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'Prostate' (171421)


Feb
2018

As a tumor suppressor candidate gene, NPRL2 has anti-cancer effects against several cancers, but its potential role in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been reported. The present study aimed to explore the expression of NPRL2 in PCa and its potential clinical significance. Our results showed that expression of NPRL2 in PCa tissues was significantly higher than in non-PCa tissues (P<.

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Feb
2018

Increasing prostate cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific region may be related to a more sedentary lifestyle resulted from economic growth and rapid urbanization. The present case-control study of 640 men aged 64 to 75 years was conducted in Vietnam between 2013 and 2015 to ascertain the relationship between physical activity and prostate cancer risk, accounting for the duration of sitting time. Reduced prostate cancer risks were found for men engaging in medium (15.

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Feb
2018

Exploration of microbes isolated from rhizospheric soil of Crataegus oxycantha for bioactive natural products.
A strain of Streptomyces sp. (C-7) was isolated from rhizospheric soil of Crataegus oxycantha.

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Feb
2018

Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has demonstrative therapeutic effects on a variety of diseases, including some tumours. However, the effects of GRh2 on prostate cancer (PC) cell growth remain unknown, and were, thus, addressed in the present study.
PC3 and DU145 PC cell lines were exposed to GRh2.

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Feb
2018

To reduce computation and decrease planning time with little or no loss in plan quality compared to the column-generation-based (cg) method, a simple method of aperture generation based on threshold segmentation (agts) is proposed.
The proposed agts strategy consists of two steps. First, a fuzzy controller is used for noise cancellation; then, new apertures are added using the threshold segmentation algorithm.

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Dec
1969

We report unique bioactivity of a polycation-polyanion complex with potential utility for cancer therapy. A complex of disulfide-crosslinked polyethyleneimine (CLPEI), a polycation used for gene complexation, and dermatan sulfate (DS), an anionic polysaccharide to shield excessive cationic charge of the former, has toxicity to a specific group of cancer cell lines, including B16-F10 murine melanoma, A375SM human melanoma, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. These CLPEI-DS-sensitive cells express CD146, which binds to the complex via interaction with DS.

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Jan
2018

Chronic radiation proctopathy is a frequent complication after both pelvic external radiation therapy and brachytherapy and most commonly presents as rectal bleeding. Deep rectal ulcers and fistulae are much rarer and more clinically challenging consequences. We present the case of a 72-year-old male with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma treated with brachytherapy, who was referred to our institution due to a deep painful rectal ulcer refractory to medical treatment.

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Dec
1969

The treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. This study was conducted to examine the risk of secondary cancers (SCs) in the CML patients who were diagnosed and treated in the TKI era in the United States.
The surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to identify CML patients who were diagnosed and received treatment during January 2002-December 2014.

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Dec
1969

Safe imaging agents able to render the expression and distribution of cancer receptors, enzymes or other biomarkers would facilitate clinical screening of the disease. Here, we show that diamagnetic dextran particles coordinated to a urea-based targeting ligand for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) enable targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the PSMA receptor. In a xenograft model of prostate cancer, micromolar concentrations of the dextran -ligand probe provided sufficient signal to specifically detect PSMA-expressing tumours via chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI.

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Feb
2018

The evidence supporting the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer detection has been established, but its accuracy in local staging is questioned.
To investigate the additional value of multi-planar radial reconstructions of a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted (T2W) MRI sequence, intercepting the prostate capsule perpendicularly, for improving local staging of prostate cancer.
Preoperative, bi-parametric prostate MRI examinations in 94 patients operated between June 2014 and January 2015 where retrospectively reviewed by two experienced abdominal radiologists.

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Mar
2018

MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are involved in the regulation of various types of cancer, either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. miR302a has been reported that it could suppress tumor cell proliferation by inhibiting Akt in prostate cancer. The present study examined the effect of miR302a on proliferation and invasion in esophageal cancer cell lines.

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Mar
2018

The present study investigated the role of androgen in the process of androgen-induced prostate hyperplasia in castrated rats and assessed the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway in this process. Furthermore, the extent to which autophagy may affect the level of androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia was also explored. A total of 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Testosterone group, rapamycin group, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group, and control group.

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Mar
2018

The present study investigated the molecular mechanism of apoptosis and autophagy in prostate epithelial cells under androgen deprivation (AD). BPH-1 cells were divided into four groups as follows: Control (Cont), AD, autophagy inhibition (AI) and AD + AI groups. Cells in the four groups were treated accordingly, and the level of apoptosis was subsequently measured via flow cytometry.

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Dec
1969

Hereditary breast and ovary cancer syndrome affects both genders but little is known about the uptake of genetic services by men. The objective of this study is to characterise the male population counselled through a multidisciplinary breast/ovarian program.
Descriptive analysis of male patients counselled from January 2000 to December 2015.

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Dec
1969

Prostate cancer (PCa) and type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are both increasing prevalent conditions and often occur concurrently. However, the relationship between the two is more complex than just two prevalent conditions co-existing. This review systematically explores the literature around the interplay between the two conditions.

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Dec
1969

The Mortality-Incidence Ratio complement [1 - MIR] is an indicator validated in various populations to estimate five-year cancer survival, but its validity remains unreported in Peru. This study aims to determine if the MIR correlates directly with five-year survival in patients diagnosed with the ten most common types of cancer in metropolitan Lima.
The Metropolitan Lima Cancer Registry (RCLM in Spanish) for 2004-2005 was used to determine the number of new cases and the number of deaths of the following cancers: breast, stomach, prostate, thyroid, lung, colon, cervical, and liver cancers, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia.

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Dec
1969

Our objective is to study the outcomes and complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD) including comparison of self-care PD with home-care assisted PD during a five-year period. A retrospective study of PD data at King Saud University-affiliated hospital in Riyadh from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. One hundred and eleven patients were included (female 55%).

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Feb
2018

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is vital to the viability of all forms of prostate cancer (PCa). With the goal of investigating the effect of simultaneous inhibition and depletion of AR on viability of PCa cells, we designed, synthesized and characterized the bioactivities of bifunctional agents which incorporate the independent cancer killing properties of an antiandrogen and genistein, and the AR downregulation effect of genistein within a single molecular template. We observed that a representative conjugate, 9b, is much more cytotoxic to both LNCaP and DU145 cells relative to the antiandrogen and genistein building blocks as single agents or their combination.

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Feb
2018

During the search for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitors from natural products, methyllucidone, isolated from Lindera species (Lauraceae), was identified as a STAT3 inhibitor. Methyllucidone inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 in a dose- and time dependent manner in DU145 prostate cancer cells and suppressed IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705 in LNCaP cells. Methyllucidone decreased the expression levels of STAT3 target genes, such as cyclin D1, cyclin A, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and survivin.

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Feb
2018

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The complex etiology is attributed to many factors like heredity, cirrhosis, hepatitis infections or the dysregulation of the different molecular pathways. Nevertheless, the current treatment regimens have either severe side effects or tumors gradually acquire resistance upon prolonged use.

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Feb
2018

Apalutamide shows efficacy in prostate cancer.

Lancet Oncol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Elizabeth Gourd

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Mar
2018

In 17 patients who underwent prostate artery embolization for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms, the accuracy of preprocedural magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was retrospectively compared with intraprocedural digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the identification of prostatic artery origin. Of 34 vessels, 26 MR angiography identified origins (76.5%) were confirmed by DSA at the time of embolization.

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Feb
2018

ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6) is a putative tumor suppressor and repressed by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in prostate cancer. Since EGFR antagonists seem ineffective in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we aim to study the role of ETV6 in the development of drug resistance.
Etv6 target gene was validated by ChIP and promoter reporter assays.

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Feb
2018

Dysfunction of the circadian clock and single polymorphisms of some circadian genes have been linked to cancer susceptibility, although data are scarce and findings inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between circadian pathway genetic variation and risk of developing common cancers based on the findings of genome-wide association studies (GWASs).
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 17 circadian genes reported by three GWAS meta-analyses dedicated to breast (Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Consortium; cases, n = 15,748; controls, n = 18,084), prostate (Elucidating Loci Involved in Prostate Cancer Susceptibility (ELLIPSE) Consortium; cases, n = 14,160; controls, n = 12,724) and lung carcinoma (Transdisciplinary Research In Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) Consortium; cases, n = 12,160; controls, n = 16,838) in patients of European ancestry were utilized to perform pathway analysis by means of the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method.

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Feb
2018

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a protein product of the folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) gene, is gaining increasing acceptance as a target for positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging in patients with several cancer types, including breast cancer. So far, PSMA expression in breast cancer endothelia has not been sufficiently characterized.
This study comprised 315 cases of invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) and lobular breast cancer (median follow-up time 9.

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Feb
2018

To explore men's lived experience of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and preferences for support.
Cross-sectional qualitative study applying open-ended surveys and interviews conducted between June and November 2016. Interviews audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed from an interpretive phenomenological perspective.

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Feb
2018

This work designed an artificial substrate peptide to synthesize peptide-hemin/G-quadruplex (peptide-DNAzyme) conjugates. In addition to enhancing catalytic activity of hemin/G-quadruplex, the peptide could also be induced and cleaved by prostate specific antigen (PSA). It was the first report on peptide-DNAzyme conjugates in application of the peptide biosensor.

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Feb
2018

Estrogens act as key factors in prostate biology, cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as cancer development and progression. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-β appears to be lost during prostate cancer progression through hypermethylation mechanism. Epigenetic drugs such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZAC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) showed efficacy in restoring ERβ expression in prostate cancer cells.

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Feb
2018

Androgen receptor is the major driver of and testosterone the natural growth factor of prostate cancer (PC). Studies exploring the relationship among circulating testosterone levels, PC aggressiveness, and patient prognosis showed contradictory results. We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies reporting the independent relationship between serum testosterone and prognosis of PC patients.

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Feb
2018

Several new compounds are now available for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Individual costs range between $40,000 and $93,000 with mean survival extensions from 2.4 to 4.

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Feb
2018

To investigate the association between prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) levels and molecular tumor volume (MTV) measured in theGa-PSMA PET/CT, both done in a short period of time, in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure.
Eighty-four patients who underwentGa-PSMA PET/CT and measurement of PSA levels in the same week (trigger-PSA) were studied in this retrospective analysis. MTV was calculated from the sum of the metastatic lesions.

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Feb
2018

SH3-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SGEF), a RhoG-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), was consider as a key signal that determines cancer cell invasion. Although SGEF has been considered to highly express in glioma and prostate cancer. However, it is not well illustrated in LAC.

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Feb
2018

Most health authorities do not recommend screening for prostate cancer with PSA tests in asymptomatic patients who are not at increased risk. However, opportunistic screening for prostate cancer is still wanted by many patients and it is widely used in primary care clinics, with potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Better tools for risk assessment have been called for, to better target such opportunistic screening.

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Feb
2018

This study aimed to develop a more sensitive method for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using heteroassembled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). A single layered localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) chip format was developed with antigen-antibody reaction-based detection symmetry using AuNPs, which detected HBsAg at 10 pg/mL. To further improve the detection limit, a modified detection format was fabricated by fixing a secondary antibody (to form a heteroassembled sandwich format) to the AuNP monolayer, which enhanced the detection sensitivity by about 100 times.

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Feb
2018

Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca-binding protein, is dysregulated in cancers, but its pathophysiological roles are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 is overexpressed in clinical prostate cancer (PCa) samples, associated with Cyclin B, not Cyclin D1 expression, compared to that of benign tissues in a Chinese Han population. Downregulation of endogenous RCN1 significantly suppresses PCa cell viability and arrests the cell cycles of DU145 and LNCaP cells at the S and G2/M phases, respectively.

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Feb
2018

Previous studies in prostate cancer (PCa) patients tried to correlate the onset of local recurrence (LR) with the development of distant metastases and formulated, based on theoretical and experimental data, hypotheses linking the two events. We aimed to address this issue withC-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).
This retrospective study included 491 PCa patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy who had undergoneC-choline PET/CT owing to biochemical failure.

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Feb
2018

Rectal culture screening for fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate (TRUSPB) biopsy and targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (TAP) may decrease post-TRUSPB infection rates compared to empiric (EAP) regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of targeted relative to empiric prophylaxis regimens on rates of infectious complications after TRUSPB and to determine the baseline prevalence of FQ resistance based on prior rectal swabs.
An electronic search within literature databases including EMBASE and Web of Science (all databases) for articles assessing TAP as an approach to TRUSPB prophylaxis was conducted.

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Feb
2018

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperthermia, 6 MeV electron radiation and combination of these treatments on cancer cell line DU145 in both monolayer culture and spheroids enriched for prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Flowcytometric analysis of the expression of molecular markers CD133/CD44was carried out to determine the prostate CSCs in cell line DU145 grown as spheroids in serum-free medium. Following monolayer and spheroid culture, DU145 cells were treated with different doses of hyperthermia, electron beam and combination of them.

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Feb
2018

Positive surgical margin (PSM) extension reported as focal or non-focal/extensive is an important pathologic prognostic parameter after radical prostatectomy. Likewise, there is limited or no agreement on how to measure and what the best cut-off points to be used in practice are. We hypothesized that digital microscopy (DM) would potentially provide a more objective way to measure PSM and better define its clinical significance.

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Feb
2018

To examine whether age-related reference ranges for "normal" prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer.
Subjects were men aged 50-69 years with PSA < 10 ng/mL from the UK-based Prostate Testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. Men with prostate cancer were categorized as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score ≤ 6 and stage T1-T2a; High risk: Gleason score 7-10 or stage T2C).

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Feb
2018

The mTOR signaling pathway is a central regulator of protein synthesis and cellular metabolism in response to the availability of energy, nutrients, oxygen, and growth factors. mTOR activation leads to phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets including the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding proteins-1 and -2 (EIF4EBP1/4E-BP1 and EIF4EBP2/4E-BP2). These binding proteins inhibit protein synthesis, but are inactivated by mTOR to stimulate cell growth and metabolism.

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Feb
2018

The trend towards precision-based therapeutic approaches dictated by molecular alterations offers substantial promise for men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, current approaches for molecular characterization are primarily tissue based, necessitating serial biopsies to understand changes over time and are limited by the challenges inherent to extracting genomic material from predominantly bone metastases. Therefore, a circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based assay was developed to determine gene expression across a panel of clinically relevant and potentially actionable prostate cancer related genes.

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Feb
2018

Arvinas, Pfizer Team Up on PROTACs.

Cancer Discov 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
Biotechnology startup Arvinas is developing proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTAC) that combat cancer by degrading disease-causing proteins. The company's first PROTACs will target prostate and breast cancers, and a recent deal with Pfizer will allow Arvinas to develop PROTACs for other cancer types.

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Feb
2018

DNA methylation is considered to be a promising marker for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. However, direct detection of the methylated DNAs in clinically relevant samples is still challenging because of its extremely low concentration (~fM). Here, an integrated microfluidic chip is reported, which is capable of pre-concentrating the methylated DNAs using ion concentration polarization (ICP) and electrochemically detecting the pre-concentrated DNAs on a single chip.

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Feb
2018

After radical cystoprostatectomy (RC), postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common consequence with multiple contributing etiologies. The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) offers patients a definitive treatment option when ED is refractory to medical therapies. Because of the hostile postoperative anatomy of these patients, a careful surgical approach is necessary for successful outcomes and to avoid adjacent organ injury.

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Feb
2018

A novel water-soluble ionophore based on the thiocarbohydrazone moiety conjugated with glucose (GluTch) was synthesized through a simple two-step procedure. Structural elucidation was carried out in water solution by means of various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, UV-Vis, and CD), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. The flexible nature of the thiocarbohydrazone moiety of the new glycoderivative compound induced both different coordination motifs and stoichiometry towards copper and zinc.

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Dec
2017

The purpose of this study was to survey the accessibility and quality of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening information from National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer center and public health organization Web sites.
We surveyed the December 1, 2016, version of all 63 NCI-designated cancer center public Web sites and 5 major online clearinghouses from allied public/private organizations (cancer.gov, cancer.

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