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'Myopathies' (170188)


Feb
2018

Atraumatic disorders of skeletal muscles include congenital variants; inherited myopathies; acquired inflammatory, infectious, or ischemic disorders; neoplastic diseases; and conditions leading to muscle atrophy. These have overlapping appearances at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and are challenging for the radiologist to differentiate. The authors organize muscle disorders into four MR imaging patterns: (a) abnormal anatomy with normal signal intensity, (b) edema/inflammation, (c) mass, and (d) atrophy, highlighting each of their key clinical and imaging findings.

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Dec
1969

Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent diseases common between humans and animals. It is also called Malta fever, Undulant fever and Mediterranean fever. This disease is spread by consuming milk and its unpasteurized derivatives.

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Oct
2015

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and distal dystrophies are a diverse group of genetically heterogeneous myopathies characterized by an evolving and often confusing nomenclature. Though rare as a group, they are commonly seen in neuromuscular clinics and occasionally in general neurology clinics, and are frequently a source of diagnostic dilemma. A recent evidence-based guideline by the American Academy of Neurology provides a comprehensive analysis of the clinical phenotypes, diagnostic approach, and management principles of the LGMDs and associated disorders.

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Feb
2018

Defects in glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (α-DG) cause autosomal-recessive disorders with wide clinical and genetic heterogeneity, with phenotypes ranging from congenital muscular dystrophies to milder limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Patients show variable reduction of immunoreactivity to antibodies specific for glycoepitopes of α-DG on a muscle biopsy. Recessive mutations in 18 genes, including guanosine diphosphate mannose pyrophosphorylase B (), have been reported to date.

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Feb
2018

To determine the genetic background of unknown muscular dystrophy in five French families.
Twelve patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy or distal myopathy were clinically evaluated. Gene mutations were identified using targeted exon sequencing and mutated DNAJB6 was tested in vitro.

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Jun
2016

Marriage between close biological kin is not regarded as advantageous in the western world but in other parts of the world, consanguineous unions persist. Consanguineous marriage increases the birth prevalence of individuals with recessive disorders. In Accra, Ghana, consanguinity is beginning to emerge as a significant cause of rare neurological disease at the central referral hospital at Korle Bu in Ghana.

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Dec
1969

Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) suffer from progressive muscle damage leading to diaphragmatic weakness that ultimately requires ventilation. Emerging treatments have generated interest in better characterizing the natural history of respiratory impairment in DMD and responses to therapy. Dynamic (cine) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may provide a more sensitive measure of diaphragm function in DMD than the commonly used spirometry.

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Jan
2018

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by loss or mutations in SMN1. According to age of onset, achieved motor abilities, and life span, SMA patients are classified into type I (never sit), II (never walk unaided) or III (achieve independent walking abilities). SMN2, the highly homologous copy of SMN1, is considered the most important phenotypic modifier of the disease.

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Feb
2018

Adult schistosomes have a well-developed alimentary tract comprising an oral sucker around the mouth, a short esophagus and a blind ending gut. The esophagus is not simply a muscular tube for conducting blood from the mouth to gut but is divided into compartments, surrounded by anterior and posterior glands, where processing of ingested blood is initiated. Self-cure of rhesus macaques from a Schistosoma japonicum infection appears to operate by blocking the secretory functions of these glands so that the worms cease feeding and slowly starve to death.

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Feb
2018

TDP-43 post-translational modifications in health and disease.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
Emanuele Buratti
Nuclear factor TDP-43 is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein that plays a key causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, especially in the ALS/FTD spectrum. In addition, its aberrant aggregation and expression has been recently observed in other type of diseases, such as myopathies and Niemann-Pick C, a lysosomal storage disease. Areas Covered.

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Feb
2018

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a rare disorder characterised by impaired testosterone secretion since birth, and represents a valuable model for studying the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in humans. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate all health-related physical fitness (HRPF) components and quality of life in a series of eight men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism under regular TRT. The study group was compared to a control group of 16 healthy subjects paired for age, body mass index and physical activity.

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Feb
2018

Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported.

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Jan
2018

Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells.
We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens.

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Dec
1969

Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by a CAG-polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Unlike other polyQ diseases, where the function of the native causative protein is unknown, the biology of AR is well understood, and this knowledge has informed our understanding of how native AR function interfaces with polyQ-AR dysfunction. Furthermore, ligand-dependent activation of AR has been linked to SBMA disease pathogenesis, and has led to a thorough study of androgen-mediated effects on polyQ-AR stability, degradation, and post-translational modifications, as well as their roles in the disease process.

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Feb
2018

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

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Dec
1969

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells: limited availability of source material due to legal restrictions in some countries, immunogenic rejection and ethical concerns. Also, the donor's clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Therefore, iPSCs seem ideal to tackle the two biggest tasks of regenerative medicine: degenerative diseases with genetic cause (e.

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Feb
2018

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has deeply modified the clinical history of Infantile Onset Pompe Disease (IOPD). However, its long-term effectiveness is still not completely defined. Available data shows a close relationship between clinical outcome and patients' cross-reactive immunological status (CRIM), being CRIM-negative status a negative prognostic factor.

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Feb
2018

Degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and arthritis cause great suffering and are major socioeconomic burdens. An attractive treatment approach is stem cell transplantation to regenerate damaged or destroyed tissues. However, this can be problematic.

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Feb
2018

Collagen VI-related myopathy, caused by pathogenic variants in the genes encoding collagen VI, represents a clinical continuum from Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) to Bethlem myopathy (BM). Clinical data of 60 probands and their family members were collected and muscle biopsies of 26 patients were analyzed. COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 exons were analyzed by direct sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS).

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Feb
2018

A retrospective review.
To report the results of an alternative technique using a minimally invasive fusionless surgery. The originality is based on the progressive correction of the deformities with proximal and distal fixation and on the reliability of the pelvic fixation using ilio-sacral screws on osteoporotic bones.

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Jan
2018

Genetically modified animals are vital for gaining a proper understanding of disease mechanisms. Mice have long been the mainstay of basic research into a wide variety of diseases but are not always the most suitable means of translating basic knowledge into clinical application. The shortcomings of rodent preclinical studies are widely recognised, and regulatory agencies around the world now require preclinical trial data from nonrodent species.

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Dec
1969

Intramuscular pressure (IMP) is the hydrostatic fluid pressure that is directly related to muscle force production. Electromechanical delay (EMD) provides a link between mechanical and electrophysiological quantities and IMP has potential to detect local electromechanical changes. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of IMP with the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) activity at different ankle positions.

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Jan
2018

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene, which spans ~2.4Mb of genomic sequence at locus Xp21. This mutation results in the loss of the protein dystrophin.

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Feb
2018

The "A disintegrin and metalloprotease" (ADAM) family is thought to play an important role in tissue destruction and inflammatory reactions. ADAM-17 was first described as the protease responsible for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α shedding. Here, we have shown the expression of ADAM-17 in inflammatory myopathy and demonstrated the role of inflammation in interstitial lung diseases (ILD).

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Feb
2018

Antisense oligonucleotides are an emerging therapeutic option to treat diseases with known genetic origin. In the age of personalised medicines, antisense oligonucleotides can sometimes be designed to target and bypass or overcome a patient's genetic mutation, in particular those lesions that compromise normal pre-mRNA processing. Antisense oligonucleotides can alter gene expression through a variety of mechanisms as determined by the chemistry and antisense oligomer design.

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Feb
2018

The production of force and power are inherent properties of skeletal muscle, and regulated by contractile proteins within muscle fibers. However, skeletal muscle integrity and function also require strong connections between muscle fibers and their extracellular matrix (ECM). A well-organized and pliant ECM is integral to muscle function and the ability for many different cell populations to efficiently migrate through ECM is critical during growth and regeneration.

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Feb
2018

Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
Agostino Di Ciaula
The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance.

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Dec
2017

New treatments are being developed for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). To evaluate their efficacy, knowledge about the natural history of respiratory dysfunction and its relationship with the genotype will be crucial. Also needed is information on factors predicting the time-course of respiratory function in DM1.

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Feb
2018

Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. Although the role of human satellite cells (SCs) as adult skeletal muscle stem cells has been deeply investigated, little is known about the impact of aging on muscle interstitial stem cells. Here, we isolated the non-SC CD56fraction from human muscle biopsies of young and elderly subjects.

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Feb
2018

In rare disease (RD) research, there is a huge need to systematically collect biomaterials, phenotypic, and genomic data in a standardized way and to make them findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR). RD-Connect is a 6 years global infrastructure project initiated in November 2012 that links genomic data with patient registries, biobanks, and clinical bioinformatics tools to create a central research resource for RDs. Here, we present RD-Connect Registry & Biobank Finder, a tool that helps RD researchers to find RD biobanks and registries and provide information on the availability and accessibility of content in each database.

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Jan
2018

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of potentially treatable myopathies. They are classified, on the basis of clinical and histopathological features, into four subtypes: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myositis and inclusion-body myositis. Myositis-associated antibodies and myositis-specific autoantibodies are frequently found in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and are useful in the diagnosis and classification.

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Dec
2017

The aim of this study was to search for the frequency of late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) among patients who had a myopathy with unknown diagnosis registered in the pre-diagnostic part of a novel registry for LOPD within a collaborative study of neurologists working throughout Turkey. Included in the study were 350 patients older than 18 years who have a myopathic syndrome without a proven diagnosis by serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, electrodiagnostic studies, and/or muscle pathology, and/or genetic tests for myopathies other than LOPD. Acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) in dried blood spot was measured in each patient at two different university laboratories.

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Mar
2018

The aim of this study was to develop and introduce new method to quantify motor functions of the upper extremity.
The movement was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system, and the movement trajectory was analyzed using newly developed two indices, which measure precise repeatability and directional smoothness. Our target task was shoulder flexion repeated ten times.

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Feb
2018

Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is a genetic focal epilepsy characterized by auditory symptoms. Two genes, LGI1 and RELN, encoding secreted proteins, are implicated in the etiology of ADLTE, but half of the affected families remain genetically unsolved, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be clarified. We aimed to identify additional genes causing ADLTE to better understand the genetic basis and molecular pathway underlying this epileptic disorder.

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Jan
2018

Skeletal muscle is composed of multinuclear cells called myofibers. Muscular dystrophy (a genetic muscle disorder) induces instability in the cell membrane of myofibers and eventually causes myofiber damage. Non-genetic muscle disorders, including sarcopenia, diabetes, bedridden immobility, and cancer cachexia, lead to atrophy of myofibers.

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Jan
2018

Glycosylation is a crucial posttranslational modification that is involved in numerous biological events. Therefore, abnormal glycosylation can impair the functions of glycoproteins or glycolipids and is occasionally associated with cell dysfunction and human diseases. For example, aberrant glycosylation of dystroglycan, a cellular receptor for matrix and synaptic proteins, is associated with muscular dystrophy and lissencephaly.

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Feb
2018

Orbital compartment syndrome typically occurs due to trauma or burns. Here we discuss a case of spontaneous lamina papyracea dehiscence associated with transient orbital compartment syndrome. A previously healthy woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of unilateral eye pain after nose blowing.

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Feb
2018

To compare the influence of two different regions of interest (ROIs) on diffusion tensor metrics in dystrophic thigh muscles using a custom-made (whole muscle) ROI including and a selective ROI excluding areas of fatty replacement.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thigh was conducted on a 3-Tesla system in 15 cases with muscular dystrophy and controls. The ROIs were chosen according to patterns of fatty replacement on co-registered axial DTI and gradient echo sequence (GRE) images.

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Feb
2018

Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence.

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Feb
2018

The congenital myopathies are a group of early-onset, non-dystrophic neuromuscular conditions with characteristic muscle biopsy findings, variable severity and a stable or slowly progressive course. Pronounced weakness in axial and proximal muscle groups is a common feature, and involvement of extraocular, cardiorespiratory and/or distal muscles can implicate specific genetic defects. Central core disease (CCD), multi-minicore disease (MmD), centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and nemaline myopathy were among the first congenital myopathies to be reported, and they still represent the main diagnostic categories.

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Feb
2018

The hereditary neurodegenerative disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of spinal cord motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. SMA is caused by mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene leading to a decrease in SMN protein levels. The SMN deficiency alters nuclear body formation and whether it can contribute to the disease remains unclear.

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Feb
2018

Wave of renal impairment.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 1;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
Helena Pinto, Ana Catarina Teixeira, Nuno Oliveira, Rui Alves
We present a case of a 51-year-old man who went to the emergency department after an almost-drowning episode, presenting with muscular weakness, myalgia and dark urine. Laboratory data showed a severe rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase 497 510 U/L). Despite aggressive fluid therapy, an oliguric acute kidney injury was established with temporary need of haemodialysis.

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Dec
2017

Spasticity is a major complication after stroke, and botulinumtoxin A (BoNT-A) injection is commonly used to manage focal spasticity. However, it is uncertain whether BoNT-A can improve voluntary motor control or activities of daily living function of paretic upper limbs. This study investigated whether BoNT-A injection combined with robot-assisted upper limb therapy improves voluntary motor control or functions of upper limbs after stroke.

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Dec
2017

Rhabdomyolysis is a well-known syndrome in clinical practice, although rhabdomyolysis caused by a liver abscess is rarely reported and the patient may lack symptoms that are associated with a primary site of infection. Early recognition of this possibility is needed to avoid diagnostic delay and facilitate treatment. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with a Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) pyogenic liver abscess who presented with myasthenia and tea-colored urine and also review the 77 reported cases of bacterial rhabdomyolysis.

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Dec
2017

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of genetic disorders that stem mostly from molecular defects in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Defects in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic delta subunit (CHRND) gene can cause a series of myasthenic syndromes. Here, we report 2 new compound heterozygous variants of the CHRND gene in a Chinese male with CMS.

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Dec
2017

Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as a level of triglycerides above 150 mg/dL. The complex causes and classification of hypertriglyceridemia lead to difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition.
We present the case of a 15 years and 6 months old female teenager, admitted in our clinic for the following complaints: severe abdominal pain predominantly in the lateral left quadrant, nausea, vomiting, and the lack of stools for 2 days.

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Dec
2017

Acute neurological deficits following spinal surgery commonly result from epidural hematoma, surgical trauma, vascular compromise, and graft or hardware impingement, with the cause identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present a rare case of dynamic paraspinal muscle impingement after C1 posterior arch laminectomy, which was diagnosed by myelography, with no significant findings on MRI.
An 81-year-old, severely obese male, was referred to our department for the treatment of vertebral disease of the lumbar spine.

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Dec
2017

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to the development of new approaches for cancer treatment with positive outcomes. However, checkpoint blockade is associated with a unique spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which may cause irreversible neurological deficits and even death.
We presented a case of a 57-year-old man with non-small-cell lung cancer.

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