induced damage to various organs. In children liver is commonly involved. Central nervous system, eyes, RBC, kidneys, brain and bones may also be affected.

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Dec
1969

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and obstructive jaundice (OJ) are frequent recurring diseases that bring about huge threat to human health. Some reports have demonstrated that Salviae miltiorrhizae can protect multiple organs of SAP and OJ model animals or patients, but their related mechanisms were not clear. In this study, we observed the effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae injection on apoptosis and NF-κB expression in kidney and explored the protective effect and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhizae on the kidney of SAP or OJ rats.

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Sep
2017

CD4Foxp3regulatory T cells (Tregs) protect the kidney during AKI. We previously found that IL-2, which is critical for Treg homeostasis, upregulates the IL-33 receptor (ST2) on CD4T cells, thus we hypothesized that IL-2 and IL-33 cooperate to enhance Treg function. We found that a major subset of Tregs in mice express ST2, and coinjection of IL-2 and IL-33 increased the number of Tregs in lymphoid organs and protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) more efficiently than either cytokine alone.

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Sep
2017

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine with pleiotropic actions that is produced by several organs and cell types. Depending on the target cell and the inflammatory context, MIF can engage its two component receptor complex CD74 and CD44 and the chemokine receptors CXCR2/4. MIF is constitutively expressed in renal proximal tubular cells, stored in intracellular preformed pools, and released at a low rate.

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May
2017

Organ weight is one important indicator to discern normal from abnormal condition in forensic pathology as well as in clinical medicine. The present study aimed to investigate morphometric parameters and organ weights of southern Iranian adults, which can be fundamental sources to be compared to abnormal cases.Morphometric parameters and weights of 6 organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, appendix, and brain), which were harvested from 501 southern Iranian adults (385 males and 116 females) during ordinary postmortem examination, were measured.

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Sep
2017

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of post-mortem computed-tomography angiography (PMCTA) on the histology of the liver, kidneys and heart. Multiple tissue cores were collected from the liver, left and right kidneys and left ventricle utilizing CT-guided biopsy. Subsequent whole body PMCTA was performed using a solution of polyethylene glycol and iodinated radiographic contrast, and an embalming pump.

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Dec
2017

Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results ofGa-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry ofGa-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

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Aug
2017

3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and its isomer 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) are heat-induced food contaminants present in oil- and fat-containing foodstuff. Kidney and testes are among the main target organs of 3-MCPD. Almost no data on 2-MCPD toxicity are available.

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