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'Orbit Anatomy' (12370)


Feb
2018

Venous malformation is a common tumor of the orbit, presenting with visual impairment and proptosis. These lesions can be excised via an external or transcranial approach, but recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have led to increased popularity of endoscopic approach.
The authors report a 62-year-old female presenting with diplopia and proptosis, found to have a 1.

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Feb
2018

A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically.

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Dec
1969

Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e.

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Feb
2018

Orbital compartment syndrome typically occurs due to trauma or burns. Here we discuss a case of spontaneous lamina papyracea dehiscence associated with transient orbital compartment syndrome. A previously healthy woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of unilateral eye pain after nose blowing.

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Dec
2017

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon benign entity characterized histologically by lymphatic sinus dilatation due to histiocyte proliferation. This study was performed to delineate its imaging features, reviewed retrospectively in 12 patients (8 women and 4 men, mean age 58.2 years [range 27-84]) with pathologically confirmed RDD in the head and neck.

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Dec
2017

Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) is a malignant lesion composed of myofibroblasts. It is an uncommon tumor of unknown etiology that mainly develops in the bone or soft tissue and is most often reported in the head and neck, particularly in the tongue and oral cavity.
A 2-year-old girl, previously well and with no significant medical history or family history of other diseases, presented with a 2-week painless swelling of the right orbit.

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Nov
2017

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is most often seen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Data about TAO occurred in patients with thyroid carcinoma are rare. We give a report of 5 patients to present the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this type of case.

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Jan
2018

Accessory rectus muscles have rarely been reported as muscular 'bands' or 'slips' originating from the common tendinous ring (annulus of Zinn) and inserting in atypical location. This group of muscles is innervated by the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve, lies on lateral side of the optic nerve and inserts in rectus muscles. Since there are only few descriptions of such unusual findings in the medical literature, the anatomical data on accessory rectus muscles is limited.

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Jan
2018

Neuro-ophthalmology is a field combining neurology and ophthalmology that studies diseases that affect the visual system and the mechanisms that control eye movement and pupil function. Imaging tests make it possible to thoroughly assess the relevant anatomy and disease of the structures that make up the visual pathway, the nerves that control eye and pupil movement, and the orbital structures themselves. This article is divided into three sections (review of the anatomy, appropriate imaging techniques, and evaluation of disease according to clinical symptoms), with the aim of providing useful tools that will enable radiologists to choose the best imaging technique for the differential diagnosis of patients' problems to reach the correct diagnosis of their disease.

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Jan
2018

Spheno-orbital meningiomas (SOMs) are complex tumors involving the sphenoid wing, the orbit, and sometimes the cavernous sinus with bone hyperostosis and sheet-like dural involvement. Optimal removal, proptosis cure and visual preservation remain a challenge.
To study the management of surgically treated SOMs METHODS: The clinical records of 130 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for SOMs were retrospectively collected in a database during a 20-year period to analyze symptoms, surgical technique, clinical outcome, and follow-up.

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Dec
1969

Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements.

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Dec
1969

Orbital fractures are classified as diseases usually related to common midface trauma. It represents the most challenging treatment due to the complex anatomy, physiology, and aesthetic role. A midface trauma involves also the zygomatic complex and the nose, however the orbit fracture seems to be a more frequent disease due to its anatomical features.

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Dec
2017

Visual disturbances associated with isolated sphenoid sinus inflammatory diseases (ISSIDs) are easily misdiagnosed due to the nonspecific symptoms and undetectable anatomical location. The main objective of this retrospective case series is to investigate the clinical features of visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs.
Clinical data of 23 patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs from 2004 to 2014 with new symptoms were collected.

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Dec
1969

The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT) of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp.

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Sep
2017

The location of the opening of the zygomaticotemporal branch (ZTb) of the zygomatic nerve inside the orbit (ZTF) has significant surgical implications. This study was conducted to locate the ZTFand investigate the variations of the ZTb inside the orbit. A total of 20 sides from 10 fresh frozen cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in this study.

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Dec
2017

Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy occurring in children. It can metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, central nervous system and distant organs usually the bones and bone marrow and very rarely to the soft tissue. Here, we report a case of unilateral retinoblastoma in a 4-year-old girl accompanied by a large metastasis of the parotid and submandibular glands that developed about 6 months previously and gradually increased in size 5 months after enucleation of the left eye.

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Nov
2017

The knowledge of sinonasal vasculature is inevitable in transnasal neurosurgery. We performed an anatomical study on the sphenopalatine artery from the perspective of skull base procedures.
To analyse the anatomical landmarks of the sphenopalatine artery, arterial skull corrosion casts (26 head halves) underwent endoscopic transnasal phantom surgery.

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Dec
2017

How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior.

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Nov
2017

Facial rejuvenation continues to be an increasing trend among males. The periorbital region deserves special mention given the overall differences in aesthetics between sexes.
To examine the aesthetics of the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, lateral canthus, and brow with respect to male periorbital rejuvenation.

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Oct
2017

To evaluate the prognosis in Chinese patients with conjunctival melanoma and determine its predictors. Further, to explore the racial differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between Chinese and Caucasian patients.
This cohort study included 57 eyes of 57 consecutive patients with pathologically verified conjunctival melanoma between 1996 and 2016.

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Oct
2017

The anatomy of the frontal sinus is highly variable and its variations affect the occurrence/course of pathological processes. We investigated its size and relationship to the orbit, searching for patterns that would allow it to be classified anatomically. Cone beam computed tomography was applied to 91 skulls (age range 21-86 years) to determine sinus height, width, length, and length of contact with the orbit in the coronal and sagittal planes.

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Jan
2018

Treatment of unicoronal craniosynostosis is a surgically challenging problem, due to the involvement of coronal suture and cranial base, with complex asymmetries of the calvarium and orbit. Several techniques for correction have been described, including surgical bony remodeling, early strip craniotomy with orthotic helmet remodeling and distraction. Current distraction devices provide unidirectional forces and have had very limited success.

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Oct
2017

Lipoblastoma is a rare tumor that is not commonly seen in the orbit. The authors present clinical features, histopathologic findings, changes in the radiologic findings over time, and the radiological-pathological correlation of orbital lipoblastoma in an infant. A 3-month-old male infant presented with a palpable mass on the left upper eyelid.

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Oct
2017

A thorough understanding of the orbit, structures within it, and complex spatial relationships among these structures bears relevance in a variety of neurosurgical cases. We describe the 3-dimensional surgical anatomy of the orbit and fragile and complex network of neurovascular architectures, flanked by a series of muscular and glandular structures, found within the orbital dura.

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Nov
2017

Sickle cell disease and the eye.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;28(6):623-628
Brian K Do, Damien C Rodger
To review recent literature pertaining to sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) and, in particular, sickle cell maculopathy.
Several recent studies suggest that macular perfusion abnormalities seen in patients with sickle cell disease of various genotypes may affect both the superficial and deep capillary plexi, with a predilection for the deep capillary plexus. Further, these changes may be associated with areas of macular thinning, as well as with peripheral retinal ischemia, even in individuals without visual symptoms, contrary to what has previously been described in both diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion.

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Jan
2018

The nasolacrimal duct (NLD) connects the orbital (often associated with the Deep Anterior Orbital gland: DAOG, a.k.a.

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Jul
2017

The zygomaticofacial branch (ZFb) of the zygomatic nerve travels along the inferolateral angle of the orbit, traverses the zygomaticofacial foramen (ZFF) in the zygomatic bone, and then perforates the orbicularis oculi muscle to finally reach the skin of the malar area, which it innervates. The bilateral absence of the ZFb and the ZFF was found in an 80-year-old Caucasian cadaver. In addition, both zygomatic nerves were absent.

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Nov
2017

Advances in the Reconstruction of Orbital Fractures.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2017 Nov;25(4):513-535
Scott E Bevans, Kris S Moe
Orbital reconstruction is one of the most challenging tasks for surgeons who treat craniofacial trauma. Suboptimal outcomes carry a high level of morbidity, with functional, emotional, and aesthetic implications. However, advances in reconstruction techniques, including the use of orbital endoscopy, computer-guided navigation, and mirror image overlay techniques, have been shown to provide significant improvements in outcomes.

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Nov
2017

T helper (Th)17 cells are correlated with many human autoimmune disorders, including Graves disease, and may play key roles in the pathogenesis of Graves orbitopathy (GO).
To study the phenotype of Th17 cells in patients with GO and healthy subjects, investigate the fibrosis and adipogenesis in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) modulated by interleukin (IL)-17A, and determine the interaction between Th17 cells and OFs.
Blood samples and orbital tissues from GO patients and healthy controls were collected.

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Sep
2016

Orbital Floor Fracture.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2016 Sep 23;17(3):111-118. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
Hyo Seong Kim, Eui Cheol Jeong
The medial wall and floor of the bony orbit are frequently fractured because of the delicate anatomy. To optimize functional and aesthetic results, reconstructive surgeons should understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of orbital fractures. Appropriate treatment involves optimal timing of intervention, proper indications for operative repair, incision and dissection, release of herniated tissue, implant material and placement, and wound closure.

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Oct
2017

Disorders affecting the equine maxillary cheek teeth and paranasal sinuses are relatively common, but limited objective information is available on the dimensions and relationships of these structures in horses of different ages. The aims of this study were to assess age-related changes in the positioning and anatomical relationships of the individual maxillary cheek teeth with the infraorbital canal and maxillary septum and the volumes of the individual sinus compartments. CT and gross examination were performed on 60 normal equine cadaver heads that were aged by their dentition.

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Nov
2017

A variety of lesions can affect the orbit. Surgical approaches must be available to provide 360 degrees of access. For tumors occupying the superomedial intraconal quadrant, there is a rationale to selecting the medial orbito-frontal approach.

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Oct
2017

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the ocular region is rare, and the utility of surgery and radiation therapy remains unresolved.
To explore the clinical characteristics and determine factors associated with overall survival in primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular adnexal (OA)-uveal DLBCL.
This retrospective analysis included 396 patients with ophthalmic DLBCL from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2014, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

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Oct
2017

Neurosurgeons are getting increasingly involved in surgery for orbital tumours. The various approaches to the orbit can be challenging. The authors have demonstrated on cadavers the various approaches to the orbit which are required to be mastered by the neurosurgeon.

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Dec
2017

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the head and neck are uncommon. Lesions previously diagnosed in the head and neck as hemangiopericytomas (HPCs), giant cell angiofibromas (GCAs), and orbital fibrous histiocytomas (OFHs) are now recognized as within the expanded spectrum of SFTs. To better understand the clinicopathologic profile of head and neck SFTs, we performed a multi-institutional study of 88 examples.

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Oct
2017

Head and neck (HN) adenocarcinoma is rare, and to date, there have been no reports of prospective studies. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) for HN adenocarcinoma in institutions in Japan.
HN adenocarcinoma patients with N0M0 or N1M0 disease who were treated with C-ion RT at institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.

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Aug
2017

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to observe the pneumatization degree and adjacent structure of the posterior superior maxillary sinus (PSMS) and its effect on nasal cavity morphology. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included a total of 103 cases whose paranasal sinus CT scans had been analyzed. The pneumatization of the PSMS and its relationship with posterior ethmoid sinus (PEs) and sphenoid sinus (SS) were observed.

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Oct
2017

The authors describe the surgical anatomy for the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to the ventrolateral skull base. The ventrolateral skull base can be divided into two segments: the upper lateral and lower lateral skull base. The upper lateral skull base includes the cavernous sinus and the orbit, while the lower lateral skull base includes the petrous apex, Meckel's cave, parapharyngeal space, infratemporal fossa, etc.

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Sep
2017

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an aggressive, rare tumour with unique morphological and histopathological features.
We report a rare case of orbital ASPS and its management in a young male who presented with painless proptosis and progressive loss of vision.
Twenty-two year male presented with a history of gradually increasing proptosis with loss of vision since 12months.

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Sep
2017

OBJECTIVE To determine whether a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach, applied before rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy of dogs, would decrease procedural nociception, minimize cardiorespiratory anesthetic effects, and improve recovery quality. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult hound-type dogs PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs received 0.5% bupivacaine (0.

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Aug
2017

Cilia-driven nodal flow is important in the determination of left-right asymmetry in the body. Several theoretical and computational models have been proposed to explain the mechanics of ciliary motion, although the full mechanism remains unknown. Here, we developed a three-dimensional nodal cilia axoneme model using a finite element-boundary element coupling method, and investigated the mechanics of nodal ciliary motion.

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Jun
2017

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal spindle-cell neoplasm commonly found in the pleura; it is rare in the orbit and extremely rare in the lacrimal gland. We herein report a case of SFT of the lacrimal gland that mimicked a pleo morphic adenoma. We discuss the clinical, radiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings that provided insight and rationale to accurately diagnose this case.

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Aug
2017

The orbit is very frequently damaged by traumas which results in not only with bone deficits, but also with functional deformities if reconstruction is not appropriate. Anatomical exposure of the bony orbit is of importance for both anatomists and surgeons who perform operation on this area. The current study evaluated the group of morphometrical parameters on 74 adult West Anatolian dry skulls and stereological surface area on the dry skull orbits while describing the clinical importance.

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Aug
2017

Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa is a rare disease that can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Ophthalmologists are commonly the first clinicians to come in contact with affected patients and an understanding of the clinical features is essential.
We present a retrospective case series of patients seen in the oculoplastic unit of a large tertiary referral hospital over a 20-year period.

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Oct
2017

Spintronics: Anatomy of spin-orbit torques.

Nat Nanotechnol 2017 Oct 21;12(10):941-942. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
Kei Yamamoto, Hidekazu Kurebayashi

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Dec
2017

This study determined the average distances and angles between anatomic landmarks within the orbit, with an emphasis on localization of the orbital process of the palatine bone. This information will help the surgeon with treatment planning and surgical procedures.
Four anatomic landmarks were identified retrospectively on computed tomograms of 100 adult Caucasian patients (50 men and 50 women): the top of the infraorbital margin superior to the infraorbital foramen (point A), the top of the orbital process of the palatine bone (point B), the anteriormost bony portion of the superior orbital fissure (point C), and the ventrolateral aspect of the bony entrance of the optic canal (point D).

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Dec
1969

Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare, diffuse, bilateral, and granulomatous nonnecrotizing panuveitis that may follow intraocular penetrating trauma. Our aim is to report a rare case of SO following orbital exenteration. Orbital exenteration was performed on a 48-year-old african female due to conjunctival keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with intraocular involvement of the left eye.

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Oct
2017

The availability of minimal access instrumentation and endoscopic visualization has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive skull base surgery. The transorbital endoscopic approach using an eyelid incision has been proposed as a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of skull base pathology, mostly extradural tumors. Our study aims to evaluate the anatomical aspects and potential role of the transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern.

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Jan
2018

Remote Sensing Tropical Coral Reefs: The View from Above.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 Jan 9;10:149-168. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices.

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