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'Pharmacologic Stress Testing' (8754)


Dec
2017

The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male) under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program.

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Feb
2018

Although regular physical activity is known to benefit health of aging populations, there are still many factors, which regulate exercise-induced adaptive changes. Among many vitamin D and myokines are under consideration. We, therefore, evaluated the influence of a single session of and regular Nordic Walking (NW) training combined with vitamin D supplementation on cognitive functions and muscle strength and some elements of the amino-acid profile.

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Dec
1969

Osteoporosis is a potential metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, patients with DM should have adequate osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs in order to get engaged in osteoporosis preventive behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among diabetic patients.

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Dec
1969

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide phenomenon which results in significant neurological and cognitive deficits in humans. Vitamin D (VD) is implicated as a therapeutic strategy for various neurological diseases now. Recently, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) was reported to protect against oxidative stress (ROS) production.

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Jan
2018

Studies show that individuals with schizophrenia have impaired cardiovascular fitness (i.e., low peak aerobic power (VOpeak)).

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Jan
2018

Half of women and 1/3 of men with angina and ischemia on stress testing have ischemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA). These patients have quality of life (QoL) impairment comparable with patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Clinicians generally treat INOCA with traditional antianginal agents despite previous studies demonstrating variable response to these medications.

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Jan
2018

The management of patients presenting to an emergency department with chest discomfort at low-risk for acute coronary syndrome represents a common clinical challenge. Such patients are often triaged to chest pain units for monitoring and cardiac stress testing for further risk stratification.
We conducted a retrospective study of 292 low-risk patients who presented to an emergency department with chest discomfort.

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Jan
2018

Vasodilator agents such as adenosine and regadenoson are commonly used pharmacologic stressors to assess for ischemia in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion studies. The recommended reversal agent for this mode of stress is aminophylline, although nitroglycerin is commonly administered as an attempt to reverse the symptoms or electrocardiographic (EKG) changes during the stress test. We demonstrate through two cases that incorrect administration of nitroglycerin can induce hypotension and worsen coronary steal, whereas appropriate administration of aminophylline can reverse the effects of pharmacologic vasodilators.

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Dec
1969

Iron overload resulting from the mutation of genes involved in iron metabolism or excess dietary intake has been reported to negatively influence human physical performance. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents bearing a hemochromatosis genemutation in contrast to adults with the same mutation will not experience iron accumulation and their aerobic capacity will be similar to that of age-matched controls. Thirteen boys participated in the study.

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Dec
1969

Our previous study-level (aggregate data) meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for bone density specifically in children with vitamin D deficiency. However, the misclassification of vitamin D status inherent in study-level data means that the results are not definitive and cannot provide an accurate assessment of the size of any effect. Therefore, we propose to undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine whether the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in children differs according to baseline vitamin D status, and to specifically estimate the effect of vitamin D in children who are vitamin D deficient.

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Jan
2018

Exercise improves clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), in part via beneficial effects on cardiomyocyte Cacycling during excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). However, limited data exist regarding the effects of exercise training on cardiomyocyte function in patients diagnosed with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiomyocyte Cahandling and contractile function following chronic low-intensity exercise training in aortic-banded miniature swine, and test the hypothesis that low-intensity exercise improves cardiomyocyte function in a large animal model of pressure overload.

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Feb
2018

Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats.

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Jan
2018

Neuronal cell groups residing within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata contribute to the maintenance of resting respiratory activity and arterial blood pressure, and play an important role in the development of cardiorespiratory responses to metabolic challenges (such as hypercapnia and hypoxia). In rats, acute silencing of neurons within the parafacial region which includes the RTN and the rostral aspect of the C1 circuit (pF), transduced to express HMD (G-coupled) receptors, was found to dramatically reduce exercise capacity (by 60%), determined by an intensity controlled treadmill running test. In a model of simulated exercise (electrical stimulation of the sciatic or femoral nerve in urethane anaesthetised spontaneously breathing rats) silencing of the pFneurons had no effect on cardiovascular changes, but significantly reduced the respiratory response during steady state exercise.

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Jan
2018

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of memory and cognitive abilities. Previous evidence suggested that exercise ameliorates learning and memory deficits by increasing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activating downstream pathways in AD animal models. However, upstream pathways related to increase BDNF induced by exercise in AD animal models are not well known.

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Jan
2018

Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) can increase exercise performance in cyclists, but its effects are unclear in other exercise modes, especially those using large muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to compare the exercise performance and post-exercise inspiratory muscles' strength with and without PPV (NO-PPV) during rowing. Nine male rowers (19 ± 1 years) participated in three experimental days (M1, M2, and M3) separated by one week.

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Jan
2018

Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 Jan;102(1):88-102
Carolina Medina-Gomez, John P Kemp, Katerina Trajanoska, Jian'an Luan, Alessandra Chesi, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Annelies Ham, Fernando P Hartwig, Daniel S Evans, Raimo Joro, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Hou-Feng Zheng, Kun Zhu, Mustafa Atalay, Ching-Ti Liu, Maria Nethander, Linda Broer, Gudmar Porleifsson, Benjamin H Mullin, Samuel K Handelman, Mike A Nalls, Leon E Jessen, Denise H M Heppe, J Brent Richards, Carol Wang, Bo Chawes, Katharina E Schraut, Najaf Amin, Nick Wareham, David Karasik, Nathalie Van der Velde, M Arfan Ikram, Babette S Zemel, Yanhua Zhou, Christian J Carlsson, Yongmei Liu, Fiona E McGuigan, Cindy G Boer, Klaus Bønnelykke, Stuart H Ralston, John A Robbins, John P Walsh, M Carola Zillikens, Claudia Langenberg, Ruifang Li-Gao, Frances M K Williams, Tamara B Harris, Kristina Akesson, Rebecca D Jackson, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Martin den Heijer, Bram C J van der Eerden, Jeroen van de Peppel, Timothy D Spector, Craig Pennell, Bernardo L Horta, Janine F Felix, Jing Hua Zhao, Scott G Wilson, Renée de Mutsert, Hans Bisgaard, Unnur Styrkársdóttir, Vincent W Jaddoe, Eric Orwoll, Timo A Lakka, Robert Scott, Struan F A Grant, Mattias Lorentzon, Cornelia M van Duijn, James F Wilson, Kari Stefansson, Bruce M Psaty, Douglas P Kiel, Claes Ohlsson, Evangelia Ntzani, Andre J van Wijnen, Vincenzo Forgetta, Mohsen Ghanbari, John G Logan, Graham R Williams, J H Duncan Bassett, Peter I Croucher, Evangelos Evangelou, Andre G Uitterlinden, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell, Jonathan H Tobias, David M Evans, Fernando Rivadeneira
Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD.

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Mar
2018

Fatigue is a common and serious health problem, and various dietary interventions have previously been employed to ameliorate fatigue. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti‑fatigue effects of Danish porcine placenta (DPP) and its major dipeptides, including leucine‑glycine (LG) and glycine‑leucine (GL). The anti‑fatigue effects of orally administered DPP, LG and GL were determined using a treadmill exercise test and a forced swimming test (FST) in mice.

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Feb
2018

People with exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) have adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Mechanisms are unknown but could be explained through impaired neural baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and/or large artery stiffness. This study aimed to determine the associations of carotid BRS and carotid stiffness with exaggerated exercise BP.

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Dec
1969

Many previous studies showed that maternal forced exercise can reduce some central disorders in offsprings, but its clear mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the role of 5-HTand Dreceptors in neuroprotective effects of maternal forced exercise in offspring neurodevelopment and effect on some behaviors were evaluated.
Forty-eight pregnant rats were trained by forced exercise, and some behavioral assays in their offspring were performed in the presence and absence of 5-HTand Dreceptor antagonists in various experimental groups.

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Mar
2018

It has been proposed that cancer cells are heavily dependent on their antioxidant defenses for survival and growth. Peroxiredoxins are a family of abundant thiol-dependent peroxidases that break down hydrogen peroxide, and they have a central role in the maintenance and response of cells to alterations in redox homeostasis. As such, they are potential targets for disrupting tumor growth.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks) nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose) administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse), and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break), applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40).

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Dec
2017

Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is a frequent phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease. Women with coronary artery disease tend to have more mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and more chest pain/anginal symptoms than men, but whether the association between mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and angina burden differs in women and men is unknown.
This was a cross-sectional study with experimental manipulation of 950 individuals with stable coronary artery disease.

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Dec
2017

The constant pursuit of improved athletic performance characterizes high-performance sport and the use of medicinal plants as dietary supplements is becoming widespread among athletes to enhance long-term endurance performance.
The present study evaluated the toxicity of Heteropterys tomentosa (HEHt) and its acute adaptogenic effects.
The in vitro safety profile was evaluated on CHO-k1 cells using the alamar Blue assay, at concentrations ranging from 3.

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Dec
2017

An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included.

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Dec
2017

In healthy subjects, it has been suggested that exercise may acutely suppress energy-intake and appetite, with peak intensity being an important determinant for this effect. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of exercise on appetite-related variables is, however, virtually unknown. We aimed to assess the effects of two exercise interventions, differing with regards to peak intensity, on energy-intake, satiety and appetite-related hormones in subjects with T2D.

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Dec
2017

The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that increased muscle mass has positive effects on cardiovascular function. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that increases in lean body mass caused by deletion of myostatin improves cardiac performance and vascular function. Echocardiography was used to quantify left ventricular function at baseline and after acute administration of propranolol and isoproterenol to assess-adrenergic reactivity.

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Feb
2018

Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis. Considering that the retrieval of emotional memories reactivates specific brain mechanisms vulnerable to inhibition, interference, or strengthening (i.

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Dec
1969

A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST).

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Oct
2017

This study aimed to identify the pathogenic mutation in a Chinese family with unexplained sudden death (USD) or occasional syncope.
Whole exome sequencing and target capture sequencing were respectively conducted for two related patients. The genetic data was screened using the 1000 genomes project and SNP database (PubMed), and the identified mutations were assessed for predicted pathogenicity using the SIFT and Polyphen-2 algorithms.

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Dec
1969

Individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have lower baseline metabolic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with impairment of cognitive functions in decision-making and inhibitory control. Aerobic exercise has shown to improve PFC function and cognitive performance, however, its effects on SUD individuals remain unclear.
To verify the cognitive performance and oxygenation of the PFC during an incremental exercise in SUD individuals.

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Oct
2017

The effect of maternal forced exercise on central disorders in offsprings has been shown but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the role of 5-HTand Dreceptors in neuroprotective effects of maternal forced exercise on offspring neurodevelopment and neurobehavioral symptoms is evaluated. Sixty pregnant rats were trained by forced exercise and some behavioral and molecular aspects in their offspring were evaluated in presence of 5-HTand Dreceptors agonists and antagonists.

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Dec
2017

Presyncope and syncope are common medical findings, with a > 40% estimated lifetime prevalence. These conditions are often elicited by postural stress and can be recurrent and accompanied by debilitating symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to become familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of common underlying causes of presyncope and syncope.

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Nov
2017

There is abundant evidence for both disorganized redox balance and cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). Garcinia mangostana Linn (GM) has anti-oxidant activity. We studied the antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects of raw GM rind in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, following acute and chronic treatment compared to a reference antidepressant, imipramine (IMI).

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Dec
1969

Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring.

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Feb
2018

The ability to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes (CMs) makes them an attractive source for repairing injured myocardium, disease modeling, and drug testing. Although current differentiation protocols yield hPSC-CMs to >90% efficiency, hPSC-CMs exhibit immature characteristics. With the goal of overcoming this limitation, we tested the effects of varying passive stretch on engineered heart muscle (EHM) structural and functional maturation, guided by computational modeling.

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Jul
2017

The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels during eustress on healthy volunteers.In this study, 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from students of a medical school, with the mean age of 22.61±3.

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Jan
2018

Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders.

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Feb
2018

Luteolin is a major component of many medicinal plants and traditional medicines. The current study aims at testing its protective effect against high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: control group that received standard rat chow, group received HCHF diet (~ 30% carbohydrate and 42% fat) daily for 16 weeks, and four groups received HCHF diet concurrently with luteolin (10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; 10% w/v suspension in 0.

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Oct
2017

Adenosine or regadenoson are often used with pharmacologic stress testing. Adenosine may trigger atrioventricular block (AVB). Despite its higher selectivity, regadenoson has also been associated with AVB.

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Dec
2017

Pharmacologic Stress Testing with MyocardialPerfusion Imaging.

J Nucl Med Technol 2017 Dec 17;45(4):249-252. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
Robert A Pagnanelli, Heidi L Camposano
The preferred method for performing stress testing with myocardial perfusion imaging is physical exercise. However, many patients are unable to reach an adequate endpoint. As an alternative, various pharmacologic options are available, which are explored in this article.

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Oct
2017

In this work, we re-evaluated long-standing conjectures as to the source of the exceptionally large compliance of the bladder wall. Whereas these conjectures were based on indirect measures of loading mechanisms, in this work we take advantage of advances in bioimaging to directly assess collagen fibers and wall architecture during biaxial loading. A custom biaxial mechanical testing system compatible with multiphoton microscopy was used to directly measure the layer-dependent collagen fiber recruitment in bladder tissue from 9 male Fischer rats (4 adult and 5 aged).

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Dec
2017

Athletes frequently experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during training and competition. Although the prevalence of exercise-induced GI symptoms is high, the mechanisms leading to GI distress during exercise are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify running-induced changes in intestinal permeability and markers of GI function and investigate their association with gastrointestinal symptoms.

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Dec
1969

This study compared the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte-protein solution (CEPS, 2% protein plus 4% carbohydrate), carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES, 6% carbohydrate), and noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) on both 21-km running performance and cognitive function. Eleven female recreational endurance runners performed a 21-km time-trial running on three occasions, separated by at least 28 days. In a randomized cross-over design, they ingested CEPS, CES, or PLA at a rate of 150 mL every 2.

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Dec
2017

Sex differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remain unclear. We sought to characterize sex differences in a large HCM referral centre population.
Three thousand six hundred and seventy-three adult patients with HCM underwent evaluation between January 1975 and September 2012 with 1661 (45.

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Dec
2017

L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity.

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Nov
2017

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is related with exercise intolerance and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production, which can lead to several functional capacity alterations. Considering the possible superiority of aerobic interval training compared to continuous training and the capacity of l-arginine to restore the NO pathway, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these treatments are beneficial to exercise capacity, muscle mass preservation and hemodynamic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in CHF rats.
Thirty-eight male Wistar rats post 6weeks of myocardial infarction (MI) surgery were randomly assigned into 6 CHF groups: sedentary (SED, n=6); SED+Arg (n=7); ACT (n=8); ACT+Arg (n=5); AIT (n=7); AIT+Arg (n=5).

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Oct
2017

Joint and connective tissue integrity, comfort and function are paramount to optimal performance in exercise, recreational and occupational activities. The fruit of Terminalia chebula has been used extensively in various traditional health systems for different ailments, with additional preclinical and clinical data demonstrating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit (AyuFlex®) dietary supplementation on joint mobility, comfort, and functional capacity in healthy overweight subjects.

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Sep
2017

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is commonly utilized for the non-invasive evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). It is either performed with exercise or pharmacologic stress. The objective of this study is to compare the referral patterns and diagnostic findings in patients referred for pharmacologic vs exercise MPI.

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Sep
2017

A Diagnostic Approach to Stroke in Young Adults.

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2017 Sep 25;19(11):84. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
Christopher A Stack, John W Cole
Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended.

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