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'Nerve Block Sural' (213)


Oct
2017

Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 Oct;23(5, Peripheral Nerve and Motor Neuron Disorders):1295-1309
Peter D Donofrio
This article reviews the current state of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), including its clinical presentation, evaluation, pathophysiology, and treatment.
GBS is an acute/subacute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy typically presenting with sensory symptoms and weakness over several days, often leading to quadriparesis. Approximately 70% of patients report a recent preceding upper or lower respiratory tract infection or gastrointestinal illness.

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Jun
2017

To describe a 4-year clinical experience with ultrasound-guided therapeutic perineural injections of peripheral nerves about the foot and ankle.
Retrospective analysis of foot and ankle perineural injections performed between January 2012 and August 2016. Demographics, clinical indications, presence of structural pathology, immediate and interval pain relief, as well as complications were recorded.

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Jul
2017

Various irradiances have been reported to be beneficial for the treatment of neuropathic pain with near infrared light. However, the mechanistic basis for the beneficial outcomes may vary based on the level of irradiance or fluence rate used. Using in vivo and in vitro experimental models, this study determined the mechanistic basis of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for the treatment of neuropathic pain using a high irradiance.

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Jan
2017

A literature review of multiple clinical studies on mixing additives to improve pharmacologic limitation of local anesthetics during peripheral nerve blockade revealed inconsistency in success rates and various adverse effects. Animal research on dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant on the other hand has promising results, with evidence of minimum unwanted results. This randomized, double-blinded, contrastable observational study examined the efficacy of adding dexmedetomidine to a mixture of lidocaine plus ropivacaine during popliteal sciatic nerve blockade (PSNB).

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Mar
2016

To investigate the clinical characteristics, electrophysiological findings and treatment response of Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS).
Data of nine patients with LSS, who were diagnosed and treated from May 2008 to August 2014 in Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, were analyzed retrospectively, including clinical features, electrophysiological studies, pathological characteristics, therapy and follow up.
The nine cases included seven males and two females, with the average age being 29 years old (18-64 years old).

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Dec
1969

Neurological injuries following peripheral nerve blocks are a relatively rare yet potentially devastating complication depending on the type of lesion, affected extremity, and duration of symptoms. Medical management continues to be the treatment modality of choice with multimodal nonopioid analgesics as the cornerstone of this therapy. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who developed a clinical common peroneal and lateral sural cutaneous neuropathy following an uncomplicated popliteal sciatic nerve block.

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Dec
1969

N-hexane neuropathy is an occupational disease caused by exposure to n-hexane, which is used as a solvent in silk screen printing. Here, we describe a 35-year-old man, a silk screen printer by profession, who presented with dizziness, distal swelling of both lower limbs for 10 months and tingling and burning sensation in both feet for 9.5 months along with cold allodynia.

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May
2015

Nerve conduction block using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been conducted with nerves of mixed fibres in normal animal models. This study tested the feasibility and safety of HIFU for sensory nerve conduction block in diabetic neuropathic nerves to determine its potential for pain relief.
Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin, and HIFU at 2.

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Apr
2015

Leprosy causes nerve injury, which mimics clinical and neurophysiological conditions, rendering it an excellent model of peripheral neuropathy.
A retrospective study including 822 nerve conduction studies (NCS) of 509 patients was developed to appraise the electrophysiological pattern of leprosy neuropathy. NCS of motor and sensory nerves performed before, during, and after multidrug therapy (MDT) were analyzed.

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Apr
2015

The sural nerve is a cutaneous nerve of the lower limb that innervates the posterolateral aspect of the lower leg, ankle, and foot. Considering this pattern, it is plausible that it contributes to the maintenance of postural stability. However, the implications of sensory loss following sural nerve injury have yet to be thoroughly investigated.

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Jan
2015

Patients with diabetic neuropathy often have neuropathic pain. The purpose of our work was to investigate the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on the conduction block of normal and neuropathic nerves for soothing pain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection.

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Jul
2014

Incidence and predominant subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) differs geographically. Electrophysiology has an important role in early diagnosis and prediction of prognosis. This study is conducted to determine the frequent subtype of GBS in a large group of patients in Iran and compare nerve conduction studies in axonal and demyelinating forms of GBS.

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Dec
2014

It is believed that local anesthetic injected to obtain circumferential spread around nerves produces a more rapid onset and successful blockade after some ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks. However, evidence demonstrating this point is limited only to the popliteal sciatic nerve block, which is relatively easy to perform by via a high-frequency linear transducer. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that multiple injections of local anesthetic to make circumferential spread would improve the rate of sensory and motor blocks compared with a single-injection technique for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block, which is considered a relatively difficult block conducted with a low-frequency, curved-array transducer.

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Dec
2014

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period cross-over, 4-treatment option, incomplete block study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01485185), with an adaptive design for sample size re-estimation, was designed to evaluate gabapentin plus donepezil in an established experimental model of electrical hyperalgesia. Thirty healthy male subjects aged 18-55 years were randomized to receive gabapentin 900 mg or gabapentin 900 mg+donepezil 5mg for 2 of the 3 treatment periods, with 50% of subjects randomized to receive placebo (negative control) and 50% to gabapentin 1800 mg (positive control) for the remaining period.

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Feb
2014

To explore the electrophysiological characteristics of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome and its related diseases.
The electrophysiological characteristics were analyzed retrospectively from June 2000 to June 2013 in patients with POEMS syndrome, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Electromyography and nerve conduction examinations of median, ulnar, tibial, peroneal and sural nerves were performed.

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Jun
2014

Pain typically signals damage to the body, and as such can be perceived as threatening and can elicit a strong emotional response. This ecological significance undoubtedly underlies pain's well-known ability to demand attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this ability are poorly understood.

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Jan
2014

Autogenous bone grafting is commonly used as an adjuvant in foot and ankle procedures. The iliac crest and tibia are common sources of autogenous bone graft but require a separate operative site and have been reported to have significant morbidity including pain, fractures, and prolonged hospitalization. Bone grafting from the posterolateral calcaneus offers advantages such as a single operative field, ability to be done under an ankle block, and a theoretical low complication rate.

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Dec
1969

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy is characterized by acute, painless, recurrent mononeuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. A 16-year-old boy had the first episode of right foot drop after minor motorcycle accident. Electromyography revealed conduction block and slowing velocity conduction of the right deep peroneal nerve at the fibular head.

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Nov
2013

[Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy].

Brain Nerve 2013 Nov;65(11):1299-309
Yasushi Oya
The typical clinical manifestation of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy is sensory-dominant multiple mononeuropathy, although it can progress to distal-dominant sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It is painful in most cases. Peripheral nerves may be the most prone to produce symptoms of the vasculitis.

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Nov
2013

Scar ulcers that spread over the Achilles tendon and posterior heel disturb patients by causing pain, impeding hygiene, and creating difficulty in finding appropriate shoe wear. As this region undergoes pressure, effective reconstruction is based on the flap use. The most popular flaps currently used are distally based sural fasciocutaneous flap, calcaneal artery skin flap, and free flaps.

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Dec
2013

Rapid return of oral sensation enhances quality of life following oromandibular reconstruction. For predictable reinnervation of flaps, a detailed knowledge of their nerve supply is required. This study was designed to investigate the cutaneous nerve supply of the fibula osteocutaneous flap.

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Jul
2013

Generally, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is believed to be a pure motor neuron disease. We retrospectively evaluated our electrodiagnostic findings in SMA type 1 patients to demonstrate co-existence of sensorimotor neuropathies.
Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) studies in 15 patients (11 boys, 4 girls) were reviewed independently by 2 neurophysiologists.

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Jul
2013

Pathophysiology of HNPP explored using axonal excitability.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 Jul 16;84(7):806-12. Epub 2013 Feb 16.
Stacey K Jankelowitz, David Burke
Hereditary liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder of myelination resulting in susceptibility to pressure palsies from compression or stretching of peripheral nerves.
This study examined axonal excitability at two sites (one distal and one proximal) in five patients with biopsy and genetically proven HNPP to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. Comparisons were made with age-matched control subjects as well as five Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients to contrast the findings and explain the different phenotypes of diseases affecting the same gene.

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Jul
2013

Pain due to peripheral neuropathy is extremely difficult to treat as drugs often become less and less effective over the course of a patient's life. In order to augment such treatments, electrical stimulation has become relatively common, in the form of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, and spinal cord stimulation. Unfortunately, these treatments are only effective in a subset of chronic pain patients.

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Feb
2013

The present study examined the contribution of expectations to analgesia induced by heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) in healthy volunteers assigned to a control group or 1 of 3 experimental groups in which expectations were either assessed (a priori expectations) or manipulated using suggestions (hyperalgesia and analgesia). Acute shock-pain, the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII-reflex), and shock-related anxiety were measured in response to electrical stimulations of the right sural nerve in the baseline, HNCS, and recovery periods. Counter-stimulation was applied on the contralateral forearm using a flexible cold pack.

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Mar
2013

The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcutaneous frequency-modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation (frequency rhythmic electrical modulation system, FREMS) as a treatment for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.
This was a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, parallel-group study of three series, each of ten treatment sessions of FREMS or placebo administered within 3 weeks, 3 months apart, with an overall follow-up of about 51 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of deep peroneal, tibial and sural nerves.

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Feb
2013

Nociceptive information from muscle and skin is differently processed at many levels of the central nervous system. In most articles on this issue, noxious stimuli were used that also excited non-nociceptive receptors. The effects of a pure nociceptive input from muscle or skin on spinal neurones are largely unknown.

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Feb
2013

Hepatitis B can have varied extrahepatic manifestations involving the skin, renal, haematological and nervous systems. Neurological manifestations in hepatitis B may take the form of Guillain-Barré syndrome and secondary systemic vasculitis-related mononeuritis multiplex. The clinical course of hepatitis B-related, vasculitis-related neuropathy is usually subacute to chronic and clinical evolution is relatively benign.

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Apr
2013

The aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomical location of tibial nerve (TN) and common peroneal nerve (CPN) in the popliteal crease for specific nerve block.
Fifty fresh specimens from 27 adult Korean cadavers (16 males and 11 females, age 35-87 years) were investigated. Five of the 27 cadavers were used to determine the depths of nerves in cross-section.

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Apr
2013

Ankle blocks typically include the block of 5 nerves, the 4 branches that trace their origin back to the sciatic nerve plus the saphenous nerve (SaN). The sensory area of the SaN in the foot is variable. Based on our clinical experience, we decided to study the sensory distribution of the SaN in the foot and determine whether the block of this nerve is necessary as a component of an ultrasound-guided ankle block for bunion surgery.

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Aug
2012

Heterotopic noxious counterstimulation (HNCS) by the application of a sustained noxious stimulus has been shown to inhibit nociceptive processes and decrease pain induced by a competing noxious stimulus. However, it is still not clear how attentional processes contribute to these effects. The main objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of HNCS in 2 sessions during which top-down attention was manipulated.

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Dec
1969

A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with visual loss, dysesthesia, gait disturbance, and urinary retention. A pacemaker was implanted 1 year ago for atrioventricular conduction block. Neurologic examination revealed mild cognitive impairment, near blindness with vitreous opacity, diffuse muscle weakness, loss of all sensory modalities with areflexia, and orthostatic hypotension.

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May
2012

Continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB), in particular at the popliteal fossa, is widely used in orthopedic surgery, allowing good postoperative analgesia. Possible neuropathic complications, however, remain poorly known.
To review the characteristics of peripheral neuropathy (PN) after sciatic CPNB at the popliteal fossa, estimating prevalence, severity, evolution and possible risk factors, especially those relating to the procedure.

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May
2012

POEMS syndrome (the acronym reflects the common features: Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal protein and Skin changes) is a paraneoplastic disorder with a 'demyelinating' peripheral neuropathy that is often mistaken for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The nerve conduction study (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) attributes that might differentiate POEMS from CIDP and lead to earlier therapeutic intervention were explored.
NCS/EMG of POEMS patients identified through retrospective review from 1960 to 2007 were compared with matched CIDP controls.

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Jun
2011

Meralgia paresthetica is a rarely encountered sensory mononeuropathy characterized by paresthesia, pain or sensory impairment along the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) caused by entrapment or compression of the nerve as it crossed the anterior superior iliac spine and runs beneath the inguinal ligament. There is great variability regarding the area where the nerve pierces the inguinal ligament, which makes it difficult to perform blind anesthetic blocks. Ultrasound has developed into a powerful tool for the visualization of peripheral nerves including very small nerves such as accessory and sural nerves.

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Apr
2011

The aim of this study was to investigate whether tramadol had a dose-dependent blocking effect on nerve conduction when administered perineurally to the sural nerve of healthy volunteers.
Twenty-four informed healthy subjects were randomized into four equal groups [Saline (placebo), 0.5% tramadol, 1% tramadol and 1.

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Apr
2011

The application of radiofrequency (RF) has been successfully used in the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including facet arthropathy, sacroiliac joint pain, groin pain, radicular pain, cervicogenic headaches, and phantom limb pain. Due to the neurodestructive effect of continuous RF ablation and possible deafferentation sequelae, only pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been applied to peripheral sensory nerves. There are no previous reports of successful PRF application to the sural nerve.

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Jul
2010

Recently, peripheral nerve blocks have increasingly been used in orthopedic surgery. The foot block is an alternative for anesthesia in cases of forefoot and midfoot operations. We propose a modification of the block technique due to potential difficulties concerning the tibial nerve.

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Jul
2010

The presence of electrophysiological demyelination of sensory nerves is not routinely assessed in the evaluation of suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Whether this can be useful is unknown.
We compared, using surface recording techniques, in 19 patients with typical CIDP and 26 controls with distal large fibre sensory axonal neuropathy, the forearm median sensory conductions, sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes and durations and sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) of median, radial and sural nerves.

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May
2010

Snake bite causes significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Snake venoms contain neurotoxins that block neuromuscular junction transmission. Presynaptic neurotoxicity most commonly causes destruction of nerve terminals with recovery by regrowth, whilst postsynaptic neurotoxicity usually involves competition at the acetylcholine receptor.

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Mar
2010

Surgical anesthesia for reconstructive ankle surgery requires sensory and motor block of all the terminal nerve distributions of the sciatic nerve. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the value of sensory and motor testing of the foot, after local anesthetic injection, for predicting complete sciatic nerve blockade and the duration of testing required for identifying incomplete anesthesia.
Sciatic nerve blocks (n = 180) using the infragluteal-parabiceps approach were performed in patients undergoing reconstructive ankle surgery.

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Dec
2009

Previous research has demonstrated that the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) and pain-related evoked potentials are reduced in amplitude when elicited during the middle of the cardiac cycle. Despite these findings, suggesting a baroreceptor mechanism of antinociception during systole, pain intensity ratings reported in these studies were not modulated across the cardiac cycle. This discrepancy between the neurophysiological correlates of pain and its subjective experience was the focus of the current study that used a mixed block design to assess the effects of natural arterial baroreceptor activity on both the NFR and pain intensity and unpleasantness reports.

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Dec
2009

Intraneural perineurioma.

J Clin Neurosci 2009 Dec 17;16(12):1633-6. Epub 2009 Sep 17.
H-Y Lee, R G Manasseh, R H Edis, R Page, J Keith-Rokosh, P Walsh, S Song, A Laycock, L Griffiths, V A Fabian
Intraneural perineurioma is a rare tumour that affects peripheral nerves and, based on its histological features, may be confused with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. Detailed neuropathology, including immunoperoxidase stains and electron microscopy, is vital to distinguish these conditions. We report two patients with intraneural perineurioma that demonstrate salient features of this tumour.

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Sep
2009

In healthy adults, expectations can modulate the activity of inhibitory bulbo-spinal projections, and can even block the analgesic properties of counter-irritation - a phenomenon that triggers descending inhibition. Since descending inhibition is known to be deficient in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, we tested the possibility that expectancy-mediated analgesia would improve, or even kick-start, the deficient inhibitory responses of FM patients. By measuring subjective pain ratings, spinal withdrawal reflexes, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), it was possible to test whether or not expectancy-mediated analgesia involved descending inhibition in FM patients.

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Apr
2009

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Regional anaesthesia for the lower extremity distal to the ankle joint, knows as anaesthetic ankle block or foot block, involves a series of injections of local anaesthetic to block the peripheral nerves that supply innervation to the foot. Since the tibial nerve block is not always effective, the aim of this study was to design a modified technique of anaesthetic application. MATERIAL The study was carried out on 30 human cadavers provided by the Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, and included data on a total of 60 lower extremities.

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Jul
2009

Electrical stimulation of the Achilles tendon produced strong reflex inhibition of the ongoing voluntary EMG activity in the two heads of the gastrocnemius (GA) muscle in all tested subjects. The inhibition was seen clearly in both averaged and single sweep surface EMG records. The inhibitory response was produced without electrical (M wave) or mechanical, (muscle twitch) signs of direct muscle stimulation.

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Jul
2009

: During ankle block performance, anesthetizing the sural nerve is important for generating complete anesthesia of the lateral aspect of the foot. We hypothesized that an ultrasound-guided perivascular approach, utilizing the lesser saphenous vein as a reference, would prove more successful than a conventional approach based on surface landmarks.
: Eighteen healthy volunteers were prospectively randomized into this controlled and blinded study.

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Jul
2009

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is analgesic for some lower extremity neuropathic pain syndromes. PNS currently involves open surgical placement of electrode(s). Increasingly, ultrasound guidance is used for perioperative neural block.

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