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'Thyroid Anatomy' (55958)


Feb
2018

The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. The vast majority of TCs (> 90%) originate from follicular cells and are defined as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and the two histological subtypes are the papillary TC with its variants and the follicular TC. Curcumin possesses a wide variety of biological functions, and thanks to its properties, it has gained considerable attention due to its profound medicinal values (Prasad, Gupta, Tyagi, and Aggarwal, Biotechnol Adv 32:1053-1064, 2014).

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Dec
1969

: An estimated 125,711 face-lifts and 54,281 neck-lifts were performed in 2015. Regardless of the technique employed, facial and neck flap elevation carries with it anatomical risk of which any surgeon performing these procedures should be aware of. Statistics related to anterior jugular vein injury during these procedures have not been published.

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Feb
2018

The diagnostic criteria of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) are not well defined, and DIPNECH can be mistaken for carcinoids associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NECH). In this study, we compared clinical, radiologic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of DIPNECH and isolated carcinoids with/without NECH. The study population included 151 cases (77 female patients and 74 male patients), 19 with DIPNECH and 132 with carcinoids with/without NECH.

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Feb
2018

The present study investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the dentate gyrus to elucidate the roles of COX‑2 in the hypothyroid hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats by treating with 0.03% 2‑mercapto‑1‑methyl‑imidazole dissolved in drinking water for 5 weeks.

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Feb
2018

Thyroid cartilage is an important barrier in anterior cervical approach surgery. The objective of this study is to establish normative values for thyroid cartilage at three planes and to determine their significance on preoperative positioning and intraoperative traction in surgery via the anterior cervical approach.
Neck CT scans were collected from 600 healthy adults who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria.

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Feb
2018

Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with concomitant hematological malignancy in 7%.
We present a case of a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer and a follicular variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and discuss the possible diagnostic and treatment dilemmas.
A 48-year-old female was reffered to our hospital with diagnosis "thyroid cancer".

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Feb
2018

Effective management of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) requires precise identification of the disease activity period as it is responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Quantitative evaluations of orbital soft tissue is useful for analysing disease stages. We aimed to establish a method for orbital soft tissue volume calculation based on MRI data using 3D reconstruction technology.

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Feb
2018

To confirm the effectiveness of laser ablation on toxic nodules in a large population with three years of follow-up.
Between 2009 and 2014, we treated 82 patients with hyperthyroidism related to the presence of a toxic nodular goiter. Patients were pre-treated pharmacologically with methimazole prior to single session of laser ablation (LA) and then followed up every 3 months with FT4 and TSH blood tests as well as ultrasound examination of the nodules treated.

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Dec
2017

This study aimed to compare the long-term survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria who underwent hepatic resection (HR) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for HCC patients within the Milan criteria treated at Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between March 2003 and March 2008, 159 of whom underwent HR and 42 of whom underwent TACE. Long-term overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method before and after propensity score matching.

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Dec
2017

Co-occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the same thyroid gland with liver metastasis is a rare condition. To our knowledge, the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to diagnose it is much less.
A 33-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to the increase in plasma calcitonin concentration and carcino-embryonic antigen 12 months after her total thyroidectomy.

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Dec
2017

Recently, Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patient with underlying diseases, such as oral cancer, colon cancer, haematological malignancies, connective tissue disease, diabetes mellitus, and corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents. Similar to HIV-positive ones, such patients were observed with CD4 lymphocytopenia.

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Feb
2018

The multifocal papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), with more aggressive and poorer prognosis, is not rare in papillary histotype. Few studies evaluated risk factors and lymph node metastasis in multifocal PTC. The aim of this present study focusing on risk factors and lymph node metastasis characteristics in multifocal PTC was excepted to assist clinical decisions regarding surgery.

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Jan
2018

The extralaryngeal bifurcation point of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is typically located in a mean distance of 0-2 cm from the cricothyroid joint (CTJ). In the presented case though, the left RLN was unexpectedly identified bifurcating in a mean distance of 7 cm from the left CTJ in a young woman with multinodular goiter during total thyroidectomy. The RLN was carefully exposed throughout its course for the avoidance of iatrogenic injury of the nerval structure.

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Dec
2017

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are expanded in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and standard treatment approaches have failed to improve survival, suggesting a need to specifically target the CSC population. Recent studies in breast and colorectal cancer demonstrated that inhibition of the SUMO pathway repressed CD44 and cleared the CSC population, mediated through SUMO-unconjugated TFAP2A. We sought to evaluate effects of inhibiting the SUMO pathway in ATC.

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Nov
2017

Primary thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare malignant nasopharyngeal tumor with features resembling papillary thyroid carcinoma including nuclear positive expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1).
A 64-year-old male presented with nasal bleeding and a foreign body sensation of the nasopharynx. Laryngoscopy revealed a 2.

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Nov
2017

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is most often seen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Data about TAO occurred in patients with thyroid carcinoma are rare. We give a report of 5 patients to present the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this type of case.

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Dec
2017

Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique.
Observational pilot investigation.

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Dec
1969

Recipient vessel caliber may be the single most important variable for flow to free tissue transfer. We performed cadaveric dissection of the external carotid artery and its branches to analyze average diameter in order to determine an algorithm for recipient vessel selection in head and neck reconstruction.The external carotid artery and branches were exposed on 3 lightly embalmed male human cadavers, aged 82 to 85 years.

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Dec
1969

Previously the risk of concomitant thyroid cancer in multinodular goitre (MNG) has been reported as approximately 4%. Cancer risk in toxic MNG was often considered lower than for non-toxic MNG, due to a possible protective effect of TSH suppression. However, recent American data suggest an approximately 18% risk of occult malignancy in both toxic and non-toxic MNG.

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Dec
1969

Methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) are widely used antithyroid drugs (ATD) that have been approved for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hepatotoxicity may be induced by these drugs, though they exert dissimilar incidence rates of hepatotoxicity and, possibly, with different underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with no relevant medical history diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, who developed two episodes of acute hepatitis concurrent with the consecutive administration of two different ATDs, first MMI and then PTU.

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Dec
2017

Retrosternal goiter prevalence is 5 to 40 per cent according to classifications in goiter series. Goiters with mediastinal extension were reported to be related with higher cancer rates. In our study, we aimed to investigate whether cancer incidence increased in retrosternal goiters compared with the cervical ones.

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Jan
2018

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and morphological variations of the oblique thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle in humans.
Cadaveric anatomic dissections.
One hundred hemilarynges from 50 formalin-embalmed cadavers were dissected to investigate the morphology of muscle fibers of the TA muscle.

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Jan
2018

Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups.

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Dec
2017

Identification of the parathyroid glands (PGs) during thyroid surgery may prevent their inadvertent surgical removal and prevent postoperative hypoparathyroidism. However, identification of the PGs does not guarantee their function, and their vascular supply needs to be preserved as well. The recent introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent angiography of the PGs during thyroid surgery allows for the appraisal of the vascular anatomy and evaluation of PG function.

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Dec
1969

The association between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and low thyroid hormone (TH) levels has been previously described. In these patients abnormal thyroid function is significantly related to impaired left ventricular (LV) function and increased risk of death. Although TH was originally thought to be produced exclusively by the thyroid gland, we recently reported TH biosynthesis in the human ischemic heart.

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Dec
2017

Ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDCCa) is an extremely rare entity. Thus, there is no unified appropriate therapeutic strategy, and individual approaches are controversial.
We report the case of a 21-year old woman who underwent Sistrunk procedure for a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC).

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Dec
1969

Thyroid dysfunctions can increase the risk of myocardial ischemia and infarction. However, the repercussions on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury remain unclear so far. We report here the effects of hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in the susceptibility to IR injury in isolated rat hearts compared to euthyroid condition and the potential role of antioxidant enzymes.

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Dec
1969

Adherence rates for timely imaging follow-up are usually low due to low rates of diligence by referring physicians and/or patients with following recommendations for follow-up imaging. This can lead to delayed treatment, poor patient outcomes, unnecessary testing, and legal liability. Existing follow-up recommendation detection methods are often disease- and modality-specific.

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Mar
2018

Recent studies have highlighted important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during the complex process of carcinogenesis. H19 is an example of an lncRNA that can function either as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor. Here, we investigated the role of H19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).

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Mar
2018

We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a lytic bone lesion in the left scapula. A biopsy showed a tumor with the histologic appearance of thyroid tissue. She also was found to have a thyroid nodule and an enlarged ovary, both of which were excised.

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Dec
1969

Hypothyroidism is an established adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and computed tomography (CT) density of the thyroid gland is lower in hypothyroid than euthyroid individuals. No previous studies have evaluated changes in CT densities of the thyroid gland caused by radiation therapy. The aim was to investigate the relationship between the change in CT density of the thyroid gland before and after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and hypothyroidism.

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Dec
2017

To investigate the expression of integrin αvβ3, CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 and CXCR7 and their relationship with lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN).The expression of integrin αvβ3, CXCR4 and CXCR7 was detected by immunohistochemistry SABC in 92 cases of primary SCCHN, metastatic lymph node, normal oral mucosa tissues and normal lymph nodes.The positive rate of the expression of integrin αvβ3, CXCR4 and CXCR7 was 75% (69/92), 81%(75/92) and 76%(70/92), respectively in primary SCCHN, and was 82%(75/92), 76%(70/92) and 65%(60/92), respectively in metastatic lymph node.

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Dec
2017

Sexual behaviour in teleost fish is highly plastic. It can be attributed to the relatively few sex differences found in adult brain transcriptomes. Environmental and hormonal factors can influence sex-specific behaviour.

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Dec
1969

Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) contributes to deiodination of 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) yielding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), a powerful regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. Our previous work showed that loss of DIO1 enhances proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. However, the global effects of DIO1 expression in various tissues affected by cancer remain unknown.

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Dec
2017

To assess the safety and curative effect of gasless endoscopic selective lateral neck dissection (GESLND) via an anterior chest approach for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).Eighteen patients with PTC(T1-2N1bM0, size<3.0 cm), having GESLND via an anterior chest approach, were included from November 2008 to December 2016.

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Dec
2017

Head and neck cancers are among the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide. Of the molecular drivers described for these tumors, galectins play an important role via their interaction with several intracellular pathways. In this review, we will detail and discuss this role with specific reference to galectins-1, -3, and -7 in angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and invasion as well as in cell transformation and cancer progression.

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Jan
2018

We aimed to determine changes in miR-17-92 cluster expression in serum and granulocytes from patients with antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis.
In this study, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect serum miR-17-92 expression levels in 20 ATD-induced agranulocytosis and 16 control patients. Importantly, dynamic changes in neutrophil counts from granulocytopenia to agranulocytosis were observed in 6 of the 20 patients.

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Dec
1969

This study aimed to highlight the features of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents and to evaluate our results compared to the international literature on the basis of the most representative case series in Morocco: 22 cases. We conducted a retrosective study of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer hospitalized in the otorhinolaryngology and cervicofacial surgery department at the Hôpital 20 Août, Casablanca, Morocco over the period January 1995-March 2015. We collected data on 22 cases that met our inclusion criteria.

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Dec
1969

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of CRC in a cohort of Caucasian patients with T2DM and the association with other variables previously known to be related with increased risk of CRC. We retrospectively evaluated the data of 741 consecutive Caucasian patients with T2DM who underwent colonoscopic screening in our tertiary referral center.

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Dec
1969

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) is a disease that may be associated with many other autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine disorders. This disease is mediated by both humoral and cellular mechanisms and it is the result of combined effects of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes and non-HLA genes polymorphisms. The clinical course of AT is variable and may be characterized by spontaneous remission and by irreversible thyroid insufficiency as the consequence of atrophic and fibrous transformation of the thyroid gland in other cases.

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Dec
1969

Iodine is an important micronutrient required for nutrition. Excess iodine has adverse effects on thyroid, but there is not enough information regarding its effect on salivary glands. In addition to food and iodized salt, skin disinfectants and maternal nutritional supplements contain iodide, so its intake could be excessive during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy.

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Dec
1969

The significance and impact of the coexistence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) with thyroid cancer is still debated. To verify the influence of CLT on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we retrospectively collected 505 PTC cases and analyzed age at diagnosis, sex, size, lymph node status, and staging. We found that CLT was present in 168 PTC (33.

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Dec
2017

Multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMTs) are defined as 2 or more independent primary malignancies of different histologies/origins in the same individual. Although the incidence of MPMTs is being increasing, second primary cancer (SPC) is still rare and difficult to distinguish from metastasis. Here, we present a case of thyroid carcinoma with lung metastasis and primary lung cancer.

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Nov
2017

A large goiter may cause compression of the trachea. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thyroidectomy on tracheal anatomy and airflow and to correlate this with changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with benign nodular goiter.
Magnetic resonance images of the neck and respiratory flow-volume curves, including both inspiration and expiration, were performed prior to and 6 months following surgery.

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Dec
1969

Charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) is a well-accepted method to model effects of sex hormones in cell cultures. We have recently shown that human endothelial cells (ECs) fail to growth and to undergo in vitro angiogenesis when cultured in CSS. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the CSS-induced impairment of in vitro EC properties are still unknown.

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Jan
2018

The treatment of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) patients is controversial, as PTMC is often found incidentally and its prognosis is quite good. Because lymph node metastasis (LNM) is one of the main predictors of recurrence and impacts the survival rate of PTMC patients, this study aims to retrospectively identify the clinical factors that increase the risk of LNM and/or recurrence and can then be used to separate clinically unfavorable PTMCs from the rest and to help guide their treatment accordingly.
Clinical and pathologic data were collected from 3607 patients diagnosed with PTMC at Shanghai Renji Hospital between 2005 and 2015.

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Dec
1969

Many cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming known as the Warburg effect, which is characterized by a greater dependence on glycolysis for ATP generation, even under normoxic conditions. Glyoxalase I (GLO I) is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the detoxification of cytotoxic methylglyoxal formed in glycolysis and which is known to be highly expressed in many cancer cells. Thus, specific inhibitors of GLO I are expected to be effective anticancer drugs.

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Dec
2017

The hyoid-larynx complex is highly prone to anatomical variation. The etiology of anatomical variants such as Eagle's syndrome and the aberrant hyoid apparatus can be explained from embryonic development. Modern textbooks state that the hyoid bone body develops from the second and third pharyngeal arch cartilages, and that thyroid cartilage derives from the fourth and sixth arch cartilages.

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