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'Pituitary Gland' (75953)


Feb
2018

Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC).

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Feb
2018

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are the most common pituitary tumors. There is significant variability in clinical practice in terms of post-operative imaging evaluation. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an exhaustive review of published articles pertaining to the post-operative imaging evaluation of NFAs.

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Feb
2018

Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are frequent and well recognized disturbances among male patients with transfusion dependent (TD) thalassaemia major (β-thal). These problems are attributed mainly to the damage caused by chronic anaemia and the deposition of excess iron in the pituitary gland and testicles. This is a short review of male pubertal disorders in patients with β-thal written by pediatric endocrinologists and haematologists with an interest and active involvement, in the diagnosis and management of these complications in this group of patients.

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Dec
1969

Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are associated with multifocal cancers: pituitary gland tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and renal-cell carcinomas (RCCs). SDH-deficient renal-cell carcinoma (SDH-RCC) was first identified in 2004 as an inherited kidney cancer with mutations in the SDH gene. SDH consists of A, B, C, and D units.

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Dec
2017

We report an ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as a pituitary metastasis, clinically simulating a pituitary adenoma. The patient, a 50 year-old, former-smoking woman was admitted with a Parinaud's syndrome characterized by progressive oculomotor impairment of visual verticality, bitemporal hemianopsia and nystagmus. Imaging studies showed a sellar tumor and the biopsy revealed a TTF-1 and napsin positive lung adenocarcinoma strongly expressing synaptophysin and CD56, also harboring ALK rearrangement.

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Feb
2018

A rare case of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) complicated with Graves' hyperthyroidism was reported. The management of this disease is similar to that of Graves' disease. Antithyroid drug therapy is the first choice, and iodine therapy and surgery are not recommended due to the possibility of severe hypothyroidism and enlargement of the pituitary gland.

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Feb
2018

Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of Cushing' syndrome (CS) is an extremely rare event and its diagnosis and treatment are a real medical challenge. During pregnancy, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes major changes leading to a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels throughout gestation. The difficulties in diagnosis are related to the resemblance of symptoms of CS and those of pregnancy, and to the complex interpretation of the screening tests.

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Feb
2018

Data that have been used in almost all MIRD S value absorbed dose and effective dose calculations to date have been based upon stylized anatomic computational phantoms and tissue weighting factors adopted by the ICRP in its Publication 60. Recently, more anatomically realistic phantoms have become available, which are likely to provide more accurate effective dose values for diagnostic agents. Gallium-68-DOTATATE is a radiolabeled somatostatin analog that binds with high affinity to somatostatin receptors, which are over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, and can be used for diagnostic PET/CT-based imaging.

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Feb
2018

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats.

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Feb
2018

Abscess inside the pituitary fossa is very rare. Such abscess can be primary, occurring in an otherwise healthy pituitary gland, or secondary, developing inside a diseased gland (ie, harbouring craniopharyngioma, Rathke's cleft cyst, etc). Secondary pituitary abscess inside a craniopharyngioma remains an extremely rare occurrence.

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Feb
2018

Endogenous glucocorticoids exert a diverse array of physiological processes and play an important role in immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland is regulated through two mechanisms. Systemic regulation is substantiating by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

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Feb
2018

Developmental disorders affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary system can result in pituitary hormone deficiency showing a diverse clinical presentation. A significant majority of these disorders are closely linked to defects in transcription factor genes which play a major role in pituitary development. Those affecting the early phase of organogenesis typically lead to complex conditions affecting the pituitary as well as structures in the central nervous system.

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Feb
2018

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-GnRH complex is more potent at triggering gonadotropin release than GnRH alone. However, it remains unclear whether copper-GnRH is the active species in vivo.

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Feb
2018

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and clinically distinctive entity characterized by the almost exclusive growth of large cells within the lumen of blood vessels in particular capillaries. Reports of this peculiar disease, do not commonly address the PD-L1 expression on IVLBCL tumor cells. Here, we describe a 51-year-old Japanese woman who presented with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and higher brain dysfunction.

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Apr
2018

T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements.

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Feb
2018

The a 28-amino acid peptide ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide. Soon after its discovery, ghrelin was found to increase body weight and adiposity by acting on the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system. Subsequently, ghrelin was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, overall testifying ghrelin a pleiotropic nature of broad pharmacological interest.

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Dec
1969

Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese.

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Jan
2018

The human growth hormone (GH) locus is comprised by two GH (GH1 and GH2) genes and three chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH1, CSH2 and CSH-L) genes. While GH1 is expressed in the pituitary gland, the rest are expressed in the placenta. However, GH1 is also expressed in several extrapituitary tissues, including the eye.

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Feb
2018

 The video stars orbitozygomatic resection of Rathke's cleft cyst with suprasellar extension in a 37-year-old male patient presenting with severe headaches and bitemporal hemianopia. Clinical and radiological characteristics along with surgical technique (positioning, bony opening, surgical dissection and debulking, closure), histopathology, and postoperative course are described. Preoperative MRI demonstrated a noncontrast-enhancing cystic lesion in the sella with suprasellar extension causing compression of both optic nerves.

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Nov
2017

We herein report 2 cases of laparoscopic total gastrectomy(LTG)in patient with multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET)related to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1(MEN1). Case 1: A 66-year-old female was diagnosed with multiple gastric NET. There was no finding of any other tumor, and parathyroid function was normal.

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Feb
2018

Thyroid hormones play an important role in glucose metabolism and there is evidence of increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in obese and diabetic patients. This study aimed at evaluating the thyroid function and the effects of the triiodothyronine (T3) treatment on glycemia control, insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation in cafeteria-diet-induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Wistar rats by offering a cafeteria diet and a subset of the obese rats was treated with T3 (1.

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Jan
2018

Patients with chronic immune-mediated arthritis exhibit abnormal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The basis for this abnormality is not known. Immune-mediated arthritis is associated with increased extra-adrenal synthesis of active glucocorticoids by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme.

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Dec
2017

Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors, composed of a variable mixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. These tumors are frequently detected incidentally and are usually asymptomatic, and hormonally inactive.
During a routine health checkup, a 52-year-old man was found to have a tumor on the bilateral adrenal glands.

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Jan
2018

Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57/BL6 mice.

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Dec
1969

Many chronic diseases are associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction. Therefore, proteomic profiling of the pituitary gland has potential to uncover new information on the underlying pathways affected in these conditions. This could lead to identification of new biomarkers or drug targets for development of novel therapeutics.

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Jan
2018

Prolactinomas may rarely present with meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea secondary to erosion of the wall of the sella turcica. It is even more un-common for this abnormal communication to be caused by an ectopic prolactinoma arising from the sphenoid sinus and eroding into the sella. This atypical growth pattern makes diagnosis very difficult, as there may be no displacement of the normal pituitary gland.

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Jan
2018

Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) is thought to be an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland. Among AH pathologies, lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis (LINH) represents infiltration of the neurohypophysis and/or the hypothalamic infundibulum, causing central diabetes insipidus due to insufficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. The pathophysiological and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying LINH are largely unknown.

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Jan
2018

trans-Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol enriched in grape seed and skin, has been extensively investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-psychiatric properties. The present study examined the effects of trans-resveratrol on ameliorating anxiety-like behaviors and fear memory deficits induced by time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure, which is a classical animal model for mimicking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results suggested that trans-resveratrol at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg (via gavage, i.

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Jan
2018

To evaluate the effects of long-acting somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy onGa-DOTA-octreotate (GaTate) uptake at physiological and metastatic sites in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients.
Twenty-one patients who underwent GaTate PET/CT before and after commencement of SSA therapy were reviewed. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured in normal organs.

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Jan
2018

Neurokinin B (NKB) plays important roles in the mammalian reproductive axis by modulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins. In the present study, the tac3 cDNA was cloned from a hermaphroditic species, the orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that the grouper Tac3 precursor encoded two tachykinin peptides, NKB and NKB-related peptide (NKBRP).

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Jan
2018

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is a well-known syndrome in human medicine, whereas only a few cases of concurrent endocrine neoplasias have been reported in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of concurrent endocrine neoplasias in dogs and cats at our clinic, identify possible breed and sex predispositions and investigate similarities with MEN syndromes in humans. Postmortem reports of 951 dogs and 1155 cats that died or were euthanased at the Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed, and animals with at least two concurrent endocrine neoplasias and/or hyperplasias were included.

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Jan
2018

PET/CT imaging withGa-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe-Tyr-octreotide (DOTATOC) is useful in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Functioning NETs by definition secrete abnormal levels of hormones, causing clinical symptoms. It is known that physiologic accumulation can be seen in some organs, but it remains unknown whether elevated hormone levels can affect the physiologic accumulation pattern ofGa-DOTATOC.

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Jan
2018

This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues.

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Jan
2018

Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization.

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Jan
2018

Adrenal insufficiency is divided into three types based on the etiology of its development. In primary adrenal insufficiency, pathology resides in end-organ failure at the level of the adrenal cortex, while in secondary and tertiary adrenal insufficiency, impairment rests in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. Regardless of etiology, adrenal insufficiency results in a hypocortisolemic condition.

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Dec
2017

Two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of pituitary apoplexy are the "pituitary ring sign" and "sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening". The occurrence of both these MRI signs together in patients with ischaemic pituitary apoplexy was investigated. A literature review searching the terms "pituitary ring sign" and "sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening" in the context of pituitary apoplexy from 1990 until present was performed.

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Nov
2017

Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected.

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Mar
2018

In this review, the importance of thegene in the function of endocrine cells is discussed. There is conclusive evidence thatmutations play a crucial role in the development, progression, cell proliferation, therapeutic responsiveness and behavior of several endocrine tumors. We review the literature ofgene mutations in thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal gland, endocrine pancreas, paragangliomas, medullary, adrenocortical, ovarian and testicular tumors.

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Jan
2018

Oxytocin is required for normal birth and lactation. Oxytocin is synthesised by hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei neurons and is released into the circulation from the posterior pituitary gland. Under basal conditions, circulating oxytocin levels are relatively constant but during birth and lactation, pulsatile oxytocin release triggers rhythmic contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during suckling.

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Jan
2018

The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification and integrated into the craniofacial complex, which acts as an underlying platform for the developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function in a mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1, demonstrated the anterior cranial base defects, including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone.

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Jan
2018

Midsagittal images of the brain provide a wealth of anatomic information and may show abnormalities that are pathognomonic for particular diagnoses. Using an anatomy-based approach, the authors identify pertinent anatomic structures to serve as a checklist when evaluating these structures. Subregions evaluated include the corpus callosum, pituitary gland and sellar region, pineal gland and pineal region, brainstem, and cerebellum.

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Dec
1969

, encoding-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3, has an important role in proteoglycan biosynthesis. Homozygousmutations have been associated with short stature, skeletal deformities, and congenital heart defects. We describe for the first time a novel heterozygous splice site mutation incontributing to severe short stature, growth hormone (GH) deficiency, recurrent ketotic hypoglycaemia, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects.

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Mar
2018

Vitex agnus-castus L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant historically used throughout the Mediterranean region to treat menstrual cycle disorders, and is still used today as a clinically effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome. The pharmaceutical activity of the plant extract is linked to its ability to lower prolactin levels.

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Dec
1969

An emerging body of evidence supports the concept that the pituitary is a site for integration of multiple physiological and metabolic signals that inform and modulate endocrine pathways. Multiple endocrine mediators of energy balance and adiposity are known to impinge on the neuroendocrine axis regulating reproduction. Observations in humans show that obesity is correlated with decreased gonadotropin secretion, and studies have also suggested that pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is decreased in obese individuals.

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Jan
2018

The presence of pathology related to the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been recently reported in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) acquired from inoculation of growth hormone (GH) extracted from human cadaveric pituitary gland or use of cadaveric dura mater (DM) grafts.To investigate this phenomenon further, a cohort of 27 iCJD cases - 21 with adequate number of histopathological sections - originating from Australia, France, Italy, and the Unites States, were examined by immunohistochemistry, amyloid staining, and Western blot analysis of the scrapie prion protein (PrP), and compared with age-group matched cases of sporadic CJD (sCJD), Alzheimer disease (AD) or free of neurodegenerative diseases (non-ND).Cases of iCJD and sCJD shared similar profiles of proteinase K-resistant PrPwith the exception of iCJD harboring the "MMi" phenotype.

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Dec
1969

Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is characterized by hyperplasia of the pars intermedia (PI) melanotrophs of the pituitary gland (PG), and increased production of proopiomelanocortin (POMC). POMC is cleaved by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and further processing of ACTH by PC2 to produce alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP). High plasma ACTH concentrations in horses with PPID might be related to reduced conversion of ACTH to α-MSH by PCs.

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Jan
2018

Microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (mTSS) is a well-established method to address adenomas of the pituitary gland. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) has become a viable alternative, however. Advocates suggest that the greater illumination, panoramic visualization, and angled endoscopic views afforded by eTSS may allow for higher rates of gross total tumor resection (GTR).

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Jan
2018

Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LHP) is a relatively rare disease characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland, resulting in pituitary dysfunction. LHP is generally responsive to corticosteroid therapy, but cases with recurrence require clinicians to select second-line therapy. We report here the case of a 58-year-old patient with LHP who developed panhypopituitarism and bitemporal hemianopia.

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