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'Skeletal System - Adult' (10324)


Feb
2018

Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown.

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Dec
1969

The Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene is an important regulator of early human development and its aberrant expression is causal for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The DUX4-full length (DUX4-fl) mRNA splice isoform encodes a transcriptional activator; however, DUX4 and its unique DNA binding preferences are specific to old-world primates. Regardless, the somatic cytotoxicity caused by DUX4 expression is conserved when expressed in cells and animals ranging from fly to mouse.

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Dec
1969

mutations cause lissencephaly (LIS), a severe developmental brain malformation. Much less is known about its role in the mature nervous system. LIS1 regulates the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein), and as LIS1 and dynein are both expressed in the adult nervous system, Lis1 could potentially regulate dynein-dependent processes such as axonal transport.

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Feb
2018

Motor function deteriorates with advancing age, increasing the risk of adverse health outcomes. While it is well established that skeletal muscles and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) degenerate with increasing age, the effect of aging on α-motor neurons and their innervating synaptic inputs remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the soma of α-motor neurons and innervating synaptic inputs in the spinal cord of aged rhesus monkeys and mice, two species with vastly different lifespans.

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Dec
2017

Class 3 malocclusions with maxillary deficiency, which are treated surgically and/or ordonotically, are common among adult patients. The aim of this study was to develop a three-directional bone-borne distractor that would allow the transverse expansion and sagittal advancement of the maxilla simultaneously.
Computed tomography images of a patient with maxillary deficiency were transmitted to a software program, and a distractor was designed with different sizes (D1, D2, D3) and manufactured from titanium alloy.

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Dec
2017

The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver's seat orderly using hand rail. Sampling rate of force components of 3 axis (medial-lateral [ML] GRF, anterior-posterior [AP] GRF, peak vertical force [PVF]), variables (COPx, COPy, COP area) of center of pressure (COP), loading rate, and stability index (ML, AP, vertical, and dynamic postural stability index [DPSI]) processed from GRF system was cut off at 1,000 Hz.

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Dec
1969

It is still challenging to achieve a complex grasp or fine finger control by using surface functional electrical stimulation (FES), which usually requires a precise electrode configuration under laboratory or clinical settings. The goals of this study are as follows: 1) to study the possibility of selectively activating individual fingers; 2) to investigate whether the current activation threshold and selective range of individual fingers are affected by two factors: changes in the electrode position and forearm rotation (pronation, neutral and supination); and 3) to explore a theoretical model for guidance of the electrode placement used for selective activation of individual fingers. A coordinate system with more than 400 grid points was established over the forearm skin surface.

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Jan
2018

Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) exert diverse biological activities, which include potent vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on age-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Endothelium-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2, transgenic mice (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice) was utilized.

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Dec
1969

Epigenetic Regulation of Adult Myogenesis.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2018 28;126:235-284. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
Daniel C L Robinson, Francis J Dilworth
Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level.

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Jan
2018

Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived myogenic progenitors develop functional and ultrastructural features typical of skeletal muscle when differentiated in culture. Besides disease-modeling, such a system can be used to clarify basic aspects of human skeletal muscle development. In the present study, we focus on the development of the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, a process that is essential both in muscle physiology and as a tool to differentiate between the skeletal and cardiac muscle.

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Jan
2018

Skeletal and dental discrepancies cause asymmetric malocclusions in orthodontic patients. It is difficult to achieve adequate functional occlusion and guidance in patients with congenital absence of a mandibular incisor due to the tooth-size discrepancy. Here, we describe the orthodontic treatment of a 22-year-old woman with an asymmetric Angle Class II malocclusion, mandibular deviation to the left, and 3 mandibular incisors.

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Dec
2017

Fibromyxosarcoma is common in head and neck, vessel, omentum, and reproductive system, with low-grade malignant behavior. However, primary atrial fibromyxosarcoma with highly malignant behavior is extremely rare.
A 34-year-old female presented with oppression in the chest, short breath, and onset of headache as initial symptoms.

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Oct
2017

An extensive taxonomic revision of Gymnura micrura based on external and internal morphology, and considering specimens from its entire geographical distribution in the Atlantic Ocean, is presented. Gymnura micrura is redescribed and a neotype is designated; its distributional range is limited to the Southwestern Atlantic. Two new species of butterfly rays are described: Gymnura lessae, sp.

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Feb
2018

Short telomere length (TL) in leukocytes is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It is unknown whether this relationship stems from having inherently short leukocyte TL (LTL) at birth or a faster LTL attrition thereafter. LTL represents TL in the highly proliferative hematopoietic system, whereas TL in skeletal muscle represents a minimally replicative tissue.

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Apr
2017

Physiology of ageing of the musculoskeletal system.

Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2017 Apr 14;31(2):203-217. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
Katalin Boros, Tony Freemont
This review aims to provide a summary of current concepts of ageing in relation to the musculoskeletal system, highlighting recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of age-related changes in bone, skeletal muscle, chondroid and fibrous tissues. The key components of the musculoskeletal system and their functions are introduced together with a general overview of the molecular hallmarks of ageing. A brief description of the normal architecture of each of these tissue types is followed by a summary of established and developing concepts of mechanisms contributing to the age-related alterations in each.

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Apr
2017

Muscle is an important component of the muscle-tendon-bone unit, driving skeletal motion through contractions that alter the length of the muscle. The muscle and myotendinous junction (MTJ) are most commonly injured in the young adult, as a result of indirect mechanisms such as overuse or stretching, direct impact (penetrating or nonpenetrating), or dysfunction of the supporting connective tissues. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used for assessment of muscle injuries.

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Dec
1969

Over the past thirty years, there has been dramatic increase in incidence of Achilles tendon rupture in the athletic population. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity mechanics of Achilles tendon ruptured runners with healthy controls.
The participants with a past history of an Achilles tendon repair ( = 11) and healthy control ( = 11) subgroups were matched on sex, age, type of regular physical activity, mass, height, footfall pattern and lateral dominancy.

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Dec
1969

The present study aimed at investigating the control of upright quiet standing in pregnant women throughout pregnancy, and whether low-back pain exerts influence on this motor task.
Myoelectric signals from postural muscles and stabilometric data were collected from 15 non-pregnant and 15 pregnant women during upright quiet standing. Electromyogram envelopes and center of pressure metrics were evaluated in the control group, as well as in pregnant women in their first and third trimester of pregnancy.

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Dec
1969

The shoulder girdle is a complex system, comprised by a kinematic chain and stabilizers. Due to the delicate equilibrium and synchronism between mobility and stability, high external loads may compromise its physiology, increasing the risk of injuries. Thus, this study intends to fully characterize the effects of a rugby tackle on the shoulder's anatomy and physiology.

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Dec
1969

In engineering the human is considered as one of the system elements. In most studies, his/her model remains unchanged due to the external factors. The present study shows that a relation between the mental stress and human dynamics cannot be neglected.

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Nov
2017

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) plays a fundamental role in transferring information from lower motor neuron to skeletal muscle to generate movement. It is also an experimentally accessible model synapse routinely studied in animal models to explore fundamental aspects of synaptic form and function. Here, we combined morphological techniques, super-resolution imaging, and proteomic profiling to reveal the detailed cellular and molecular architecture of the human NMJ.

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Dec
1969

Angiotensin II receptors regulate muscle microvascular recruitment and the delivery of nutrients, oxygen, and insulin to muscle. Although angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonism increases muscle microvascular perfusion and insulin action, angiotensin type 2 receptor blockade markedly restricts muscle microvascular blood volume and decreases muscle delivery of insulin. To examine the effects of direct type 2 receptor stimulation using Compound 21 (C21) on microvascular perfusion, insulin delivery and action, and tissue oxygenation in muscle, overnight-fasted adult male rats were infused with C21 systemically.

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Dec
1969

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by anterior ossification of the spine and can lead to dysphagia and airway obstruction. The morphology of the newly formed bone in the cervical spine is different compared to the thoracic spine, possibly due to dissimilarities in local vascular anatomy. In this study the spatial relationship of the new bone with the arterial system, trachea and esophagus was analyzed and compared between subjects with and without DISH.

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Feb
2018

In the last decades, Danio rerio became one of the most used model organisms in various evo-devo studies devoted to the fin skeletal anatomy and fin-limb transition. Surprisingly, there is not even a single paper about the detailed anatomy of the adult muscles of the five fin types of this species. To facilitate more integrative developmental, functional, genetic, and evolutionary studies of the appendicular musculoskeletal system of the zebrafish and to provide a basis for further comparisons with other fishes and tetrapods, we describe here the identity, overall configuration, and attachments of appendicular muscles in a way that can be easily understood and implemented by non-anatomist researchers.

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Nov
2017

State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state.

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Nov
2017

BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique.

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Nov
2017

The birth prevalence of congenital malformations is around 2-3%. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of ultrasound diagnostics in detecting congenital malformations.
We have processed the prenatal sonographic and postnatal clinical details of 1867 inborn abnormalities in 1200 fetuses over a 7-year period.

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Oct
2017

There is controversy regarding the diagnosis and classification of vascular anomalies (VA). As torso and extremities are the second most common body part for presentation of VAs, musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists play a central role in VA classification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness and clinical use of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification by MSK radiologists.

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Dec
1969

The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.

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Dec
1969

Knee flexion contractures occur frequently in non-ambulatory, aged persons and persons with central nervous system lesions, rendering positioning and nursing care difficult. There are often risks associated with surgical interventions.
To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy to lengthen the knee flexor muscles and improve passive function.

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Dec
2017

The accurate and precise estimation of skeletal age by a forensic anthropologist is both a professional and judicial requirement. When unknown skeletal remains are referred to the anthropologist, the estimation of the requisite biological attributes (e.g.

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Jan
2018

Parathyroidectomy improves bone mineral density and decreases risk for fracture in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine skeletal consequences of failed parathyroidectomy.
A retrospective, cohort study of patients with biochemically confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism within a vertically integrated health system was performed (1995-2014).

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Dec
1969

Current evidence indicates that the common AMPD1 gene variant is associated with improved survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Whilst adenosine has been recognized to mediate the cardioprotective effect of C34T AMPD1, the precise pathophysiologic mechanism involved remains undefined to date. To address this issue, we used cardio-pulmonary exercise testing data (CPX) from subjects with myoadenylate deaminase (MAD) defects.

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Dec
1969

Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with poor postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Furthermore, it is associated with increased healthcare costs in the United States. We investigated its effect on hospital expenditure in a Western-European healthcare system, with universal access.

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Dec
1969

Coordination of vascular smooth muscle cell tone in resistance arteries plays an essential role in the regulation of peripheral resistance and overall blood pressure. Recent observations in animals have provided evidence for a coupling between adrenoceptors and Panx1 (pannexin-1) channels in the regulation of sympathetic nervous control of peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure; however, evidence for a functional coupling in humans is lacking. We determined Panx1 expression and effects of treatment with the pharmacological Panx1 channel inhibitor probenecid on the vasoconstrictor response to α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the human forearm and leg vasculature of young healthy male subjects (23±3 years).

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Oct
2017

Tissue regeneration depends on the timely activation of adult stem cells. In skeletal muscle, the adult stem cells maintain a quiescent state and proliferate upon injury. We show that muscle stem cells (MuSCs) use direct translational repression to maintain the quiescent state.

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Dec
1969

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder that causes progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal muscular and myocardium in boys due to mutation of dystrophin. The structural integrity of each individual skeletal and cardiac myocyte is significantly compromised upon physical stress due to the absence of dystrophin. The progressive destruction of systemic musculature and myocardium causes affected patients to develop multiple organ disabilities, including loss of ambulation, physical immobility, neuromuscular scoliosis, joint contracture, restrictive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiomyopathy.

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Nov
2017

Aging is one of the important challenges of modern society. Advanced adult age is associated with changes in many physiologic systems. Of particular interest is the musculoskeletal system because it directly contributes to mobility and functional independence.

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Jan
2018

One of the effective strategies for prevention of steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) is to inhibit bone resorption and fat formation and promote bone formation at osteonecrotic sensitive skeletal sites. We identified a novel phytomolecule that showed positive effects on osteogenesis, anti-bone resorption and anti-adipogenesis in vitro and also developed a bone-targeting delivery system (BTDS) for in vivo experimental study. The study investigated if our innovative synthesized BTDS carrying this phytomolecule would be able to effectively prevent SAON in a rat model.

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Oct
2017

Adult chronic heart failure (HF) is a terminal syndrome. While the HF phenotype is inhomogeneous across the ejection fraction spectrum, exercise intolerance remains a cardinal feature of all HF patients. Impairment of a single organ system cannot independently account for exercise intolerance in HF.

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Oct
2017

Severe hypokalemia can be a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
We report a case of severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis in a 28-year-old bodybuilder. He was admitted to the emergency room due to progressive paralysis in both lower extremities, which had begun 12 hours earlier.

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Oct
2017

Heart failure is characterized by the inability of the cardiovascular system to maintain oxygen (O2) delivery (i.e., muscle blood flow in non-hypoxemic patients) to meet O2 demands.

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Sep
2017

Sciatic nerve transection (SNT), a model for studying neuropathic pain, mimics the clinical symptoms of "phantom limb", a pain condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In some vertebrate tissues, this condition decreases acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, the enzyme responsible for fast hydrolysis of released acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses. In spinal cord of frog Rana pipiens, this enzyme's activity was not significantly changed in the first days following ventral root transection, another model for studying neuropathic pain.

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Jun
2017

Regeneration of mammalian limbs is restricted to amputation of the distal digit tip, the terminal phalanx (P3). The adjacent skeletal element, the middle phalanx (P2), has emerged as a model system to investigate regenerative failure and as a site to test approaches aimed at enhancing regeneration. We report that exogenous application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) stimulates the formation of a transient cartilaginous callus distal to the amputation plane that mediates the regeneration of the amputated P2 bone.

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Dec
1969

Hip fracture incidence rates are influenced by body mass index (BMI) and sex, likely through mechanistic pathways that influence dynamics of the pelvis-femur system during fall-related impacts. The goal of this study was to extend our understanding of these impact dynamics by investigating the effects of BMI, sex, and local muscle activation on pressure distribution over the hip region during lateral impacts. Twenty participants underwent "pelvis-release experiments" (which simulate a lateral fall onto the hip), including muscle-'relaxed' and 'contracted' trials.

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Dec
2017

MiRNAs have emerged as key regulators of skeletal muscle development, but the knowledge of miRNAs in the molecular network of muscle development remains poorly understood. In this study, we designed to examine the biological function of bovine-miR-101-1. The bovine miR-101-1 was detected in the skeletal muscle of fetal, calf and adult cattle.

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Dec
1969

The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults.
Twenty-four neurologically-intact adults (age:55-75 years) were recruited for this test-retest study.

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Dec
1969

Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels belong to the large family of TRPs that are mostly nonselective cation channels with a great variety of gating mechanisms. TRPC are composed of seven members that can all be activated downstream of agonist-induced phospholipase C stimulation, but some members are also stretch-activated and/or are part of the store-operated Caentry (SOCE) pathway. Skeletal muscles generate contraction via an explosive increase of cytosolic Caconcentration resulting almost exclusively from sarcoplasmic reticulum Cachannel opening.

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Aug
2017

This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of medication discrepancies and its related factors using medication reconciliation method in patients admitted to the emergency department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals.
In this cross-sectional study, 200 adult patients with at least one chronic disease that used two regular prescription medications were included in 2015. After 24 h of admission, demographic data and patient's home medications were collected.

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